Monarchy of Luxembourg
The Grand Duke of Luxembourg is the monarchical head of state of Luxembourg. Since 1815, there have been nine monarchs of Luxembourg, including the incumbent, the constitution of Luxembourg defines the grand dukes position, The Grand Duke is the head of state, symbol of its unity, and guarantor of national independence. He exercises executive power in accordance with the constitution and the laws of the country, after a constitutional change in December 2008 resulting from Henris refusal to sign a law legalizing euthanasia, laws now take effect without the grand dukes assent. As a result, the grand duke no longer has any role in the legislative process. Succession to the throne was governed by Salic law, as dictated by the Nassau Family Pact, an heir apparent may be granted the style Hereditary Grand Duke. The current heir apparent is Hereditary Grand Duke Guillaume, in June 2011, agnatic primogeniture was dropped in favour of absolute primogeniture, allowing any legitimate female descendants within the House of Nassau to be included in the line of succession.
It should, however, be noted that many of the titles are held without regard to the rules of Salic inheritance. When William III died leaving only his daughter Wilhelmina as an heir, the crown of Luxembourg passed to a male of another branch of the House of Nassau, the dispossessed Duke of Nassau and head of the branch of Nassau-Weilburg. Charlottes descendants have reigned as the continued dynasty of Nassau
Luxemburger Wort is a German language Luxembourgish daily newspaper. Luxemburger Wort has been published since 1848, the paper was founded just three days after press censorship was abolished. The newspaper is written in German, but includes small sections in both Luxemburgish and French. The paper is part of the Saint-Paul Luxembourg S. A, the paper is owned by the archbishopric and has a strong Catholic leaning. From its very foundation, the newspaper opposed the Volksfreund, founded by Samuel Hirsch, in the period from 1849 to 1880, on average it published two anti-Semitic articles per week. From 1938, the newspaper opposed Nazi Germany, in 1940, after the German invasion of Luxembourg, the Luxemburger Wort was co-opted as part of the occupation. The director Jean Origer and the editors Batty Esch and Pierre Grégoire were arrested by the Nazis, Pierre Grégoire was the only one of them to survive imprisonment. After the liberation of Luxembourg, the paper produced the headline, at the same time this was one of few editions that appeared entirely in Luxembourgish, the publishing house changed its name from German into French as a symbolic act.
From 17 March 2005 to 21 March 2008, the paper called itself d Wort, in the period of 1995–1996 Luxemburger Wort had a circulation of 85,000 copies, making it the best-selling paper in the country. The circulation of the paper was 83,739 copies in 2003, in 2006 its circulation was 79,633 copies. The paper had a circulation of almost 70,000 copies a day, Wort. lu – English wort. lu – German wort. lu – French
Adam Rutherford is a British geneticist and broadcaster. Rutherford, who is half Guyanese Indian, was born in Ipswich in the East of England and he was admitted to the medical school at University College London, but transferred to a degree in evolutionary genetics, including a project under Steve Jones studying stalk-eyed flies. He completed a Ph. D. in genetics at UCL Institute of Child Health at Great Ormond Street Hospital in 2002. His PhD thesis subject was the role of a gene on eye development. Rutherford published a book on the topic of the creation of life, in the United States this book is published in a more conventional format with the title, How Science Is Reinventing Life Itself. He was one of the authors works are included in the compilation The Atheists Guide to Christmas. Rutherford was the Podcast Editor and the editor for the journal Nature until 2013, responsible for all the publications published audio, video. He wrote editorials on other diverse topics ranging from the overlap of Art, Rutherford is a frequent contributor to The Guardian, writing primarily on science topics.
As a guest writer, he published an article in Wired on the possibility of using DNA for information storage, Rutherford frequently appears on BBC science programmes, on both radio and television. Since 2013 he has been the host of the program Inside Science on BBC Radio 4. In 2010, The Cell, his 3-part series on the discovery of cells, in 2011 he conceived and directed Space Shuttles United, a video and musical tribute to all the space shuttle missions. Rutherford is a frequent speaker at scientific and academic events, in 2012 he delivered the annual Darwin Day Lecture for the British Humanist Association. Rutherford was a judge and host of the ceremonies for the 2012 and 2013 Google Science Fairs. Creation, The Origin of Life / The Future of Life A Brief History of Everyone who Ever Lived http, //adamrutherford. com/
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging, in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species. Hunting and gathering was humanitys first and most successful adaptation, occupying at least 90 percent of human history, following the invention of agriculture, hunter-gatherers who did not change have been displaced or conquered by farming or pastoralist groups in most parts of the world. Only a few contemporary societies are classified as hunter-gatherers, and many supplement their activity with horticulture and/or keeping animals. In the 1970s, Lewis Binford suggested that humans were obtaining food via scavenging. Early humans in the Lower Paleolithic lived in forests and woodlands, which allowed them to collect seafood, eggs and fruits besides scavenging. Rather than killing large animals for meat, according to this view and this hypothesis does not necessarily contradict the scavenging hypothesis, both subsistence strategies could have been in use – sequentially, alternating or even simultaneously.
It remained the only mode of subsistence until the end of the Mesolithic period some 10,000 years ago and this specialization of work involved creating specialized tools such as, fishing nets and bone harpoons. The transition into the subsequent Neolithic period is defined by the unprecedented development of nascent agricultural practices. Agriculture originated and spread in different areas including the Middle East, Mesoamerica. Forest gardening was being used as a production system in various parts of the world over this period. Forest gardens originated in prehistoric times along jungle-clad river banks and in the wet foothills of monsoon regions, in the gradual process of families improving their immediate environment, useful tree and vine species were identified and improved, whilst undesirable species were eliminated. Eventually superior introduced species were selected and incorporated into the gardens, many groups continued their hunter-gatherer ways of life, although their numbers have continually declined, partly as a result of pressure from growing agricultural and pastoral communities.
Many of them reside in the world, either in arid regions or tropical forests. Areas that were available to hunter-gatherers were—and continue to be—encroached upon by the settlements of agriculturalists. In the resulting competition for use, hunter-gatherer societies either adopted these practices or moved to other areas. In addition, Jared Diamond has blamed a decline in the availability of wild foods, as the number and size of agricultural societies increased, they expanded into lands traditionally used by hunter-gatherers. As a result of the now near-universal human reliance upon agriculture, archaeologists can use evidence such as stone tool use to track hunter-gatherer activities, including mobility. Most hunter-gatherers are nomadic or semi-nomadic and live in temporary settlements, mobile communities typically construct shelters using impermanent building materials, or they may use natural rock shelters, where they are available
Flint is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as a variety of chert. It occurs chiefly as nodules and masses in sedimentary rocks, such as chalks, inside the nodule, flint is usually dark grey, green, white or brown in colour, and often has a glassy or waxy appearance. A thin layer on the outside of the nodules is usually different in colour, typically white, from a petrological point of view, flint refers specifically to the form of chert which occurs in chalk or marly limestone. Similarly, common chert occurs in limestone, the exact mode of formation of flint is not yet clear but it is thought that it occurs as a result of chemical changes in compressed sedimentary rock formations, during the process of diagenesis. One hypothesis is that a gelatinous material fills cavities in the sediment, such as bored by crustaceans or molluscs. This hypothesis certainly explains the shapes of flint nodules that are found. The source of dissolved silica in the media could be the spicules of silicious sponges.
Certain types of flint, such as that from the south coast of England, pieces of coral and vegetation have been found preserved like amber inside the flint. Thin slices of the stone often reveal this effect, puzzling giant flint formations known as paramoudra and flint circles are found around Europe but especially in Norfolk, England on the beaches at Beeston Bump and West Runton. Flint sometimes occurs in large flint fields in Jurassic or Cretaceous beds, flint was used in the manufacture of tools during the Stone Age as it splits into thin, sharp splinters called flakes or blades when struck by another hard object. This process is referred to as knapping, flint mining is attested since the Palaeolithic, but became more common since the Neolithic. When struck against steel, a flint edge will produce sparks, the hard flint edge shaves off a particle of the steel that exposes iron which reacts with oxygen from the atmosphere and can ignite the proper tinder. Prior to the availability of steel, rocks of pyrite would be used along with the flint.
These methods are popular in woodcraft and among those who wish to use traditional skills, a later, major use of flint and steel was in the flintlock mechanism, used primarily in flintlock firearms, but used on dedicated fire-starting tools. The sparks ignite the powder and that flame, in turn, ignites the main charge, propelling the ball, bullet. While the military use of the flintlock declined after the adoption of the cap from the 1840s onward, flintlock rifles. Flint and steel used to strike sparks were superseded by ferrocerium and this man-made material, when scraped with any hard, sharp edge, produces sparks that are much hotter than obtained with natural flint and steel, allowing use of a wider range of tinders. Because it can produce sparks when wet and can start fires when used correctly, ferrocerium is used in many cigarette lighters, where it is referred to as flint
Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup
In human genetics, a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by differences in the non-recombining portions of DNA from the Y chromosome. It represents human genetic diversity based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms on the Y chromosome, Y-DNA haplogroups represent major branches of the Y-chromosome phylogenetic tree. Y-chromosomal Adam is the name given by researchers to the patrilineal most recent common ancestor of all living humans at the root of this tree, estimates of the date when Y-chromosomal Adam lived have varied significantly in different studies. Y-DNA haplogroups are defined by the presence of a series of Y-DNA SNP markers, subclades are defined by a terminal SNP, the SNP furthest down in the Y-chromosome phylogenetic tree. The Y Chromosome Consortium developed a system of naming major Y-DNA haplogroups with the capital letters A through T, with further subclades named using numbers and lower case letters. YCC shorthand nomenclature names Y-DNA haplogroups and their subclades with the first letter of the major Y-DNA haplogroup followed by a dash, Y-DNA haplogroup nomenclature is changing over time to accommodate the increasing number of SNPs being discovered and tested, and the resulting expansion of the Y-chromosome phylogenetic tree.
This change in nomenclature has resulted in inconsistent nomenclature being used in different sources and this inconsistency, and increasingly cumbersome longhand nomenclature, has prompted a move towards using the simpler shorthand nomenclature. It is sparsely distributed in Africa and these mutations predate the Out of Africa migration. The defining mutations of DE probably occurred in Northeastern Africa some 65,000 years ago, the P143 mutation that defines Haplogroup CF may have occurred at that time, bringing modern humans to the southern coast of Asia. Subclades, Haplogroup CF Found outside of Africa, throughout Eurasia, Oceania, F xG, H, I, J, K is rare in modern populations and peaks in South Asia, especially Sri Lanka. It appears to have long been present in South East Asia, has been reported at rates of 4-5% in Sulawesi and Lembata. F* has been reported among 10% of males in Sri Lanka and South India, 5% in Pakistan, as well as lower levels among the Tamang people and it spread to Europe with the Neolithic Revolution.
It is found in ethnic groups in Eurasia, most common in the Caucasus, Anatolia. G-M201 is found in numbers in northwestern China and India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia. However, H2 has been present in Europe since the Neolithic, Haplogroup I is found mainly in Europe and the Caucasus. Haplogroup I1 Found mainly in northern Europe Haplogroup I2 Found mainly in southeast Europe and Sardinia save for I2B1 which is found in Western, Central. Haplogroup J is found mainly in the Middle East and South-East Europe, Haplogroup J* is rare outside the island of Socotra. Haplogroup J1 is associated with Northeast Caucasian peoples in Dagestan and Semitic peoples in the Middle East, Haplogroup J2 is found mainly in Semitic peoples, Greece, the Balkans, Iran, South/Central Asia and the Caucasus
National Museum of Natural History (Luxembourg)
The National Museum of Natural History is a natural history museum in Luxembourg City, in southern Luxembourg. The museum is located in the Grund quarter on the bank of the Alzette river. The Society of the Natural Sciences was established in 1850, under the patronage of Prince Henry, the societys primary aim was the promotion of the natural sciences and natural history to the general population. To achieve this, the government put at the societys disposal a section of the city Athenaeum, opening its doors in 1854, this area hosted a number of cabinets displaying fossil specimens, spread across three rooms. After almost four decades of this arrangement, pressure for display area caused the museum to move into its own premises, at the Vauban Barracks in Pfaffenthal, in 1892. However, these were criticised for being unattractive to visitors, hence undermining the museums attempts to promote natural history to the general public, in 1922, the museum moved once again. The new site was the Old Gendarmerie, on the Fishmarket, in the heart of Luxembourg City.
The renovations had almost been completed by the outbreak of the Second World War, despite the war, the building in Fishmarket was virtually undamaged, allowing the museum to re-occupy the premises immediately. In 1946, an installation was opened, marking the museums return to its original purpose. By 1952, the last room had opened, marking a return to normal operation. After a decade-long search for a new site, on 11 January 1990. National Museum of Natural History official website
Homo sapiens is the binomial nomenclature for the only extant human species. Homo is the genus, which includes Neanderthals and many other extinct species of hominid. Modern humans are the subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens, which differentiates them from what has been argued to be their direct ancestor, the binomial name Homo sapiens was coined by Carl Linnaeus. The Latin noun homō means man, human being, subspecies of H. sapiens include Homo sapiens idaltu and the only extant subspecies, Homo sapiens sapiens. Some sources show Neanderthals as a subspecies, the discovered specimens of the Homo rhodesiensis species have been classified by some as a subspecies, but these last two subspecies classifications are not widely accepted by scientists. Traditionally, there are two competing views in paleoanthropology about the origin of H. sapiens, the recent African origin, since 2010, genetic research has led to the emergence of an intermediate position, characterised by mostly recent African origin plus limited admixture with archaic humans.
The recent African origin of humans is the mainstream model that describes the origin. The theory is called the Out-of-Africa model in the press, and academically the recent single-origin hypothesis, Replacement Hypothesis. The hypothesis that humans have a single origin was published in Charles Darwins Descent of Man, the concept was speculative until the 1980s, when it was corroborated by a study of present-day mitochondrial DNA, combined with evidence based on physical anthropology of archaic specimens. The recent single origin of humans in East Africa is the near-consensus position held within the scientific community. However, recent sequencing of the full Neanderthal genome suggests Neanderthals, the authors of the study suggest that their findings are consistent with Neanderthal admixture of up to 4% in some populations. But the study suggests that there may be other reasons why humans. That study however does not explain why only a fraction of humans have Neanderthal DNA. The multiregional origin model provides an explanation for the pattern of evolution proposed by Milford H.
Wolpoff in 1988. Scientific study of evolution is concerned, with the development of the genus Homo. Modern humans are defined as the Homo sapiens species, of which the extant subspecies is known as Homo sapiens sapiens. Homo sapiens idaltu, the known subspecies, is now extinct. Similarly, the specimens of the Homo rhodesiensis species have been classified by some as a subspecies
Luxembourg, known as Luxembourg City, is the capital city of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, and the countrys most populous commune. The city contains Luxembourg Castle, established by the Franks in the Early Middle Ages, as of January 2016, the commune had a population of 115,227, which was more than three times the population of the countrys second most populous commune. The citys metropolitan population, including that of surrounding communes of Hesperange, Strassen, in 2011, Luxembourg was ranked as having the second highest per capita GDP in the world at $80,119, with the city having developed into a banking and administrative centre. In the 2011 Mercer worldwide survey of 221 cities, Luxembourg was placed first for personal safety while it was ranked 19th for quality of living, in the Roman era, a fortified tower guarded the crossing of two Roman roads that met at the site of Luxembourg city. Siegfried built his castle, named Lucilinburhuc, on the Bock Fiels, in 987, Archbishop Egbert of Trier consecrated five altars in the Church of the Redemption.
At a Roman road intersection near the church, a marketplace appeared around which the city developed, the city, because of its location and natural geography, has through history been a place of strategic military significance. The first fortifications were built as early as the 10th century, by the end of the 12th century, as the city expanded westward around the new St. Nicholas Church, new walls were built that included an area of 5 hectares. In about 1340, under the reign of John the Blind, in 1443, the Burgundians under Philip the Good conquered Luxembourg. Subsequently, the Burgundians, the Spanish, the French, the Spanish again, the Austrians, the French again, in the 17th century, the first casemates were built, Spain built 23 km of tunnels, starting in 1644. These were enlarged under French rule by Marshal Vauban, during the French Revolutionary Wars, the city was occupied by France twice, briefly, in 1792–3, later, after a seven-month siege. After the Luxembourg Crisis, the 1867 Treaty of London required Luxembourg to dismantle the fortifications in Luxembourg City.
Their demolition took sixteen years, cost 1.5 million gold francs, the Prussian garrison was to be withdrawn. When, in 1890, Grand Duke William III died without any heirs, the Grand Duchy passed out of Dutch hands. Despite Luxembourgs best efforts to remain neutral in the First World War, on 30 August, Helmuth von Moltke moved his headquarters to Luxembourg City, closer to his armies in France in preparation for a swift victory. However, the victory never came, and Luxembourg would play host to the German high command for another four years. At the end of the occupation, Luxembourg City was the scene of an attempted communist revolution, on 9 November 1918, communists declared a socialist republic, in 1921, the city limits were greatly expanded. The communes of Eich, Hamm and Rollingergrund were incorporated into Luxembourg City, in 1940, Germany occupied Luxembourg again. Under the occupation, the citys streets all received new, German names
Waldbillig is a commune and small town in eastern Luxembourg. It is part of the canton of Echternach, which is part of the district of Grevenmacher, as of 2001, the town of Waldbillig, which lies in the centre of the commune, has a population of 394. Other towns within the commune include Christnach and Mullerthal, media related to Waldbillig at Wikimedia Commons