Marvin Miller (actor)
Marvin Elliott Miller was an American radio and voice-over actor. Possessing a deep, baritone voice, he began his career in radio in St. Louis, before becoming a Hollywood actor, he is best remembered for voicing Robby the Robot in the science fiction film Forbidden Planet, a role he reprised in the lesser-known The Invisible Boy. Miller's next most notable role is that of Michael Anthony, the loyal assistant of Paul Frees' generous billionaire J. B. Tipton Jr. on the TV series The Millionaire. Born Marvin Mueller in St. Louis, Miller graduated from Washington University before commencing his career in radio; when a singer named Marvin Miller debuted on another St. Louis radio station, he began using his middle initial to distinguish himself from the newcomer. For the Mutual Broadcasting System, he narrated a daily 15-minute radio show entitled The Story Behind the Story, which offered historical vignettes, he served as announcer on several Old Time Radio shows of the 1940s and 1950s, including The Jo Stafford Show and the long-running mystery series The Whistler.
Mueller played Dr. Lee Markham on The Woman in White on NBC radio and Howard Andrews on Midstream on the Blue Network and appeared as "The voice of the Past" on the May 21, 1942 broadcast of The Right to Happiness. In 1945–47, he was the announcer for Songs by Sinatra, he was the announcer on The Billie Burke Show. In 1952, Miller had a one-man program, Armchair Adventures, on CBS, he did "all narration" in the 15-minute dramatic anthology. He recorded 260 episodes of a program described in a 1950 trade publication as "Marvin Miller: Famous radio voice in series of five minute vignettes about famous people." The program was syndicated via electrical transcription by The Cardinal Company. He won Grammy Awards in 1965 and 1966 for his recordings of Dr. Seuss stories: in 1967 for Dr Seuss Presents – If I Ran the Zoo and Sleep Book and 1966 for Dr Seuss Presents Fox in Socks and Green Eggs and Ham, he read Horton Hatches the Egg, The Sneetches and Other Stories and Yertle the Turtle and Other Stories.
In the mid-1970s, Miller lent his voice to sports films, narrating the official Indianapolis 500 films in 1975 and 1976. In films, the heavyset Miller was cast as a villain, many times playing Asian roles, he portrayed a sadistic henchman in the 1947 Humphrey Bogart film Dead Reckoning and was Yamada in the 1945 James Cagney effort Blood on the Sun. In 1946's film noir Deadline at Dawn he plays a blind pianist. Miller played George "Gusty" Gustafson in the George Raft film noir classic Johnny Angel. Miller did a great deal of voice work in animation from the 1950s to 1970s, from the narration on the 1950 Academy Award-winning United Productions of America cartoon Gerald McBoing Boing to the 1970 The Ant and the Aardvark cartoon Scratch a Tiger. From 1949 to 1950 he starred as Dr. Yat Fu on the short-lived ABC series Mysteries of Chinatown, with Gloria Saunders cast as his niece. In 1961, Miller guest-starred as Johnny Kelso, with Erin O'Brien, in "The Marble Slab" episode of the Frederick Ziv-, United Artists-, MGM-produced Bat Masterson, starring Gene Barry.
Original air date was May 11, 1961. Miller voiced "Mr. Sun" in the AT&T educational film Our Mr. Sun, "Hemo" in the AT&T educational film Hemo the Magnificent, parts of a series featuring Dr. Frank C. Baxter and directed by Frank Capra, shown on American network television in 1956 and 1957. Miller crossed paths with other prolific voice-over artists many times in his career including June Foray, playing "Deer" in Hemo the Magnificent and in the TV series Rocky and Bullwinkle along with Paul Frees, who voiced "Boris Badenov" in that program. Miller and Frees performed in separate segments on the audio recording Stan Freberg Presents The United States of America Volume One The Early Years. Miller made a guest appearance in 1963 on Perry Mason as unscrupulous attorney F. J. Weatherby in "The Case of the Lover's Leap." Miller voiced Aquaman for the Filmation studio for their 1967 series The Superman/Aquaman Hour of Adventure. He was the voice of pilot/scientist Busby Birdwell in the company's animated series Fantastic Voyage.
He was the voice of the arrogant alien "Zarn" in three episodes of the second season of Land of the Lost. Miller lent his distinct voice to The Pink Panther Show talking with the feline offscreen and asking questions, while voicing The Inspector, his second Deux Deux and their boss The Commissioner. On The Millionaire, Miller played Michael Anthony in over 200 episodes, conveying the wishes of the "fabulously wealthy" John Beresford Tipton, voiced by Paul Frees. Miller died in 1985 at the age of 71 from a heart attack, he is entombed at Mortuary in Los Angeles. For his contribution to the television industry, Marvin Miller has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6101 Hollywood Boulevard. Marvin Miller on IMDb Marvin Miller at Find a Grave
Corey Scott Feldman is an American actor and singer. He became well known during the 1980s, with roles as a youth in films such as Gremlins, The Goonies and Stand by Me. In 1987, Feldman starred in the horror comedy film The Lost Boys with Corey Haim. Feldman has continued to act in film and on television as an adult, is known for speaking out about the issue of child sexual abuse in Hollywood. Feldman was born in Reseda, the son of musician Bob Feldman and cocktail waitress Sheila Feldman. Feldman was raised Jewish, holds beliefs in the paranormal, he has an older sister Mindy, a former member of The New Mickey Mouse Club, two younger brothers and Devin, a younger sister, Brittnie. Feldman started his career at the age of three. In his youth he appeared in over 100 television commercials and on 50 television series, including The Bad News Bears, Mork & Mindy, Eight is Enough, One Day at a Time and Cheers, he was in the films Time After Disney's The Fox and the Hound. In 1981, he appeared in NBC's musical comedy children's special How to Eat Like a Child alongside other future child stars Billy Jacoby and Georg Olden.
Feldman was featured in several consecutive high-grossing movies in the mid-1980s. The movies included Friday the 13th: The Final Chapter, The Goonies, Stand By Me, the latter alongside River Phoenix, Wil Wheaton, Jerry O'Connell. In 1987, Feldman appeared with Corey Haim in The Lost Boys, in which he played Edgar Frog, a role he reprised in two sequels, Lost Boys: The Tribe and Lost Boys: The Thirst; the Lost Boys marked the first onscreen pairing of Feldman and Haim, who became known as "The Two Coreys". The pair went on to star in a string including License to Drive and Dream a Little Dream. Feldman voiced the character of Donatello in the original live action Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles movie. After a public battle with drugs, Feldman fought to re-establish his life and career by working with youths, starring in several lesser-known films, branching out with an album entitled Love Left, he returned to the big screen with Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles III where he again did the voice of Donatello, starred in the Richard Donner/Robert Zemeckis/Joel Silver film Tales From The Crypt Presents: Bordello of Blood, opposite Dennis Miller and Angie Everhart.
He continued working with his friend Corey Haim on independent films, including a sequel to their last mainstream film together, Dream a Little Dream 2. In 1996, Feldman directed his first and only motion picture, a slapstick comedy called Busted where Haim played a leading role; this would be the last film that they would do as the Two Coreys.. In the late 1990s, Feldman starred in the CBS series Dweebs and released his second album, Still Searching for Soul, with his band Corey Feldman's Truth Movement. In 1996, Feldman appeared alongside his former Stand By Me co-star Jerry O'Connell in the episode "Electric Twister Acid Test" of the Fox Network series Sliders. In 1999, Feldman appeared in New Found Glory's "Miss" music video as Officer Corey Feldman. In 1999, he made an appearance in the television series The Crow: Stairway to Heaven. In 2002, Feldman released a solo album, Former Child Actor, promoted it with a second US tour. In 2003 he appeared in the first celebrity-driven reality series The Surreal Life on The WB.
On the show, he publicly married Susie Sprague. He made a cameo appearance in the film Dickie Roberts: Former Child Star starring David Spade, he appeared in the Moby music video "We Are All Made of Stars". In 2004, Feldman made a cameo appearance in the independent sci-fi comedy Space Daze, distributed by Troma Entertainment in 2005, starred in the made-for-TV slasher crossover film Puppet Master vs. Demonic Toys which aired December 18, 2004 on NBCUniversal's Syfy network. In 2005, Feldman made his stage debut in the positively reviewed off-Broadway play Fatal Attraction, a Greek Tragedy, a parody of the seminal 1987 film Fatal Attraction directed by Timothy Haskell. Feldman played the lead character, named Michael Douglas. Feldman appeared in the theatrical release My Date with Drew and was the voice of "Sprx-77" in the Toon Disney/ABC Family series Super Robot Monkey Team Hyperforce Go!. In 2007, Feldman and Corey Haim began a scripted reality television show entitled The Two Coreys on the A&E Network.
Haim and Feldman began taping on December 4, 2006. The show premiered on July 29, 2007. In the winter of 2007, Feldman's new film, Terror Inside, was released after the premiere of the A&E show, it was filmed in the Greater Orlando area by Minott Lenders, an independent film company based in Florida. In January 2008, his wife, Haim started production on the second season of the television show The Two Coreys. Feldman was executive producer for both seasons. In 2010, Feldman made an appearance in the music video for "1983" by Neon Trees, he served as an official festival judge in May 2011 for the 4th annual Noor Iranian Film Festival in Los Angeles. Feldman appeared in the music video for Katy Perry's 2011 single "Last Friday Night". In summer 2011, Feldman started shooting for the horror film Six Degrees of Hell in Saylorsburg, Pennsylvania; the majority of the film was shot at the Hotel of Horror haunted attraction. In January 2012, Feldman joined the British television show Dancing on Ice with American pair skater Brooke Castile, was eliminated in the fourth week of the show.
The National Broadcasting Company is an American English-language commercial terrestrial television network, a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast. The network is headquartered at 30 Rockefeller Plaza in New York City, with additional major offices near Los Angeles and Philadelphia; the network is one of the Big Three television networks. NBC is sometimes referred to as the "Peacock Network", in reference to its stylized peacock logo, introduced in 1956 to promote the company's innovations in early color broadcasting, it became the network's official emblem in 1979. Founded in 1926 by the Radio Corporation of America, NBC is the oldest major broadcast network in the United States. At that time the parent company of RCA was General Electric. In 1930, GE was forced to sell the companies as a result of antitrust charges. In 1986, control of NBC passed back to General Electric through its $6.4 billion purchase of RCA. Following the acquisition by GE, Bob Wright served as chief executive officer of NBC, remaining in that position until his retirement in 2007, when he was succeeded by Jeff Zucker.
In 2003, French media company Vivendi merged its entertainment assets with GE, forming NBC Universal. Comcast purchased a controlling interest in the company in 2011, acquired General Electric's remaining stake in 2013. Following the Comcast merger, Zucker left NBCUniversal and was replaced as CEO by Comcast executive Steve Burke. NBC has thirteen owned-and-operated stations and nearly 200 affiliates throughout the United States and its territories, some of which are available in Canada and/or Mexico via pay-television providers or in border areas over-the-air. During a period of early broadcast business consolidation, radio manufacturer Radio Corporation of America acquired New York City radio station WEAF from American Telephone & Telegraph. Westinghouse, a shareholder in RCA, had a competing outlet in Newark, New Jersey pioneer station WJZ, which served as the flagship for a loosely structured network; this station was transferred from Westinghouse to RCA in 1923, moved to New York City. WEAF acted as a laboratory for AT&T's manufacturing and supply outlet Western Electric, whose products included transmitters and antennas.
The Bell System, AT&T's telephone utility, was developing technologies to transmit voice- and music-grade audio over short and long distances, using both wireless and wired methods. The 1922 creation of WEAF offered a research-and-development center for those activities. WEAF maintained a regular schedule of radio programs, including some of the first commercially sponsored programs, was an immediate success. In an early example of "chain" or "networking" broadcasting, the station linked with Outlet Company-owned WJAR in Providence, Rhode Island. C. WCAP. New parent RCA saw an advantage in sharing programming, after getting a license for radio station WRC in Washington, D. C. in 1923, attempted to transmit audio between cities via low-quality telegraph lines. AT&T refused outside companies access to its high-quality phone lines; the early effort fared poorly, since the uninsulated telegraph lines were susceptible to atmospheric and other electrical interference. In 1925, AT&T decided that WEAF and its embryonic network were incompatible with the company's primary goal of providing a telephone service.
AT&T offered to sell the station to RCA in a deal that included the right to lease AT&T's phone lines for network transmission. RCA spent $1 million to purchase WEAF and Washington sister station WCAP, shut down the latter station, merged its facilities with surviving station WRC; the division's ownership was split among RCA, its founding corporate parent General Electric and Westinghouse. NBC started broadcasting on November 15, 1926. WEAF and WJZ, the flagships of the two earlier networks, were operated side-by-side for about a year as part of the new NBC. On January 1, 1927, NBC formally divided their respective marketing strategies: the "Red Network" offered commercially sponsored entertainment and music programming. Various histories of NBC suggest the color designations for the two networks came from the color of the pushpins NBC engineers used to designate affiliate stations of WEAF and WJZ, or from the use of double-ended red and blue colored pencils. On April 5, 1927, NBC expanded to the West Coast with the launch of the NBC Orange Network known as the Pacific Coast Network.
This was followed by the debut of the NBC Gold Network known as the Pacific Gold Network, on October 18, 1931. The Orange Network carried Red Network programming, the Gold Network carried programming from the Blue Network; the Orange Network recreated Eastern Red Network programming for West Coast stations at KPO in San Francisco. In 1936, the Orange Network affiliate stations became part of the Red Network, at the same time the Gold Network became part of the Blue Network. In the 1930s, NBC developed a network for shortwave radio stations, called the NBC White Network. In 1927, NBC moved its operations to 711 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, occupying the upper floors of a building de
A lottery is a form of gambling that involves the drawing of numbers at random for a prize. Lotteries are outlawed by some governments, while others endorse it to the extent of organizing a national or state lottery, it is common to find some degree of regulation of lottery by governments. Though lotteries were common in the United States and some other countries during the 19th century, by the beginning of the 20th century, most forms of gambling, including lotteries and sweepstakes, were illegal in the U. S. and most of Europe as well as many other countries. This remained so until well after World War II. In the 1960s casinos and lotteries began to re-appear throughout the world as a means for governments to raise revenue without raising taxes. Lotteries come in many formats. For example, the prize can be a fixed amount of cash or goods. In this format there is risk to the organizer. More the prize fund will be a fixed percentage of the receipts. A popular form of this is the "50–50" draw where the organizers promise that the prize will be 50% of the revenue.
Many recent lotteries allow purchasers to select the numbers on the lottery ticket, resulting in the possibility of multiple winners. The first recorded signs of a lottery are keno slips from the Chinese Han Dynasty between 205 and 187 BC; these lotteries are believed to have helped to finance major government projects like the Great Wall of China. From the Chinese "The Book of Songs" comes a reference to a game of chance as "the drawing of wood", which in context appears to describe the drawing of lots; the first known European lotteries were held during the Roman Empire as an amusement at dinner parties. Each guest would receive a ticket, prizes would consist of fancy items such as dinnerware; every ticket holder would be assured of winning something. This type of lottery, was no more than the distribution of gifts by wealthy noblemen during the Saturnalian revelries; the earliest records of a lottery offering tickets for sale is the lottery organized by Roman Emperor Augustus Caesar. The funds were for repairs in the City of Rome, the winners were given prizes in the form of articles of unequal value.
The first recorded lotteries to offer tickets for sale with prizes in the form of money were held in the Low Countries in the 15th century. Various towns held public lotteries to raise money for town fortifications, to help the poor; the town records of Ghent and Bruges indicate that lotteries may be older. A record dated 9 May 1445 at L'Ecluse refers to raising funds to build walls and town fortifications, with a lottery of 4,304 tickets and total prize money of 1737 florins. In the 17th century it was quite usual in the Netherlands to organize lotteries to collect money for the poor or in order to raise funds for all kinds of public usages; the lotteries proved popular and were hailed as a painless form of taxation. The Dutch state-owned Staatsloterij is the oldest running lottery; the English word lottery is derived from the Dutch noun "lot" meaning "fate". The first recorded Italian lottery was held on 9 January 1449 in Milan organized by the Golden Ambrosian Republic to finance the war against the Republic of Venice.
However, it was in Genoa that Lotto became popular. People used to bet on the name of Great Council members, who were drawn by chance, five out of ninety candidates every six months; this kind of gambling was called Semenaiu. When people wanted to bet more than twice a year, they began to substitute the candidates names with numbers and modern lotto was born, to which both modern legal lotteries and the illegal Numbers game can trace their ancestry. King Francis I of France discovered the lotteries during his campaigns in Italy and decided to organize such a lottery in his kingdom to help the state finances; the first French lottery, the Loterie Royale, was held in 1539 and was authorized with the edict of Châteaurenard. This attempt was a fiasco, since the tickets were costly and the social classes which could afford them opposed the project. During the two following centuries lotteries in France were forbidden or, in some cases, tolerated. Although the English first experimented with raffles and similar games of chance, the first recorded official lottery was chartered by Queen Elizabeth I, in the year 1566, was drawn in 1569.
This lottery was designed to raise money for the "reparation of the havens and strength of the Realme, towardes such other publique good workes". Each ticket holder won a prize, the total value of the prizes equalled the money raised. Prizes were in the form of other valuable commodities; the lottery was promoted by scrolls posted throughout the country showing sketches of the prizes. Thus, the lottery money received was an interest free loan to the government during the three years that the tickets were sold. In years, the government sold the lottery ticket rights to brokers, who in turn hired agents and runners to sell them; these brokers became the modern day stockbrokers for various commercial ventures. Most people could not afford the entire cost of a lottery ticket, so the brokers would sell shares in a ticket. Many private lotteries were held, including raising money for The Virginia Company of London to support its settlement in America at Jamestown; the English State Lottery ran from 1694 until 1826.
Thus, the English lotteries ran for over 250 years, until the government, under constant pressure from the opposition in p
Internal Revenue Service
The Internal Revenue Service is the revenue service of the United States federal government. The government agency is a bureau of the Department of the Treasury, is under the immediate direction of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, appointed to a five-year term by the President of the United States; the IRS is responsible for collecting taxes and administering the Internal Revenue Code, the main body of federal statutory tax law of the United States. The duties of the IRS include providing tax assistance to taxpayers and pursuing and resolving instances of erroneous or fraudulent tax filings; the IRS has overseen various benefits programs, enforces portions of the Affordable Care Act. The IRS originated with the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, a federal office created in 1862 to assess the nation's first income tax, to raise funds for the American Civil War; the temporary measure provided over a fifth of the Union's war expenses and was allowed to expire a decade later. In 1913, the Sixteenth Amendment to the U.
S. Constitution was ratified authorizing Congress to impose a tax on income, the Bureau of Internal Revenue was established. In 1953, the agency was renamed the Internal Revenue Service. Though the IRS brings in most of the revenue needed to fund the federal government, its resources have been cut year after year. In 2016 the American College of Tax Counsel wrote to the Congressional leadership stating, "We have watched the agency struggle with significant decreases in funding that have caused staffing and morale issues. In our practices, we have seen the negative impact this has had on our clients, the taxpayers."In the 2017 fiscal year, the IRS processed more than 245 million returns and collected more than $3.4 trillion in gross revenue, spending 34¢ for every $100 it collected. On June 28, 2018, Bloomberg News wrote, "The agency has been reeling from budget cuts; the current budget of $11.43 billion is less than in fiscal 2008, the IRS pared about 15 percent of its workforce over the past five years.
The enforcement staff has plunged by more than 25 percent since 2010."In the 2018 fiscal year, the U. S. federal government spent $779 billion more. It's estimated; the cutoff date taxes from 2017 filed in the 2019 tax season is March 25th. In fiscal year 2019 the IRS plans to cut an additional 2,200 employees. In July 1862, during the American Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln and Congress passed the Revenue Act of 1862, creating the office of Commissioner of Internal Revenue and enacting a temporary income tax to pay war expenses; the Revenue Act of 1862 was passed as temporary war-time tax. It copied a new British system of income taxation, instead of trade and property taxation; the first income tax was passed in 1862: The initial rate was 3% on income over $800, which exempted most wage-earners. In 1862 the rate was 3% on income between $600 and $10,000, 5% on income over $10,000. In 1864 the rate was 5% on income between $600 and $5,000. By the end of the war, 10% of Union households had paid some form of income tax, the Union raised 21% of its war revenue through income taxes.
After the Civil War, Reconstruction and transforming the North and South war machines towards peacetime required public funding. However, in 1872, seven years after the war, lawmakers allowed the temporary Civil War income tax to expire. Income taxes evolved, but in 1894 the Supreme Court declared the Income Tax of 1894 unconstitutional in Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co. a decision that contradicted Hylton v. United States; the federal government scrambled to raise money. In 1906, with the election of President Theodore Roosevelt, his successor William Howard Taft, the United States saw a populist movement for tax reform; this movement culminated during candidate Woodrow Wilson's election of 1912 and in February 1913, the ratification of the Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution: The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, without regard to any census or enumeration. This granted Congress the specific power to impose an income tax without regard to apportionment among the states by population.
By February 1913, 36 states had ratified the change to the Constitution. It was further ratified by six more states by March. Of the 48 states at the time, 42 ratified it. Connecticut, Rhode Island, Utah rejected the amendment. Though the constitutional amendment to allow the Federal government to collect income taxes was proposed by President Taft in 1909, the 16th Amendment was not ratified until 1913, just before the start of the First World War. In 1913 the first edition of the 1040 form was introduced. A copy of the first IRS 1040 form, can be found at the IRS website showing that only those with incomes of $3,000 or more were instructed to file. In the first year after ratification of the 16th Amendment, no taxes were collected. Instead, taxpayers completed the form and the IRS checked the form for accuracy; the IRS's workload jumped by ten-fold. Professional tax collectors began to replace a system of "patronage" appointments; the IRS doubled its staff, but was still processing 1917 returns in 1919.
Income tax raised much of the money required to finance the war effort. In 1919 the IRS was tasked with enforcement of laws relating to prohibition of alcohol sales and manufacture.
The bowler hat known as a billycock, bob hat, bombín or derby, is a hard felt hat with a rounded crown created by the London hat-makers Thomas and William Bowler during 1849. It has traditionally been worn with semi-formal and informal attire; the bowler, a protective and durable hat style, was popular with the British and American working classes during the second half of the 19th century, with the middle and upper classes in the United Kingdom and the east coast United States. The bowler hat is said to have been designed during 1849 by the London hat-makers Thomas and William Bowler to fulfill an order placed by the company of hatters James Lock & Co. of St James's, commissioned by a customer to design a close-fitting, low-crowned hat to protect gamekeepers from low-hanging branches while on horseback at Holkham Hall, the estate of Thomas Coke, 1st Earl of Leicester in Norfolk. The keepers had worn top hats, which were knocked off and damaged; the identity of the customer is less certain, with many suggesting it was William Coke.
However research performed by a younger relation of the 1st Earl casts doubt on this story, it is now believed that the bowler was invented for Edward Coke, the younger brother of Thomas Coke, 2nd Earl of Leicester. When Edward Coke arrived in London on 17 December 1849 to collect his hat he placed it on the floor and stamped hard on it twice to test its strength; the bowler has had varying degrees of significance in British culture. They were popular among the working classes in the 19th century, from the early 20th century bowler hats were associated with businessmen working in the financial districts known as "City Gents"; the traditional wearing of bowler hats with City business attire declined during the 1970s. During modern times bowlers are not common, although the so-called City Gent remains a stereotype of Englishmen, wearing a bowler and carrying a rolled umbrella. For this reason, two bowler-hatted men were used in the logo of the British building society, Bradford & Bingley. In Scotland and Northern Ireland the bowler hat is worn traditionally by members of the main Loyalist fraternities such as the Orange Order, the Independent Loyal Orange Institution, the Royal Black Preceptory and the Apprentice Boys of Derry for their parades and annual celebrations.
The bowler, not the cowboy hat or sombrero, was the most popular hat in the American West, prompting Lucius Beebe to call it "the hat that won the West". Both cowboys and railroad workers preferred the hat because it would not blow off in strong wind while riding a horse, or when sticking one's head out the window of a speeding train, it was worn by both lawmen and outlaws, including Bat Masterson, Butch Cassidy, Black Bart, Billy the Kid. In the United States the hat came to be known as the derby, American outlaw Marion Hedgepeth was referred to as "the Derby Kid". In South America, the bowler, known as bombín in Spanish, has been worn by Quechua and Aymara women since the 1920s, when it was introduced to Bolivia by British railway workers. For many years, a factory in Italy manufactured such hats for the Bolivian market, but they are now made locally; the bowler hat became used famously by certain actors, such as Charlie Chaplin and Hardy, Curly Howard, John Cleese, by the fictional character of John Steed of The Avengers, played by Patrick Macnee.
In the 1964 film Mary Poppins, set in Edwardian London, 1910, the London banker George Banks wears a bowler. The British building society Bradford & Bingley registered more than 100 separate trademarks featuring the bowler hat, its long-running logo. In 1995 the bank purchased, for £2,000, a bowler hat which had once belonged to Stan Laurel; the bowler is part of the Droog uniform that the English character Alex wears in A Clockwork Orange to the extent that contemporary fancy dress outfits for this character reference the bowler hat. There was a chain of restaurants in Los Angeles, California known as Brown Derby; the first and most famous of these was shaped like a derby. A chain of Brown Derby restaurants in Ohio are still in business today. Many paintings by the Belgian surrealist artist René Magritte feature bowler hats; the Son of Man consists of a man in a bowler hat standing in front of a wall. The man's face is obscured by a hovering green apple. Golconda depicts "raining men" all wearing bowler hats.
Choreographer Bob Fosse incorporated bowler hats into his dance routines. This use of hats as a props, as seen in the 1972 movie Cabaret, would become one of his trademarks. Winston Churchill, Prime Minister during the 2nd World War and later; the Plug Uglies, a nineteenth-century American street gang, wore bowler hats stuffed with cloth or wool to protect their heads while fighting. John Bonham, drummer for Led Zeppelin wore a bowler hat. Charlie Chaplin wore a bowler hat as part of his'Little Tramp' costume. Edward Coke, for whom the first bowler hat was designed. Bing Crosby wears a bowler hat in the 1946 film Road to Utopia, among others. Alex, the protagonist of A Clockwork Orange, wears a bowler hat. Lou Costello of Abbott and Costello wore a bowler hat. Laurel and Hardy are known for wearing bowler hats. "Bowler Hat Guy," antagonist of the movie Meet the Robinsons, is named for his choice of hat. John Steed of The Avengers wore a variety of bowler hats throughout the series. Boy George wore a bowler hat during the 1980s.
Oddjob, Auric Goldfinger's manservant, uses his razor-edged bowler hat as a weapon In the 1964 James Bond movie Goldfinger. John D. Rockerduck possesses the distinctive character trait of e
American Broadcasting Company
The American Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcast television network, a flagship property of Walt Disney Television, a subsidiary of the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company. The network is headquartered in Burbank, California on Riverside Drive, directly across the street from Walt Disney Studios and adjacent to the Roy E. Disney Animation Building, But the network's second corporate headquarters and News headquarters remains in New York City, New York at their broadcast center on 77 West 66th Street in Lincoln Square in Upper West Side Manhattan. Since 2007, when ABC Radio was sold to Citadel Broadcasting, ABC has reduced its broadcasting operations exclusively to television; the fifth-oldest major broadcasting network in the world and the youngest of the Big Three television networks, ABC is nicknamed as "The Alphabet Network", as its initialism represents the first three letters of the English alphabet, in order. ABC launched as a radio network on October 12, 1943, serving as the successor to the NBC Blue Network, purchased by Edward J. Noble.
It extended its operations to television in 1948, following in the footsteps of established broadcast networks CBS and NBC. In the mid-1950s, ABC merged with United Paramount Theatres, a chain of movie theaters that operated as a subsidiary of Paramount Pictures. Leonard Goldenson, the head of UPT, made the new television network profitable by helping develop and greenlight many successful series. In the 1980s, after purchasing an 80 percent interest in cable sports channel ESPN, the network's corporate parent, American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. merged with Capital Cities Communications, owner of several print publications, television and radio stations. In 1996, most of Capital Cities/ABC's assets were purchased by The Walt Disney Company; the television network has eight owned-and-operated and over 232 affiliated television stations throughout the United States and its territories. Some of the ABC-affiliated stations can be seen in Canada via pay-television providers, certain other affiliates can be received over-the-air in areas within the Canada–United States border.
ABC News provides news and features content for select radio stations owned by Citadel Broadcasting, which purchased the ABC Radio properties in 2007. In the 1930s, radio in the United States was dominated by three companies: the Columbia Broadcasting System, the Mutual Broadcasting System, the National Broadcasting Company; the last was owned by electronics manufacturer Radio Corporation of America, which owned two radio networks that each ran different varieties of programming, NBC Blue and NBC Red. The NBC Blue Network was created in 1927 for the primary purpose of testing new programs on markets of lesser importance than those served by NBC Red, which served the major cities, to test drama series. In 1934, Mutual filed a complaint with the Federal Communications Commission regarding its difficulties in establishing new stations, in a radio market, being saturated by NBC and CBS. In 1938, the FCC began a series of investigations into the practices of radio networks and published its report on the broadcasting of network radio programs in 1940.
The report recommended that RCA give up control of either NBC NBC Blue. At that time, the NBC Red Network was the principal radio network in the United States and, according to the FCC, RCA was using NBC Blue to eliminate any hint of competition. Having no power over the networks themselves, the FCC established a regulation forbidding licenses to be issued for radio stations if they were affiliated with a network which owned multiple networks that provided content of public interest. Once Mutual's appeals against the FCC were rejected, RCA decided to sell NBC Blue in 1941, gave the mandate to do so to Mark Woods. RCA converted the NBC Blue Network into an independent subsidiary, formally divorcing the operations of NBC Red and NBC Blue on January 8, 1942, with the Blue Network being referred to on-air as either "Blue" or "Blue Network"; the newly separated NBC Red and NBC Blue divided their respective corporate assets. Between 1942 and 1943, Woods offered to sell the entire NBC Blue Network, a package that included leases on landlines, three pending television licenses, 60 affiliates, four operations facilities, contracts with actors, the brand associated with the Blue Network.
Investment firm Dillon, Read & Co. offered $7.5 million to purchase the network, but the offer was rejected by Woods and RCA president David Sarnoff. Edward J. Noble, the owner of Life Savers candy, drugstore chain Rexall and New York City radio station WMCA, purchased the network for $8 million. Due to FCC ownership rules, the transaction, to include the purchase of three RCA stations by Noble, would require him to resell his station with the FCC's approval; the Commission authorized the transaction on October 12, 1943. Soon afterward, the Blue Network was purchased by the new company Noble founded, the American Broadcasting System. Noble subsequently acquired the rights to the American Broadcasting Company name from George B. Storer in 1944. Meanwhile, in August 1944, the West Coast division of the Blue Network, which owned San Francisco radio station KGO, bought Los Angeles station KECA f