Lot is a village in the municipality of Beersel, Belgium. Renaat Van Elslande
In international law and business, patent trolling or patent hoarding is a categorical or pejorative term applied to a person or company that attempts to enforce patent rights against accused infringers far beyond the patent's actual value or contribution to the prior art through hardball legal tactics. Patent trolls do not manufacture products or supply services based upon the patents in question. However, some entities which do not practice their asserted patent may not be considered "patent trolls" when they license their patented technologies on reasonable terms in advance. Other related concepts include patent holding company, patent assertion entity, non-practicing entity, which may or may not be considered a "patent troll" depending on the position they are taking and the perception of that position by the public. While in most cases the entities termed "trolls" are operating within the bounds of the legal system, their aggressive tactics achieve outcomes contrary to the origins of the patent system as a legislated social contract to foster and protect innovation.
Patent trolling has been less of a problem in Europe than in the United States because Europe has a loser pays costs regime. In contrast, the U. S. employs the American rule, under which each party is responsible for paying its own attorney's fees. However, after the U. S. Supreme Court's decision in Octane Fitness, LLC v. ICON Health & Fitness, Inc. on April 29, 2014, it is now easier for courts to award costs for frivolous patent lawsuits. The term patent troll was used at least once in 1993, albeit with a different meaning, to describe countries that file aggressive patent lawsuits; the 1994 educational video, The Patents Video used the term, depicting a green troll guarding a bridge and demanding fees. The origin of the term patent troll has been variously attributed to Anne Gundelfinger, or Peter Detkin, both counsel for Intel, during the late 1990s. Patent troll is a controversial term, susceptible to numerous definitions, none of which are considered satisfactory from the perspective of understanding how patent trolls should be treated in law.
Definitions include a party that does one or more of the following: Purchases a patent from a bankrupt firm, sues another company by claiming that one of its products infringes on the purchased patent. The term "patent pirate" has been used to describe both patent trolling and acts of patent infringement. Related expressions are "non-practising entity", "patent assertion entity", "non-manufacturing patentee", "patent shark", "patent marketer", "patent assertion company", "patent dealer". Confusion over use of the term patent troll is clear in research and media reporting. In 2014, Price Waterhouse Coopers published research into patent litigation including a study of non-practicing entities including individual inventors and non-profit organisations such as universities. In quoting that research, media outlets such as the Washington Post labelled all non-practicing entities as patent trolls. According to RPX Corporation, a firm that helps reduce company patent-litigation risk by offering licenses to patents it owns in exchange for an agreement not to sue, patent trolls in 2012 filed more than 2,900 infringement lawsuits nationwide.
In addressing the America Invents Act passed by Congress in September 2011 reforming US patent law, U. S. President Barack Obama said in February 2013 that US "efforts at patent reform only went about halfway to where we need to go." The next indicated step was to pull together stakeholders and find consensus on "smarter patent laws."As part of the effort to combat patent trolls, the Patent Trial and Appeals Board was empowered to begin conducting the inter partes review process in 2012. IPR allows an executive agency to review the validity of a patent, whereas such a review could only be conducted before a court; the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the IPR process in 2018. In 2015, 45% of all patent cases in the United States were filed in the Eastern District of Texas in Marshall, 28% of all patents were filed before James Rodney Gilstrap, a court known for favoring plaintiffs and for its expertise in patent suits. However, in May 2017, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled unanimously in TC Heartland LLC v. Kraft Foods Group Brands LLC that patent litigation cases must be heard in the state in which the defendant is incorporated, shutting down this option for plaintiffs.
On June 4, 2013, President Obama referenced patent trolls and directed the United States Patent and Trademark Office to take five new actions to help stem the surge in patent-infringement lawsuits tying up the court system. Saying "they don't produce anything themselves, they're just trying to leverage and hijack somebody else's idea and see if they can extort some money out of them," the President ordered the USPTO to require compa
The Lot, pronounced the Olt, is a river in France. It is a right-bank tributary of the Garonne, it rises in the Cévennes mountains, flowing west through Quercy, where it flows into the Garonne near Aiguillon, a total distance of 481 kilometres. It gives its name to the départements of Lot-et-Garonne; the Lot is prone to flooding in the winter and spring, has many dams in its upper catchment area on the Truyère, which produce hydroelectric power of strategic importance for the French national grid. Turbining can cause additional variations in flow throughout the 275 km of the river, extensively developed as an asset for tourism in the region; the major project to restore navigability of the river Lot was conceived by local stakeholders in Decazeville and Cahors in the 1970s. It meant restoring the many locks, bypassing the medium-head dams built at five locations along the former waterway. Olt is the name of a river in Romania. Lède Célé Truyère Colagne The Lot flows through the following départements and towns: Lozère, Aveyron and Lot-et-Garonne.
From the Middle Ages flat-bottomed gabarres traded between Entraygues and the Garonne, a distance of 297 km. In the late 17th century Colbert ordered improvements to navigation. A second phase of canalisation became necessary when the open-cast coal mines in Decazeville started supplying coal to fuel the industrial revolution, from 1840. About 75 weirs and locks were built over the 270 km up to Bouquiès near Decazeville. Barges continued to ply the river after the first railway was opened from Montauban to Capdenac in 1858. Canals were built to bypass the river’s meanders at Luzech, Cajarc and Capdenac; the short reprieve for river navigation came to end when the railway was opened along the valley in sections from 1869. The navigation was abandoned in 1926. An association was founded by Christian Bernad in 1971 to promote restoration for tourism. A study to assess the feasibility of developing waterway tourism on the river was undertaken in 1985-86, led to the first 64 km length being restored and opened in 1990.
The Lot is now open to recreational navigation and passenger boats in three sections, with long-term plans to interconnect them floundering for lack of political support and funding. The lower river Lot is a 120 km route from Nicole to Albas with 17 locks restored, but a gap of 3 km from PK 76-79, where one lock remains to be restored, a lock or other structure to bypass the dam at Fumel. Development of boat traffic on the river has been affected by poor conditions of navigation on the Garonne, to be crossed over a length of 5 km to gain access to the entrance lock at Nicole; this central river Lot is a 74 km route, with 17 locks, from Luzech to Larnagol. The length reopened in May 1990 was 64 km long, to Crégols above Saint-Cirq-Lapopie, it was extended in 2008. The upper river Lot is a short length of 11 km in the département Aveyron, from la Roque-Bouillac in the commune of Livinhac-le-haut to Port d'Agrès in the commune of St Parthem, including two restored locks and a new lock beside the hydroelectric plant at Marcenac.
The industrial history of the river weighs on today's development, since pollution has left heavy metals in the silt at locations such as Fumel and Bouillac. Costly processes are required to remove these sediments, as a prerequisite for continuing restoration works on the river; the current situation with the three separate navigable sections is to continue into the foreseeable future. List of canals in France List of rivers of France Olt river in Romania ^ David. "Filling gaps on the river Lot". Inland Waterways International; the Lot in the Sandre database for hydrology, water quality and other data Le Lot, Waterways Guide No. 05. Editions du Breil. ISBN 978-2-913120-34-1 Edwards-May, David. Inland Waterways of France, 8th edition. Imray, pp 117–126. ISBN 978-1-846230-14-1 McKnight, Hugh. Cruising French Waterways, 4th Edition. Sheridan House. ISBN 9781574092103. Jefferson, David. Through the French Canals. Adlard Coles Nautical. P. 275. ISBN 978-1-4081-0381-4. River Lot with maps, places and other details by the author of Inland Waterways of France Navigation details for 80 French rivers and canals
A lot number is an identification number assigned to a particular quantity or lot of material from a single manufacturer. Lot numbers can be found on the outside of packaging. For cars, a lot number is combined with a serial number to form the Vehicle Identification Number; the lot number enables tracing of the constituent parts or ingredients as well as labor and equipment records involved in the manufacturing of a product. This enables manufacturers and other entities to perform quality control checks, calculate expiration dates, issue corrections or recall information to subsets of their production output, it gives consumers an identifier that they can use in contacting the manufacturer and researching the production of goods received. For example to trace back the origin of fish or meat, in case of a public health problem; some lot numbers are generated with the use of time stamps to help identify a specific lot. Batch production Heat number Quality Control Vehicle Identification Number Answers.com Definition
Joseph Ward Moore was an American science fiction writer. According to The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, "he contributed only infrequently to the field, each of his books became something of a classic." Moore began publishing with the novel Breathe the Air Again, about the onset of the Great Depression. The story is told from multiple viewpoints, Ward Moore himself appears as a character in the novel, his most famous work is the alternate history novel Bring the Jubilee. This novel, narrated by Hodge Backmaker, tells of a world in which the South won the American Civil War, leaving the North in ruins. Moore's other novels include Cloud By Day. Moore is known for the two short stories "Lot" and "Lot's Daughter" which are postapocalyptic tales with parallels to the Bible, his short story "Adjustment", in which an ordinary man adjusts to a never-never land in which his wishes are fulfilled and makes the environment adjust to him as well, has been reprinted several times. Moore was born in a western suburb of New York City.
His parents had married in 1902, the previous year. His grandfather Joseph Solomon Moore had been a successful German-born commission merchant and the statistician of the New York custom house, the author of several books on the tariff question and a friend of Carl Schurz. Five months after Ward Moore's birth, he moved with his parents to Montreal, where his mother's family lived. In 1913 they returned to New York. Moore's parents divorced and remarried around this time, his father died in 1916, his mother's second husband and Moore's stepfather was the noted German jazz band leader Julian Fuhs. Moore attended De Witt Clinton High School in New York, where according to one repeated story he was expelled for antiwar activity during World War I, he attended Columbia College. Moore claimed to have spent several years tramping around the United States as a hobo during the early 1920s. In the mid-1920s he managed a bookshop in Chicago, where he befriended one of the store's patrons, the young poet Kenneth Rexroth.
Moore appears in Rexroth's memoir An Autobiographical Novel as the mad bohemian poet/bookseller/science fiction writer "Bard Major". Rexroth claimed that "Major" had been on the Central Committee of the Communist Party in Milwaukee and was expelled for Trotskyist deviationism, but the factual basis for this tale, if any, is obscure. In 1929 Moore relocated to California. Starting in 1937 he participated in the Federal Writers Project of the WPA, where his friend Rexroth was an administrator in the San Francisco office, his picaresque first novel Breathe the Air Again, was about the labor struggle in California during the 1920s. It had autobiographical elements and was and favorably reviewed, it was intended to be the first of a trilogy but the remaining volumes were never published. During the 1940s Moore wrote book reviews and short stories for a number of magazines and newspapers, including Harper's Bazaar, the San Francisco Chronicle, Jewish Horizons, The Nation. By 1942 Moore was married to Lorna Lenzi.
He had seven children. Starting in 1950 he was book review editor of Frontier, a West Coast political monthly similar in outlook to The Nation. In the early 1950s he began writing for The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, he was a friend of the magazine's California-based editors, Anthony Boucher and J. Francis McComas, soon became a popular favorite with the magazine's readers. Though he was never prolific, his science fiction stories penned during the 1950s were entertaining and well crafted and were well received. In the 1960s his literary output diminished, his last two novels were completed with the help of collaborators, his 1953 speculative if-the-South-had-won-the-Civil-War novel Bring the Jubilee was brought back into print at the time of the Civil War centennial and found an appreciative new audience among Civil War buffs. In 1965 he remarried; the couple moved to Pacific Grove, California where he died in 1978. Biography at SciFi.com Works by Ward Moore at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Ward Moore at Internet Archive Works by Ward Moore at LibriVox Ward Moore at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Ward Moore at Library of Congress Authorities, with 6 catalog records
In governance, sortition is the selection of political officials as a random sample from a larger pool of candidates, a system intended to ensure that all competent and interested parties have an equal chance of holding public office. It minimizes factionalism, since there would be no point making promises to win over key constituencies if one was to be chosen by lot, while elections, by contrast, foster it. In ancient Athenian democracy, sortition was the traditional and primary method for appointing political officials, its use was regarded as a principal characteristic of democracy. Today, sortition is used to select prospective jurors in common law-based legal systems and is sometimes used in forming citizen groups with political advisory power. Athenian democracy developed in the 6th century BC out of what was called isonomia. Sortition was the principal way of achieving this fairness, it was utilized to pick most of the magistrates for their governing committees, for their juries. Aristotle relates equality and democracy: Democracy arose from the idea that those who are equal in any respect are equal absolutely.
All are alike free, therefore they claim that all are free absolutely... The next is when the democrats, on the grounds that they are all equal, claim equal participation in everything, it is accepted as democratic. In Athens, "democracy" was in opposition to those supporting a system of oligarchy. Athenian democracy was characterised by being run by the "many" who were allotted to the committees which ran government. Thucydides has Pericles make this point in his Funeral Oration: "It is administered by the many instead of the few; the Athenians believed sortition to be democratic but not elections and used complex procedures with purpose-built allotment machines to avoid the corrupt practices used by oligarchs to buy their way into office. According to the author Mogens Herman Hansen the citizen's court was superior to the assembly because the allotted members swore an oath which ordinary citizens in the assembly did not and therefore the court could annul the decisions of the assembly. Both Aristotle and Herodotus emphasize selection by lot as a test of democracy, "The rule of the people has the fairest name of all and does none of the things that a monarch does.
The lot determines offices, power is held accountable, deliberation is conducted in public."Past scholarship maintained that sortition had roots in the use of chance to divine the will of the gods, but this view is no longer common among scholars. In Ancient Greek mythology, Zeus and Hades used sortition to determine who ruled over which domain. Zeus got the sky, Poseidon the sea, Hades the underworld. In Athens, to be eligible to be chosen by lot, citizens self-selected themselves into the available pool lotteries in the kleroteria machines; the magistracies assigned by lot had terms of service of 1 year. A citizen could not hold any particular magistracy more than once in his lifetime, but could hold other magistracies. All male citizens over 30 years of age, who were not disenfranchised by atimia, were eligible; those selected through lot underwent examination called dokimasia in order to avoid incompetent officials. Were selected citizens discarded. Magistrates, once in place, were subjected to constant monitoring by the Assembly.
Magistrates appointed by lot had to render account of their time in office upon their leave, called euthynai. However, any citizen could request the suspension of a magistrate with due reason; the brevia was used in the city states of Northern Italy during the 12th and 13th centuries and in Venice until the late 18th century. Men, who were chosen randomly, swore an oath that they were not acting under bribes, they elected members of the council. Voter and candidate eligibility included property owners, guild members, at times, artisans; the Doge of Venice was determined through a complex process of nomination and sortition. Lot was used in the Venetian system only in order to select members of the committees that served to nominate candidates for the Great Council. A combination of election and lot was used in this multi-stage process. Lot was not used alone to select magistrates, unlike in Athens; the use of lot to select nominators made it more difficult for political sects to exert power, discouraged campaigning.
By reducing intrigue and power moves within the Great Council, lot maintained cohesiveness among the Venetian nobility, contributing to the stability of this republic. Top magistracies still remained in the control of elite families; the scrutiny was employed in Florence for over a century starting in 1328. Nominations and voting together created a pool of candidates from different sectors of the city; these men had their names deposited into a sack, a lottery draw determined who would get magistracy positions. The scrutiny was opened up to minor guilds, reaching the greatest level of Renaissance citizen participation in 1378–82. In Florence, lot was used to select magistrates and members of the Signoria during republican periods. Florence utilized a combination of lot and scrutiny by the people, set forth by the ordinances of 1328. In 1494, Florence founded a Great Council in the model of Venice; the nominatori were thereafter chosen by lot from among the member
Lostock railway station
Lostock railway station serves the suburb of Lostock in Bolton, Greater Manchester, England. According to large scale Ordnance Survey maps and local usage, the area is named Lostock Junction and the station is referred to as such by many local people. Indeed, Network Rail's own "location map" refers to the area as "Lostock Junction"; this is similar to the situation in London where Clapham Junction railway station is in fact in Battersea, the surrounding area has taken the name of Clapham Junction. Lostock itself is some distance to the west of the station; the railway line between Bolton and Preston had opened as far as Rawlinson Bridge on 4 February 1841, among the original stations on this route, the first station out of Bolton was at Blackrod. On 20 November 1848, the Liverpool and Bury Railway was opened giving a route between Bolton and Wigan, the point where it connected to the Bolton–Preston line was named Lostock Junction. A station was constructed at the junction named Lostock Junction, which opened around August 1852.
The station gave its name to the village. This station had platforms on both the Wigan routes. On 17 July 1920, four people were killed and 148 were injured in a near head-on collision between two Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway passenger trains at Lostock Junction due to a signal having erroneously been passed at dangerLostock Junction Station closed on 7 November 1966 as part of the programme of cuts initiated by the Beeching Report of 1963. However, on 16 May 1988 the station was reopened, but now with platforms only on the Preston route and renamed Lostock Parkway, a large car park for the use of park-and-ride commuters having been provided; the suffix "Parkway" was dropped. The two-platform station is served by Northern services to Manchester stations from Preston and Blackpool North.. It is a popular commuter station; the Bolton-Wigan branch-line diverges just to the south of Lostock's platforms, but there are no longer any platforms on the branch to Wigan and Southport. The Network Rail North West Route Utilisation Strategy has recommended the construction of these additional platforms and they were planned to be reinstated as part of the Manchester TIF bid.
Saturday and Sunday services were replaced by buses most weekends from May 2015 until November 2018 due to the late-running electrification work on the route.. Weekend services resumed on Sunday 11 November 2018 after the completion of the electrification engineering work. Electric service commenced on Monday 11 February 2019, operated by Class 319 Electric Multiple Units. Most in early 2009, the station has had a passenger information display system installed, giving waiting passengers on the platforms information about trains that are due to arrive. Computer automated, it is equipped with an audio speaker system, giving the benefit of announcements of train arrivals and delays. During December 2008 - Spring 2009 the car park facilities were improved by extending and resurfacing the land surrounding the railway, with the addition of floodlighting and CCTV; the station has a ticket office, manned from start of service until 19:35, six days per week. Outside these hours, tickets must be bought in advance.
Shelters are located on each platform and both have step-free access. Train times and station information for Lostock railway station from National Rail Local information