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Victoria League

The Victoria League for Commonwealth Friendship is a voluntary charitable organisation which connects people from Commonwealth countries. There are branches in the UK, Australia and New Zealand with affiliated organisations in Canada and the USA; the Victoria League in the UK had about 500 members in Britain in 2000 and their patron is Queen Elizabeth II. It is one of more than 80 non-governmental organisations that promote cooperation and peace within the Commonwealth of Nations. Overseas branches are autonomous; the start of the Second Boer War was the catalyst for an outpouring of patriotic support for the British Empire in the Mother Country and in the white dominions and colonies. This affected men and women, but because of the politics of the time was reflected in women founding their own charitable organisations, to build links across the empire with like-minded women and to give practical help in supporting the war effort in way that were considered suitable for Women, such as caring for wounded soldiers and helping by comforting the relations of soldiers killed fighting in the war.

In Canada Margaret Polson Murray was the catalyst for the founding of the Canadian Daughters of the Empire while in South Africa Dorothea Fairbridge was a leading activist in the Guild of Loyal Women. Both organisations sent representatives to Britain to make contacts and to drum up support for the war effort. Fairbridge was a leading socialite of the Cape Colony and was friends with some influential British ladies who had met her while visiting South Africa. Three of these ladies, Violet Markham, Violet Cecil, Edith Lyttelton, would prove instrumental in setting up a new London based organisation, they met at 2 Millbank, Westminster where they agreed to arrange the inaugural meeting of what was to become the Victoria League. London society embraced the idea, the initial meeting was held on 2 April 1901 at 10 Downing Street at the invitation of Alice Balfour, the sister of Arthur Balfour and a niece of Lord Salisbury the Prime Minister. Present at the meeting were Violet Markham, Violet Cecil, Edith Lyttelton, South African representatives from the Guild of Loyal Women, the wives and sisters of Cabinet Ministers, the wives of the leaders of the Loyal Opposition, other representative ladies.

They all attended dressed in mourning cloths out of respect for the deceased Queen Victoria, agreed that the new organisation would be called the Victoria League of the respect for Queen Victoria. They appointed Countess of Jersey to the chair and Edith Lyttelton secretary; the ladies at this inaugural meeting agreed for the Victoria League to be "an association of women of the British Isles who are in sympathy with Imperial objects and desire a close union between the different parts of Empire", pledged that the Victoria League would "support and assist any scheme leading to more intimate understanding between ourselves and our fellow subjects in our great Colonies and Dependencies", "become a centre for receiving and distributing information regarding the different British dominions information of importance to women", resolved that the Victoria League would promote "any practical work desired by the Colonies and tending to the good of the Empire as a whole". The Victoria League stated that it was non-political, by which they meant the Victoria League was not representing or supporting any particular political party, as at the time most prominent British politicians in the two main political parties supported similar aims to those of the Victoria League.

The Victoria League was from its inception immersed in factional rivalry with its two colonial sisters the Canadian Daughters of the Empire and the Guild of Loyal Women of South Africa. The primary driving force behind this rivalry was social snobbery. While the great and the good of British society were willing to organise and lend practical help to fellow members of the British Empire in the colonies, they considered those in the colonies to be their social inferiors and as such were willing to work with them but not as equals. British women at the heart of the establishment assumed that the drive for empire derived its strength from the centre and failed to realise that along with the growing demands for dominion status, the women of the empire outside Britain were developing their own views on the relationships between their own nascent nations and the rest of the empire; the need for moral and financial help to aid in the practical help for those suffering in ongoing the Boer War meant that if they had wanted to the Guild of Loyal Women of South Africa, were in no position to contest the leadership of the Victoria League, more or less amicably they agreed to hand over all their British subsidiary organisation to the control of the Victoria League.

However the Canadian Daughters of the Empire did not have such an urgent need for support and as they were founded before the Victoria League there were discussions in 1901 between Canadian Daughters of the Empire and the Victoria League over which organisation would affiliate with the other. Both organisations were giving practical help to the Guild of Loyal Women of South Africa and in June 1901 where the South African delegates made it clear that their organisation preferred an alliance with the Victoria League so the minutes of the meeting recorded that: Result: abandonment of of her original idea to form a big London Committee. Willingness to propose the Daughters of the Empire League as an allied associati

Apostolic Nunciature to the Central African Republic

The Apostolic Nunciature to the Central African Republic is an ecclesiastical office of the Catholic Church in the Central African Republic. It is a diplomatic post of the Holy See, whose representative is called the Apostolic Nuncio with the rank of an ambassador; the nuncio resides in the capital city. The Holy See represented its interests in the region through its Delegation to Central Africa erected on 3 April 1965. With the decolonization of Africa in the mid-20th century, it established relationships with the new independent countries of that continent; the Central African Republic gained its independence from France in 1960. The Holy See established its Nunciature to Malawi and named its first pro-nuncio on 4 November 1967. Apostolic Delegate to Central AfricaLuigi Poggi Apostolic Pro-NuncioLuigi Poggi Mario Tagliaferri Oriano Quilici John Bulaitis Apostolic NunciosDiego Causero Joseph Chennoth Pierre Nguyên Van Tot Jude Thaddeus Okolo Franco Coppola Santiago de Wit Guzmán

Mamady Keïta

Mamady Keïta is a master drummer from the West African nation of Guinea. He specializes in the goblet-shaped hand drum called djembe, he is the founder of the Tam Tam Mandingue school of drumming. He is a member of the Manding ethnic group. Mamady Keita is a direct descendant of the great king Sundiata Keita. Keïta was born in the small village of Balandougou, Guinea, in the northeastern prefecture of Siguiri, near the border of Mali. By age 5 Mamady Keita had developed his own technique of tone, slap and learned the rhythms of his village and was playing Djembe in all of the ceremonies and festivals. Technically, his actual initiation to the djembe started at the early age of seven, under Karinkadjan Kondé, elder master djembefola of Balandugu, who initiated him to the secrets of the djembe. Keïta was educated in the traditions of his village, learning the history and music of the Malinke people. At the age of twelve, he became a member of the first regional federal ballet of Siguiri after Balanka Sidiki, a recruiter for the group, came to Balandugu looking for performers.

At the time, Guinea was governed by Sékou Touré, who put special emphasis on Guinean culture through live performances and a system of local and national competitions that recruited the greatest artists of the land. During the National Festival in 1964, Keïta aged fourteen, along with fifty other percussionists and numerous other artists, was selected by Guinea's Minister of Culture to form Le Ballet National Djoliba, intended to serve as a showcase for Touré's revolution in Guinea. After nine months of training, he was one of only five percussionists retained, he was appointed lead soloist of Ballet Djoliba in 1965 and, in 1979, became its artistic director. He stayed with Ballet Djoliba until 1986. In 1988, Keïta moved to Belgium where he worked as a teacher. In 1991, he opened his first school Tam Tam Mandingue percussion school in Brussels, to be followed by additional schools in Europe, the US, Asia, each run by a school director certified by Keïta for his/her playing skill and teaching abilities.

Since Keîta has worked as a performer with his group Sewa Kan and recorded a number of CDs. He teaches internationally, running international workshops in Europe, the US, Australia, as well as an annual camp in Africa, he has published a large body of djembe teaching materials on CD and DVD, as well as an instructional book. He resides in Mexico. 1989: Mamady Keïta & Sewa Kan, Fonti Musicali 1992: Mamady Keïta, Fonti Musicali, 1992 1995: Mamady Keïta, Mögöbalu, Fonti Musicali 1996: Mamady Keïta, Fonti Musicali 1998: Mamady Keïta & Sewa Kan, Afö, Fonti Musicali 2000: Mamady Keïta, Balandugu Kan, Fonti Musicali 2001: Mamady Keïta, Mamady Lèè, Fonti Musicali 2002: Mamady Keïta, Agiatè, Fonti Musicali 2004: Mamady Keïta, Djembe Master, Nocturne 2004: Mamady Keïta, Sila Laka, Fonti Musicali 2005: Mamady Keïta & Sewa Kan, Live @ Couleur Cafe, Fenix Music & ZigZag World 2007: Mamady Keïta, Mandeng Djara, Fonti Musicali 2010: Mamady Keïta & Sewa Kan, ZigZag World & CristalRecords 1967: Africa Dance.

1987: La Vie Platinee. Directed by Claude Cadiou. 1991: Djembefola. Directed by Laurent Chevallier. 1998: Mögöbalu. Directed by Laurent Chevallier. 2003: Djembe Kan. Directed by Monette Marino. Publisher: Tam Tam Mandingue USA. 2005: Mamady Keïta and Sewa Kan: Live @ Couleur Café. Publisher: Fenix Music. 2010: Hakili. Directed by Thierry Villeneuve. Publisher: ZigZag World & CristalRecords. 2012: Messengers of Tradition. Publisher: Tam Tam Mandingue USA. 1998: Rythmes Traditionnels du Mandeng—Debutant 1998: Rythmes Traditionnels du Mandeng—Moyens 1998: Rythmes Traditionnels du Mandeng—AvancesDjembe and dunun instructional VHS tapes, re-released in on DVD in 2011. Publisher: Djembefola Productions. 2004: Guinée: Les Rythmes du Mandeng, Volume 1. Publisher: Fonti Musicali. 2004: Guinée: Les Rythmes du Mandeng, Volume 2. Publisher: Fonti Musicali. 2004: Guinée: Les Rythmes du Mandeng, Volume 3. Publisher: Fonti Musicali. Djembe and dunun instructional DVDs for beginner and advanced levels. 2009: Guinée: Les Rythmes du Mandeng, Volume 4—Solos, techniques No. 1.

Publisher: Fonti Musicali. Djembe and dunun instructional DVD, focussed on soloing technique. 2004: Djembe Rhythms No. 1: Diansa 2004: Djembe Rhythms No. 2: Djabara 2004: Djembe Rhythms No. 3: Garangedon 2004: Djembe Rhythms No. 4: Kotedjuga 2004: Djembe Rhythms No. 5: Soli Rapide 2004: Djembe Rhythms No. 6: Soko 2004: Djembe Rhythms No. 7: Kuku 2004: Djembe Rhythms No. 8: Mendiani 2004: Djembe Rhythms No. 9: Soli des Manian 2004: Djembe Rhythms No. 10: Yankadi 2004: Djembe Rhythms No. 11: Soboninkun 2004: Djembe Rhythms No. 12: WassolonkaDjembe and dunun instructional CDs. Each presents a Solo Original. 2016 Anta! Available in Club TTM Billmeier, Uschi. A Life for the Djembé—Traditional Rhythms of the Malinké. Kirchhasel-Uhlstädt: Arun-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-935581-52-3. Notation for over sixty traditional rhythms. Includes historical information about the djembe, biographical notes, a CD with demonstrations of 21 rhythms. Keita, Mamady. Nankama. BookBaby. Notation for 25 traditional rhythms and 47 rhythms

Fort Shafter

Fort Shafter, in Honolulu CDP, City and County of Honolulu, Hawai‘i, is the headquarters of the United States Army Pacific, which commands most Army forces in the Asia-Pacific region with the exception of Korea. Geographically, Fort Shafter extends up the interfluve between Kalihi and Moanalua valleys, as well as onto the coastal plain at Māpunapuna. A portion of the area is known as the Palm Circle Historic District. S. National Historic Landmark, it is known as Palm Circle or 100 Area. Fort Shafter is the oldest military base on Oahu and celebrated its 100th birthday on June 22, 2007. Fort Shafter has been home to the senior Army headquarters in Hawaii for a century. Construction began in 1905 on the ahupua'a of Kahauiki, former Hawaiian crown lands that were ceded to the United States government after annexation; when the post opened in 1907, it was named for Major General William Rufus Shafter, who led the United States expedition to Cuba in 1898. Palm Circle was laid out as a cantonment for an infantry battalion.

The barracks and officers' quarters were arranged around a parade field ringed by royal palms. The first unit stationed at the new post was 20th Infantry Regiment. Fort Shafter spread out from Palm Circle. Tripler General Hospital once stood. In 1914, a regimental-sized cantonment area was constructed; the Hawaiian Ordnance Depot was built in 1917 as a separate post. In 1921, the Hawaiian Department moved to Fort Shafter from downtown Honolulu. A new area was constructed in 1940 for Signal Corps elements. War came to Fort Shafter on December 7, 1941, where the Hawaiian Department commander, Lieutenant General Walter C. Short, occupied Quarters 5. One soldier, Corporal Arthur A. Favreau, 64th Coast Artillery, was killed on post by an errant Navy shell. Fort Shafter became the barracks on Palm Circle were converted to offices; the major headquarters was named successively U. S. Army Forces, Central Pacific Area. S. Army Forces, Pacific Ocean Areas. S. Army Forces, Middle Pacific. In 1944, the Army Corps of Engineers erected the "Pineapple Pentagon" in just 49 days.

Two large fishponds were filled in to form Shafter Flats. For most of the time since the Second World War, Fort Shafter has remained the senior Army headquarters for the Asia-Pacific region. In 1947, the headquarters was renamed U. S. Army, Pacific; the post continued to adapt to meet the Army's evolving requirements. In the early 1960s it was split in two by the new Moanalua Freeway. In 1974, when the headquarters was eliminated, Fort Shafter became home to U. S. Army Support Command and the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Pacific Ocean Division. In 1979, the Army established U. S. Army Western Command, renamed U. S. Army, Pacific in 1990. In 1983, the Army conveyed to the State of Hawaii 750 acres of undeveloped land on the northern end of post. Today Fort Shafter remains the focal point for command and support of Army forces in the Asia-Pacific region; this article incorporates public domain material from the United States Government document "". US Army Garrison - Hawaii United States Army Pacific Historic American Buildings Survey No.

HI-287-C, "Fort Shafter Military Reservation, Facilities No. 820-822, 824, 826-828, 840, 841, 844-846, Rice Street and Herian Place, Honolulu County, HI", 8 photos, 21 data pages, 2 photo caption pages HABS No. HI-287-D, "Fort Shafter Military Reservation, Facilities No. 823, 825, 842, Herian Place, Honolulu County, HI", 4 photos, 7 data pages, 2 photo caption pages Historic American Landscapes Survey No. HI-9, "Fort Shafter Military Reservation, N. C. O. Housing Area, Honolulu County, HI", 9 photos, 27 data pages, 3 photo caption pages

Barwick, Somerset

Barwick is a village and parish in Somerset, about 2 miles south of Yeovil in the South Somerset district and on the border with Dorset. The parish, which includes the village of Stoford has a population of 1,221; the earliest signs of habitation in the area were the relics of a Bronze Age burial which were found in 1826, a little to the north of the village of Stoford, which may be a Saxon name derived from Stow-Ford. Settlement may go back as far as Saxon times, the earliest mention of Barwick being in 1185. In the Middle Ages, Stoford was shown as a new town and in an Inquisition or survey of 1273 there were 74 burgages each paying 10d a year; the total population of the borough in 1273 was over 500. Stoford kept its borough status for at least 300 years. A guildhall was mentioned in 1361 and there is proof of a separate borough court. There was still a'borough of Stoford' in the musters of 1569; the parish was part of the hundred of Houndsborough. The parish council is responsible for local issues.

It sets an annual precept to cover the council's operating costs and produces annual accounts for public scrutiny. The parish council evaluates local planning applications and works with the local police, district council officers, neighbourhood watch groups on matters of crime and traffic; the parish council's role includes initiating projects for the maintenance and repair of parish facilities, as well as consulting with the district council on the maintenance and improvement of highways, footpaths, public transport and street cleaning. Conservation matters and environmental issues are the responsibility of the council; the village falls within the non-metropolitan district of South Somerset, formed on 1 April 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, having been part of Yeovil Rural District. The district council is responsible for local planning and building control, local roads, council housing, environmental health and fairs, refuse collection and recycling and crematoria, leisure services and tourism.

Somerset County Council is responsible for running the largest and most expensive local services such as education, social services, main roads, public transport and fire services, trading standards, waste disposal and strategic planning. It is part of the Yeovil county constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, it elects one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election, part of the South West England constituency of the European Parliament which elects seven MEPs using the d'Hondt method of party-list proportional representation. The estate formed part of the property of Syon Abbey, passed through various hands after the Dissolution in the 1530s; the present house and park are thought to have been built in 1770 by John and Grace Newman, whose relations owned neighbouring Newton Surmaville. The house was set in pleasure grounds containing a lake and grotto, while the surrounding parkland was ornamented with a Gothic lodge and a group of four follies.

In the early 19th century the estate passed to Thomas Messiter, a barrister, John Newman's nephew and in 1830 the mansion was remodelled in a Jacobean Revival style. An orangery was constructed adjoining the north side at the same period. During the early 20th century the estate was let to various persons. During World War II, it was the location of a prisoner of war camp housing Italian prisoners from the Western Desert Campaign, German prisoners after the Battle of Normandy. Following derequisition of the property, after the war, the Messiter family carried out considerable modernisation and repairs and took up residence, they remained there until some time in the 1960s. From the early 1970s through to the mid 1980s the mansion and surrounding grounds were let to Pagems Schools Ltd and Headmaster Major Arthur Gray for use as a run boarding school attracting boys from London, Bristol and several other areas around the country; the school was part of the Sea Cadet Corps, known as T. S. Gryphon with affiliations to HMS Hampshire |H.

M. S. Hampshire and nearby RNAS Yeovilton H. M. S. Heron; the school closed around 1986/87 due to bankruptcy. In the 1990s the estate was sold to a private owner, substantial repairs were carried out to the house and landscape structures; the site remains in private ownership. Barwick Park boasts four follies. Locals say they were built to give the estate labourers work during a time of depression in the 1820s, they were commissioned by George Messiter of Barwick to mark the park boundaries at the four cardinal points: Jack the Treacle Eater to the east, the Fish Tower in the north, Messiter's Cone, 75 feet high, at the west end and the Needle to the south. However, paintings of Barwick House in the 1780s, forty years earlier, include two of the follies; the follies collectively rank on Countryfile's 2009 countdown of "Britain's top 10 follies". The parish contains Yeovil Junction railway station, on the London–Exeter line; the Church of Saint Mary Magdalene is just off the A37 at the western end of the village, about half a mile away from the main centre of population.

The church was built before 1219 as a chapel of the minster church in Yeovil. It has been rebuilt and restored since in the 1850 when the chancel was rebuilt. There is still a weekly service; the ecclesiastical parish is now part of the benefice of Yeovil. The most architecturally significant features of the church are the bench ends, dating from 1533 -