The Sacramento perch is an endangered sunfish native to the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta and Salinas River areas in California, but introduced throughout the western United States. The Sacramento perch's native habitat is in sluggish vegetated, waters of sloughs and lakes, it can reach a maximum overall length of 61 cm and a maximum weight of 3.6 kg, it has been reported to live as long as six years. Its adaptability to different habitats is high, it can survive on a wide variety of food sources; as young perch, they consume small crustaceans and move on to insect larvae and smaller fish as adults. Archoplites interruptus belongs to the family Centrarchidae; this family includes species of sunfish. Although called the Sacramento perch, A. interruptus is not a perch speaking. This species is the only member of the centrarchids that resides west of the Rockies. A. Interruptus is the only species of genus Archoplites, but Girard had assigned it to Centrarchus; the generic name, derives from the Greek άρχος and οπλίτης.
Interruptus references the irregular vertical bar markings on the sides of the fish. This species is a deep-bodied fish with long anal fins; the mouth is large with numerous small teeth found on its jaws and roof of its mouth. Its scales are large and brown on the sides and top of the fish and create a metallic greenish-purple shine; the Sacramento perch is most identifiable by its irregular vertical bars. Breeding males and females are sexually dimorphic in color; the males have purple opercula. The color in females is plainer with spotted opercula, its size is dependent on. A Sacramento perch at age 1 would measure 6–13 cm, at age 2 it would be 12–19 cm, the growth rate will begin to slow; the largest of this species recorded was 61 cm total length. The Sacramento perch was found throughout the Central Valley of California at elevations below 100 m; the Sacramento perch was popular for recreation fishing. It was so abundant that this species was used as a food fish eaten regularly, it inhabited sloughs, slow-moving rivers of the Pajaro and Salinas rivers, lakes with emergent vegetation such as Clear Lake.
This species has been eliminated from 90% of its natural habitat due to habitat destruction, egg predation by invasive fish species, interspecific competition. Sacramento perch are quite rare now and found in warm and alkaline farm ponds and recreational lakes that it has been introduced into. There are only two native populations of Sacramento perch that are still maintaining themselves and those reside in Clear Lake and Alameda Creek drainage as well as gravel pit ponds in the Calaveras Reservoir. Aquatic insects are critical to the Sacramento perch's diet; this fish feeds on chironomid midge larvae and pupae found on the bottom or in aquatic plants during winter months. During the summer months, this fish will feed on plankton and other surface organisms; the Sacramento perch is an opportunistic species and will prey upon whatever is in abundance and have been shown to eat mosquito larvae. Smaller perches feed on small crustaceans and as they grow larger move on to aquatic insects and other fish.
This fish can feed at any time of the day or night. Spawning occurs from late March through early August, with peak times being late May and Early June when water temperatures are between 18-29 °C; the Sacramento perch reaches breeding age at 2–3 years old. The perch gather in shallow waters where there are rock piles, submerged roots, or other substrates nearby; the males each defend their own small territories and dig nests for the females to lay their eggs in. These nest areas are vigorously defended from other males by chasing and flaring opercular flaps at each other. Females spawn by releasing their eggs into the nest followed by the male fertilizing them, but spawning can occur side by side with sperm and egg being released at the same time; the male cares for the fertilized eggs for several days until they hatch, defending them against predators. When the eggs hatch they are tiny planktonic fish which rise to the surface to feed and grow for a couple weeks before settling down into the vegetation at the bottom.
The Sacramento perch is a resilient species of fish with a wide range of diet. It is adapted to withstand low water clarity, high temperatures water with high salinity and alkalinity, why this native species has been chosen as the primary fish used in aquaponics systems. Aquaponics farms in California are incorporating the use of this endangered species in their systems for growing vegetables; this serves as a restoration project for breeding Sacramento perch in order to release them back into native waters and add diversity to the wild population. With the rising temperatures in California, the mosquito population has been growing. A study shows; these results show that this species has the potential to be used to help control these growing populations in California wetlands. Although populations of Sacramento perch are not as numerous today as they were in the past, many programs today are focusing on reintroducing them across California waterways again. Potential habitats include Putah Creek and Clear Lake, where the Sacramento perch were abundant at one time but due to the construction of heavy infrastruct
Modoc County, California
Modoc County is a county in the far northeast corner of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,686. Making it the third-least populous county in California; the county seat and only incorporated city is Alturas. Previous county seats include Lake Centerville; the county borders Oregon. A large portion of Modoc County is federal land. Several federal agencies, including the United States Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, Bureau of Indian Affairs, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, have employees assigned to the area, their operations are a significant part of the area's economy and services; the county's official slogans include "The last best place" and "Where the West still lives". Prior to the arrival of Europeans in the region, varying cultures of Native Americans inhabited the county for thousands of years. At the time of European encounter, the Modoc people lived in what is now northern California, near Lost River and Tule Lake.
The county was named after them. The Achumawi, the Paiute lived in the area. To the north were the Klamath in present-day Oregon; the first European explorers to visit Modoc County were the American John C. Frémont and his traveling party in 1846, who had departed from Sutter's Fort near the confluence of the American and Sacramento Rivers; the northern boundary of California, Modoc County, had been established as the 42nd parallel since the time of Mexican possession. In the absence of a reliable survey of the 120th meridian, the eastern boundary of northern California was a subject of contention before Modoc County formed; the Territory of Utah requested jurisdiction to the summit of the Sierra Nevada. At the time, the Warner Mountains were believed to be a part of the Sierra Nevada, so this would have included Surprise Valley, but California denied the request. In 1856, the residents of Honey Lake Valley reckoned the 120th meridian to be west of their valley, placing them in Utah territory, attempted to secede and form a territory they called Nataqua.
Nataqua would have included Modoc County. In 1858, the Territory of Nevada, with its capital now in Carson City seceded from Utah, assumed jurisdiction to the summit of the Sierra Nevada until the 120th meridian was surveyed in 1863. After Nevada was granted statehood in 1864, the region of current Modoc County was placed within jurisdiction of Shasta County and Siskiyou County was, in turn, generated from Shasta County in 1852. Increasing traffic on the emigrant trail, unprovoked militia raids on innocent Modoc, a cycle of retaliatory raids increased a cycle of violence between settlers and the tribes in the area. In 1864, the Klamath and Yahooskin band of the Shoshone signed a treaty ceding lands in both Oregon and California, the tribes were colocated on the Klamath Reservation. Harassed by the Klamath, traditional competitors, a band of Modoc led by Captain Jack returned to California and the Tule Lake area; the Modoc War of 1872-73 brought nationwide attention to the Modoc during the protracted battles.
From strong defensive positions in the lava tubes, 52 Modoc warriors held off hundreds of US Army forces, who called in artillery to help. Peace talks in 1873 stalled. Warriors urged killing the peace commissioners, thinking that the Americans would leave, Captain Jack and others shot and killed General Edward Canby and Rev. Eleazer Thomas, wounded others. More Army troops were called in to lay siege to Captain Jack's Stronghold. Dissension arose, some Modoc surrendered. Most were captured, those responsible for the assassinations were tried and executed. More than 150 Modoc were transported to Indian Territory as prisoners of war; the area has since been designated the Lava Beds National Monument. Settlement of the county began in earnest in the 1870s, with the timber, gold and railroad industries bringing most of the settlers into the area; the county was a crossroads for the Lassen Applegate Trail, which brought settlers north from Nevada to the Oregon Trail and south to trails leading into California's central valley.
Early settlers included the Dorris, Essex, Trumbo, Polander and Campbell families. Modoc County was formed when Governor Newton Booth signed an Act of the California Legislature on February 17, 1874 after residents of the Surprise Valley region lobbied for the creation of a new county from eastern Siskiyou County land; the county residents considered naming the newly formed county after General Edward Canby, killed the year before at peace talks in an ambush by Modoc. The idea of naming the county "Summit" was considered, but the populace settled on "Modoc"; the Dorris Bridge post office opened in 1871, was renamed Dorrisville in 1874. In 1876, it was renamed Alturas; the census of 1880 showed a population of 148. Settlement continued over the next two decades, until the city was incorporated on September 16, 1901. During World War II, the US government developed several thousand acres just south of Newell as a Japanese American internment camp. Tule Lake War Relocation Center was the site of temporary exile for thousands of Japa
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman
The Applegate Trail was an emigrant trail through the present-day U. S. states of Idaho, Nevada and Oregon used in the mid-19th century by emigrants on the American frontier. It was intended as a less dangerous alternative to the Oregon Trail by which to reach the Oregon Territory. Much of the route was coterminous with the California Trail. In 1843, part of the Applegate family of Missouri headed west along the Oregon Trail to the Oregon Country. Brothers Charles and Lindsay led their families through many hardships along the trail, including the loss of two children on the journey down the Columbia River; these experiences influenced the family to find an safer way to the Willamette Valley. In 1846, the Oregon Provisional Legislature allowed the Applegates and others to attempt to find a more southerly route to Oregon; the group began the trek on June 25, 1846, with Jesse Applegate, Lindsay Applegate, David Goff, John Owen, B. F. Burch, W. Sportsman, Robert Smith, a Mr. Goodhue, J. Jones, B.
Ausbuan, Levi Scott starting the survey. Leaving La Creole, the party spent three and a half months surveying a route to Fort Hall in present-day Idaho. At that location, the Applegate Trail departed the main branch of the Oregon Trail. On the return trip, the group brought 150 immigrants along the new southern route known as the South Road, South Emigrant Trail or the Scott-Applegate Trail. From Fort Hall, the route headed south following the Humboldt River before passing through the Black Rock Desert in present-day Nevada; the trail entered Northern California and passed Goose and Tule lakes. After crossing the Lost River, the route crossed the Klamath Basin and the Cascade Range into Southern Oregon; the trail followed Keene Creek to the Siskiyou Mountains Bear Creek and the Rogue River. Heading north from there, the route crossed the Umpqua River before crossing the Calapooya Mountains into the southern Willamette Valley. After the initial party traveled the trail, it continued to be used and improved over the next few decades.
In 1848, when news of the California Gold Rush reached the Willamette Valley, many settlers including Jesse and Lindsay Applegate left Oregon for the gold fields and used the trail to reach northern California. On August 3, 1992, the Applegate Trail became a National Historic Trail as part of the California National Historic Trail; the Nevada section of the trail is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the Applegate-Lassen Trail. Barlow Road Meek Cutoff Mormon Trail Oregon-California Trails Association Oregon Historic Trails Advisory Council Santiam Wagon Road History of the Applegate Trail Applegate-Lassen Route at California - Nevada Chapter of the Oregon-California Trails Association Deaths and Graves On The Applegate-Lassen Trail at California - Nevada Chapter of the Oregon-California Trails Association LaLande, Jeff. "Applegate Trail". The Oregon Encyclopedia
Nuss Lake is a small lake in Klamath Falls, United States. It is 0.2 sq miles in size, located 6.6 miles from Altamont. The lake sits between the south skirt of Olene Gap to the north; the Klamath area has a peculiar natural draining system. The larger portion of this area, including Poe and Yonna valleys, is drained by the Lost River and its tributaries, which flow into several small lakes before emptying into Tule Lake. Though there are not many springs in Klamath County, some of the identifiable perennial springs that appear at land surface issue from the bottom of Nuss Lake. Hydraulic heads in wells are above surface at several places in the area, indicating that the aquifer is confined at these places, extending around Nuss Lake and the valley south and west of Stukel Mountain along Lost River. Many of these wells, including some north of Stukel Mountain have large flows. Two springs at Olene Gap are warm artesian springs whose waters are derived from the geothermal reservoir; the Olene flume supplies second unit lands in the South Poe Valley and Nuss Lake districts, the total irrigable area being about 4,200 acres, of which 60% is in cultivation.
The most common type of fish in the lake are largemouth rainbow trout and bluegill. Fishing Nuss Lake is best at 6 am. 66,500 people live in Klamath County in the Klamath Falls metropolitan area. Many small towns in South and Eastern Klamath Falls are centered on a rural agrigultural base that takes advantage of the peculiar irrigation systems offered by the Upper Klamath Lake and Lost River; these communities are established upon seasonal industry, which feature large swings in labor force size, in many cases, precipitate mass migrations of workers. Within 5 miles of the shores of Nuss Lake, the locally called Poe Valley, are the cities of Bonanza, Malin and Tulelake, as well as the unincorporated communities of: Altamont and Langell Valley. Lake Ewauna List of lakes in Oregon U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Nuss Lake
Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae. The word trout is used as part of the name of some non-salmonid fish such as Cynoscion nebulosus, the spotted seatrout or speckled trout. Trout are related to salmon and char: species termed salmon and char occur in the same genera as do fish called trout. Lake trout and most other trout live in freshwater lakes and rivers while there are others, such as the steelhead, which can spend two or three years at sea before returning to fresh water to spawn. Steelhead that live out their lives in fresh water are called rainbow trout. Arctic char and brook trout are part of the char family. Trout are an important food source for humans and wildlife, including brown bears, birds of prey such as eagles, other animals, they are classified as oily fish. The name'trout' is used for some species in three of the seven genera in the subfamily Salmoninae: Salmo, Atlantic species.
Fish referred to as trout include: Genus Salmo Adriatic trout, Salmo obtusirostris Brown trout, Salmo trutta River trout, S. t. morpha fario Lake trout/Lacustrine trout, S. t. morpha lacustris Sea trout, S. t. morpha trutta Flathead trout, Salmo platycephalus Marble trout, Soca River trout or Soča trout – Salmo marmoratus Ohrid trout, Salmo letnica, S. balcanicus, S. lumi, S. aphelios Sevan trout, Salmo ischchan Genus Oncorhynchus Biwa trout, Oncorhynchus masou rhodurus Cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki Coastal cutthroat trout, O. c. clarki Crescenti trout, O. c. c. f. crescenti Alvord cutthroat trout O. c. alvordensis Bonneville cutthroat trout O. c. utah Humboldt cutthroat trout O. c. humboldtensis Lahontan cutthroat trout O. c. henshawi Whitehorse Basin cutthroat trout Paiute cutthroat trout O. c. seleniris Snake River fine-spotted cutthroat trout, O. c. behnkei Westslope cutthroat trout O. c. lewisi Yellowfin cutthroat trout O. c. macdonaldi Yellowstone cutthroat trout O. c. bouvieri Colorado River cutthroat trout O. c. pleuriticus Greenback cutthroat trout O. c. stomias Rio Grande cutthroat trout O. c. virginalis Oncorhynchus gilae Gila trout, O. g. gilae Apache trout, O. g. apache Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss Kamchatkan rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss mykiss Columbia River redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri Coastal rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus Beardslee trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus var. beardsleei Great Basin redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii Golden trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita Kern River rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. gilberti Sacramento golden trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. stonei Little Kern golden trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. whitei Kamloops rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss kamloops Baja California rainbow trout, Nelson's trout, or San Pedro Martir trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss nelsoni Eagle Lake trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aquilarum McCloud River redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss stonei Sheepheaven Creek redband trout Mexican golden trout, Oncorhynchus chrysogaster Genus Salvelinus Brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis Aurora trout, S. f. timagamiensis Bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus Dolly Varden trout, Salvelinus malma Lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush Silver trout, † Salvelinus agassizi Hybrids Tiger trout, Salmo trutta X Salvelinus fontinalis Speckled Lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush X Salvelinus fontinalis Trout that live in different environments can have different colorations and patterns.
These colors and patterns form as camouflage, based on the surroundings, will change as the fish moves to different habitats. Trout in, or newly returned from the sea, can look silvery, while the same fish living in a small stream or in an alpine lake could have pronounced markings and more vivid coloration. In general trout that are about to breed have intense coloration, they can look like an different fish outside of spawning season. It is impossible to define a particular color pattern as belonging to a specific breed. Trout have fins without spines, all of them have a small adipose fin along the back, near the tail; the pelvic fins sit well back on each side of the anus. The swim bladder is connected to the esophagus, allowing for gulping or rapid expulsion of air, a condition known as physostome. Unlike many other physostome fish, trout do not use their bladder as an auxiliary device for oxygen uptake, relying on their gills. There are many species, more populations, that are isolated from each other and morphologically different.
However, since many of these distinct populations show no significant genetic differences, what may appear to be a large number of species is considered a much smaller number of distinct species by most ichthyologists. The trout found in the eastern United States are a good example of this; the brook trout, the aurora trout, the silver trout all have physical characteristics and colorations that distinguish them, yet genetic analysis shows that they are one species, Salvelinus fontinalis. Lake trout, like brook trout, belong to the char genus. Lake trout inhabit many of the larger lakes in North America, live m
Jackson County, Oregon
Jackson County is a county in the U. S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 census, the population was 203,206; the county seat is Medford. The county is named for the seventh president of the United States. Jackson County comprises OR Metropolitan Statistical Area. There are 34 unincorporated communities in Jackson County. Modoc, Takelma and Umpqua Indian tribes are all native to the region of present Jackson County. Prior to the 1850s, the Klickitats from the north raided the area; the Territorial Legislature created Jackson County on January 12, 1852, from the southwestern portion of Lane County and the unorganized area south of Douglas and Umpqua Counties. It included lands which now lie in Coos, Josephine and Lake Counties. Gold discoveries in the Illinois River valley and the Rogue River valley near Jacksonville in 1852, the completion of a wagon road connecting the county with California to the south and Douglas County to the north led to an influx of non-native settlers. Conflict between the miners and Native Americans led to war in 1853, which continued intermittently until the final defeat of the last band under chiefs John and George by a combined force of regular army and civilians May 29, 1856 at Big Bend on the Illinois River.
The Native Americans had received the worse of the fighting throughout this conflict, as they began to surrender, they were herded to existing reservations, beginning in January 1856 when one group was marched to the Grand Ronde Indian Reservation west of Salem. Over the following months, other groups were forced to leave until by May 1857 all of the Shasta and Latgawas tribes had been relocated to the Siletz Reservation, where they remained. Jacksonville was designated as the first county seat in 1853. However, Jacksonville declined due to diminishing returns in the local goldfields and the construction in the 1880s of the Oregon and California Railroad; this railroad bypassed Jacksonville and instead went through Medford, located five miles east of Jacksonville. Medford's prospects improved because of the location of the railroad and the accompanying commerce and development as Jacksonville continued its steady decline. Jacksonville fended off suggestions to move the county seat until 1927 when Medford was selected as the county seat.
In March 2004, Jackson County became the first of an eventual 35 counties in Oregon to implement a voluntary plan of fireproofing homes situated on properties zoned as part of the forestland-urban interface. This requires homeowners to maintain a 30' or greater firebreak around their structures, affects 12,000 homeowners. In 2007, this plan becomes mandatory for many landowners, under threat of liability if their property is involved in a fire. On May 15, 2007, residents voted not to reopen the county's 15 libraries, closed since April 6 due to a shortage of funds; this was the largest library closure in the history of the United States. The libraries were reopened, with reduced hours, on October 24, 2007. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,802 square miles, of which 2,784 square miles is land and 18 square miles is water. A portion of the Umpqua National Forest is in Jackson County. Located within Jackson County is Bear Creek and its watershed, a tributary of the Rogue River.
The population centers of Medford, Phoenix and Central Point are located along the stream. It connects with the Rogue River near the Lower Table Rock lava formations. Josephine County Klamath County Douglas County Siskiyou County, California Cascade–Siskiyou National Monument Crater Lake National Park Klamath National Forest Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest Umpqua National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 181,269 people, 71,532 households, 48,427 families residing in the county; the population density was 65 people per square mile. There were 75,737 housing units at an average density of 27 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 91.65% White, 0.40% Black or African American, 1.09% Native American, 0.90% Asian, 0.18% Pacific Islander, 2.88% from other races, 2.91% from two or more races. 6.69% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 17.4 % were of 10.2 % Irish and 8.8 % United States or American ancestry. 92.7 % spoke only English at home. Of the 71,532 households, 30.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.20% were married couples living together, 10.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.30% were non-families.
25.10% of all households were made up of one individual, 11.00% being a person, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.95. The age distribution of the county's population was 24.40% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 25.50% from 25 to 44, 25.40% from 45 to 64, 16.00% 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 94.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,461, the median income for a family was $43,675. Males had a median income of $32,720 compared to $23,690 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,498. 8.90% of families and 12.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.30% of those under age 18 and 6.90% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 203,206 people, 83,076 households, 53,460 families residing in the county; the popul