Warm Spring Run
Warm Spring Run is an 11.9-mile-long non-navigable tributary stream of the Potomac River in Morgan County of West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle. It rises on the eastern side of Warm Springs Ridge and parallels U. S. Route 522 for most of its course. Warm Spring Run enters the Potomac River at Hancock. Warm Spring Run is fed by springs on Warm Springs Ridge, the most well-known of these being the springs at Berkeley Springs State Park in Berkeley Springs through which it flows. Dry Run Berkeley Springs Berryville Burnt Factory Hancock Jimtown North Berkeley List of rivers of West Virginia
Wardensville, West Virginia
Wardensville is a town in Hardy County, West Virginia, United States. The population was 271 at the 2010 census. Named Trout Run, Wardensville was chartered in Virginia in 1832 and incorporated in West Virginia in 1879. Wardensville is located west of the Great North Mountain range, which separates it from the Shenandoah Valley; the town lies on the east bank of the Cacapon River at its confluence with Trout Run. The George Washington and Jefferson National Forests border the town to its south; the land which Wardensville occupies was part of the Northern Neck Proprietary, a 5 million acre tract granted by England's King Charles II and formally established after the restoration of the English monarchy in 1660. In 1719, the land was inherited by Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron who administered many of the land grants to the early European settlers who began arriving in the Capon Valley in the second quarter of the eighteenth century. William H. Warden is believed to be the first settler within the present town.
He received a parcel of land from Thomas Fairfax surveyed by George Washington, on November 11, 1749. During the French and Indian War, hostilities between the English settlers and the Native American populations in the South Branch and Capon Valleys led to the construction of a string of fortified outposts including Fort Warden or "Warden's Fort," erected by William Warden at a place called Trout Run. According to historian Samuel Kercheval, the fort was attacked in 1758. Warden and a man only known by the name Mr. Taff did not survive the attack; the town of Wardensville was established in 1832 when the Virginia General Assembly granted a charter declaring "that the town of Wardensville, in the county of Hardy, as the same has been heretofore laid off into lots and alleys, or as the same may be hereafter further laid off and extended into lots and alleys, shall be, the same is hereby made a town corporate, to be known and distinguished by the name of Wardensville." The first trustees of the town were James Scanting, Samuel Fry, John Pierce, Simon Switzer, James W. Baker.
The town was incorporated by the West Virginia Legislature in 1879. In the 1820 United States Census, the population center of the United States was recorded as being about 3 miles northeast of the town. Historic structures in the town include the Cline Blacksmith Shop/Town Jail, a stone structure on Main Street erected around 1830. Two generations of the Cline family operated a blacksmith shop in the structure until 1895. In the earl twentieth century, the structure was converted for use as a town jail. St. Peter's Lutheran Church was founded in 1840 by Rev. John Hamilton and erected its first church on the site in 1870. After this building collapsed in 1934, the present stone church, designed by A. Hensel Fink in Gothic Revival style; the Old Presbyterian Church was constructed in the latter half of the nineteenth century and is a rare example of Italianate style in Wardensville. The Odd Fellows Hall was erected in 1856 on the southern edge of town near the intersection of Main Street and Trout Run Road.
Two properties near Wardensville are listed on the National Register of Historic Places: the Francis Kotz Farm and the Nicholas Switzer House. Wardensville is located at 39°4′32″N 78°35′40″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.33 square miles, of which, 0.32 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. A whitewater stretch of the Lost River flows just above the town from the southwest and once it reaches Wardensville is renamed the Cacapon River; the stream continues to flow northeasterly towards its eventual destination at the Potomac River. As of the census of 2010, there were 271 people, 126 households, 67 families residing in the town; the population density was 846.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 154 housing units at an average density of 481.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.3% White, 1.8% African American, 1.1% Asian, 0.7% from other races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.2% of the population. There were 126 households of which 25.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.5% were married couples living together, 10.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 46.8% were non-families.
42.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 3.01. The median age in the town was 45.3 years. 19.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 47.6% male and 52.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 246 people, 104 households, 63 families residing in the town; the population density was 798.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 126 housing units at an average density of 408.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 95.93% White, 0.81% African American, 0.41% Native American, 0.81% Asian, 1.63% from other races, 0.41% from two or more races. There were 104 households out of which 27.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.0% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.5% were non-families. 35.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 22.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 3.05. In the town, the population was spread o
Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ
The Potomac River is located within the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States and flows from the Potomac Highlands into the Chesapeake Bay. The river is 405 miles long, with a drainage area of about 14,700 square miles. In terms of area, this makes the Potomac River the fourth largest river along the Atlantic coast of the United States and the 21st largest in the United States. Over 5 million people live within the Potomac watershed; the river forms part of the borders between Maryland and Washington, D. C. on the left descending bank and West Virginia and Virginia on the river's right descending bank. The majority of the lower Potomac River is part of Maryland. Exceptions include a small tidal portion within the District of Columbia, the border with Virginia being delineated from "point to point". Except for a small portion of its headwaters in West Virginia, the North Branch Potomac River is considered part of Maryland to the low water mark on the opposite bank; the South Branch Potomac River lies within the state of West Virginia except for its headwaters, which lie in Virginia.
The Potomac River runs 405 miles from Fairfax Stone Historical Monument State Park in West Virginia on the Allegheny Plateau to Point Lookout and drains 14,679 square miles. The length of the river from the junction of its North and South Branches to Point Lookout is 302 miles; the average daily flow during the water years 1931-2018 was 11,498 cubic feet /s. The highest average daily flow recorded on the Potomac at Little Falls, was in March 1936 when it reached 426,000 cubic feet /s; the lowest average daily flow recorded at the same location was 601.0 cubic feet /s in September 1966 The highest crest of the Potomac registered at Little Falls was 28.10 ft, on March 19, 1936. The river has two sources; the source of the North Branch is at the Fairfax Stone located at the junction of Grant and Preston counties in West Virginia. The source of the South Branch is located near Hightown in northern Highland Virginia; the river's two branches converge just east of Green Spring in Hampshire County, West Virginia, to form the Potomac.
As it flows from its headwaters down to the Chesapeake Bay, the Potomac traverses five geological provinces: the Appalachian Plateau, the Ridge and Valley, the Blue Ridge, the Piedmont Plateau, the Atlantic coastal plain. Once the Potomac drops from the Piedmont to the Coastal Plain at the Atlantic Seaboard fall line at Little Falls, tides further influence the river as it passes through Washington, D. C. and beyond. Salinity in the Potomac River Estuary increases thereafter with distance downstream; the estuary widens, reaching 11 statute miles wide at its mouth, between Point Lookout and Smith Point, before flowing into the Chesapeake Bay. "Potomac" is a European spelling of Patawomeck, the Algonquian name of a Native American village on its southern bank. Native Americans had different names for different parts of the river, calling the river above Great Falls Cohongarooton, meaning "honking geese" and "Patawomke" below the Falls, meaning "river of swans"; the spelling of the name has taken many forms over the years from "Patawomeck" to "Patomake", "Patowmack", numerous other variations in the 18th century and now "Potomac".
The river's name was decided upon as "Potomac" by the Board on Geographic Names in 1931. The river itself is at least 3.5 million years old extending back ten to twenty million years before present when the Atlantic Ocean lowered and exposed coastal sediments along the fall line. This included the area at Great Falls, which eroded into its present form during recent glaciation periods; the Potomac River brings together a variety of cultures throughout the watershed from the coal miners of upstream West Virginia to the urban residents of the nation's capital and, along the lower Potomac, the watermen of Virginia's Northern Neck. Being situated in an area rich in American history and American heritage has led to the Potomac being nicknamed "the Nation's River." George Washington, the first President of the United States, was born in, spent most of his life within, the Potomac basin. All of Washington, D. C. the nation's capital city lies within the watershed. The 1859 siege of Harper's Ferry at the river's confluence with the Shenandoah was a precursor to numerous epic battles of the American Civil War in and around the Potomac and its tributaries, such as the 1861 Battle of Ball's Bluff and the 1862 Battle of Shepherdstown.
General Robert E. Lee crossed the river, thereby invading the North and threatening Washington, D. C. twice in campaigns climaxing in the battles of Antietam and Gettysburg. Confederate General Jubal Early crossed the river in July 1864 on his attempted raid on the nation's capital; the river not only divided the Union from the Confederacy, but gave name to the Union's largest army, the Army of the Potomac. The Patowmack Canal was intended by George Washington to connect the Tidewater region near Georgetown with Cumberland, Maryland. Started in 1785 on the Virginia side of the river, it was not completed until 1802. Financial troubles led to the closure of the canal in 1830; the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal operated along the banks of the Potomac in Maryland from 1831 to 1924 and connected Cumberland to Washington, D. C; this allowed freight to be transported around the rapids known as the
The Appalachian Mountains called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians first formed 480 million years ago during the Ordovician Period, they once reached elevations similar to those of the Alps and the Rocky Mountains before experiencing natural erosion. The Appalachian chain is a barrier to east–west travel, as it forms a series of alternating ridgelines and valleys oriented in opposition to most highways and railroads running east–west. Definitions vary on the precise boundaries of the Appalachians; the United States Geological Survey defines the Appalachian Highlands physiographic division as consisting of thirteen provinces: the Atlantic Coast Uplands, Eastern Newfoundland Atlantic, Maritime Acadian Highlands, Maritime Plain, Notre Dame and Mégantic Mountains, Western Newfoundland Mountains, Blue Ridge and Ridge, Saint Lawrence Valley, Appalachian Plateaus, New England province, the Adirondack areas. A common variant definition does not include the Adirondack Mountains, which geologically belong to the Grenville Orogeny and have a different geological history from the rest of the Appalachians.
The mountain range is in the United States but it extends into southeastern Canada, forming a zone from 100 to 300 mi wide, running from the island of Newfoundland 1,500 mi southwestward to Central Alabama in the United States. The range covers parts of the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, which comprise an overseas territory of France; the system is divided into a series of ranges, with the individual mountains averaging around 3,000 ft. The highest of the group is Mount Mitchell in North Carolina at 6,684 feet, the highest point in the United States east of the Mississippi River; the term Appalachian refers to several different regions associated with the mountain range. Most broadly, it refers to the entire mountain range with its surrounding hills and the dissected plateau region; the term is used more restrictively to refer to regions in the central and southern Appalachian Mountains including areas in the states of Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, as well as sometimes extending as far south as northern Alabama and western South Carolina, as far north as Pennsylvania, southern Ohio, parts of southern upstate New York.
The Ouachita Mountains in Arkansas and Oklahoma were part of the Appalachians as well but became disconnected through geologic history. While exploring inland along the northern coast of Florida in 1528, the members of the Narváez expedition, including Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, found a Native American village near present-day Tallahassee, Florida whose name they transcribed as Apalchen or Apalachen; the name was soon altered by the Spanish to Apalachee and used as a name for the tribe and region spreading well inland to the north. Pánfilo de Narváez's expedition first entered Apalachee territory on June 15, 1528, applied the name. Now spelled "Appalachian," it is the fourth-oldest surviving European place-name in the US. After the de Soto expedition in 1540, Spanish cartographers began to apply the name of the tribe to the mountains themselves; the first cartographic appearance of Apalchen is on Diego Gutierrez's map of 1562. The name was not used for the whole mountain range until the late 19th century.
A competing and more popular name was the "Allegheny Mountains", "Alleghenies", "Alleghania". In the early 19th century, Washington Irving proposed renaming the United States either Appalachia or Alleghania. In U. S. dialects in the southern regions of the Appalachians, the word is pronounced, with the third syllable sounding like "latch". In northern parts of the mountain range, it is pronounced or. There is great debate between the residents of the regions as to which pronunciation is the more correct one. Elsewhere, a accepted pronunciation for the adjective Appalachian is, with the last two syllables "-ian" pronounced as in the word "Romanian"; the whole system may be divided into three great sections: Northern: The northern section runs from the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador to the Hudson River. It includes the Long Range Mountains and Annieopsquotch Mountains on the island of Newfoundland, Chic-Choc Mountains and Notre Dame Range in Quebec and New Brunswick, scattered elevations and small ranges elsewhere in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, the Longfellow Mountains in Maine, the White Mountains in New Hampshire, the Green Mountains in Vermont, The Berkshires in Massachusetts and Connecticut.
The Metacomet Ridge Mountains in Connecticut and south-central Massachusetts, although contained within the Appalachian province, is a younger system and not geologically associated with the Appalachians. The Monteregian Hills, which cross the Green Mountains in Quebec, are unassociated with the Appalachians. Central: The central section goes from the Hudson Valley to the New River running through Virginia and West Virginia, it comprises the Valley Ridges between the Allegheny Front of the Allegheny Plateau and the Great Appalachian Valley, the New York–New Jersey Highlands, the Taconic Mountains in New York, a large portion of the Blue Ridge. Southern: The southern section runs from the New River onwards, it consists of the prolongation of the Blue Ridge, divided into the Western Blue Ridge Front and the Eastern Blue Ridge Front, the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians, the Cumberland Plateau. The Adirondack Mountains in New Y
A losing stream, disappearing stream, influent stream or sinking river is a stream or river that loses water as it flows downstream. The water infiltrates into the ground recharging the local groundwater, because the water table is below the bottom of the stream channel; this is the opposite of a more common gaining stream which increases in water volume farther down stream as it gains water from the local aquifer. Losing streams are common in arid areas due to the climate which results in huge amounts of water evaporating from the river towards the mouth. Losing streams are common in regions of karst topography where the streamwater may be captured by a cavern system, becoming a subterranean river. There are many natural examples of subterranean rivers including: In Bosnia and Herzegovina: Unac. Via the aquifer and numerous springs, they are tributaries of the Snake River; the Lost River in Indiana rises in Vernon Township, Washington County and discharges into the East Fork of the White River.
The Lost River is about 85 miles long and its name is derived from the fact that at least 23 miles of the primary course of the river flows underground. The river disappears into a series of sink holes of the type that are abundant in the karstland of southern Indiana; the Lost River of New Hampshire is a 6.5-mile long stream located in the White Mountains of New Hampshire in the United States. It is a tributary of the Pemigewasset River, part of the Merrimack River watershed; the Lost River begins in Kinsman one of the major passes through the White Mountains. As it flows through the notch, it passes through Lost River Gorge, an area where enormous boulders falling off the flanking walls of the notch at the close of the last Ice Age have covered the river, creating a network of boulder caves; the Lost River of West Virginia is located in the Appalachian Mountains of Hardy County in the Eastern Panhandle region of the state. It flows into an underground channel northeast of Baker along West Virginia Route 259 at "the Sinks" and reappears near Wardensville as the Cacapon River.
In southern Germany, the Danube River disappears in the Danube Sinkhole between Immendingen and Möhringen in an area of karst. The Selwyn River in New Zealand disappears below ground as it flows down the Canterbury Plains due to overlaying a deep and porous aquifer, re-emerging about 15 kilometres away from its output at Lake Ellesmere / Te Waihora. Ponor Groundwater Subterranean river Tom Aley, Karst Groundwater, Missouri Conservationist Online, Mar. 2000 – Vol. 61 No. 3
Dillons Run is a 12.9-mile-long tributary stream of the Cacapon River, belonging to the Potomac River and Chesapeake Bay watersheds. The stream is located in Hampshire County in the U. S. state of West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle. Dillons Run's source lies in a hollow along the southeastern end of Cooper Mountain, south of the community of Millbrook; the stream follows Dillons Run Road northeast through Millbrook, turning east through Millbrook Gap, joining a stream flowing from Parks Hollow. Dillons Run continues northeast, adjoining Dillons Run Road while flowing by the community of Dillons Run. After Dillons Run, the stream meets with another stream flowing out of Gunbarrel Hollow, continues northeast towards Capon Bridge between Schaffenaker and Dillons Mountains. At the northern end of Dillons Mountain, Dillons Run flows east, parallel to the Northwestern Turnpike and under Cacapon River Road before emptying into the Cacapon River south of the Capon Bridge. While paralleling U. S. Route 50, Dillons Run runs through a small grassy field in front of Moss Rock.
Dillons Run is stocked with rainbow and brook trout from the Dillons Run Road bridge upstream three miles to Millbrook. This portion of the stream is situated six miles southeast of Capon Bridge. Dillons Run is stocked once in February and once every two weeks from March through May by the West Virginia Division of Natural Resources. List of West Virginia rivers