The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Christiaan Karel Appel was a Dutch painter and poet. He started painting at the age of fourteen and studied at the Rijksakademie in Amsterdam in the 1940s, he was one of the founders of the avant-garde movement Cobra in 1948. He was an avid sculptor and has had works featured in MoMA and other museums worldwide. Christiaan Karel Appel was born on 25 April 1921 in his parents' house at Dapperstraat 7 in Amsterdam, the Netherlands; as a child he was called'Kik'. On the ground floor his father, Jan Appel, had a barbershop, his mother, born Johanna Chevalier, was a descendant of French Huguenots. Karel Appel had three brothers. At fourteen, Appel produced his first real painting on a still life of a fruit basket. For his fifteenth birthday, his wealthy uncle Karel Chevalier gave him an easel. An avid amateur painter himself, Chevalier gave his namesake some lessons in painting. From 1940 to 1943, during the German occupation, Appel studied at the Rijksakademie van Beeldende Kunsten in Amsterdam, it was there he met the young painter Corneille and, some years Constant.
His parents opposed his choice to become an artist. Appel had his first show in Groningen in 1946. In 1949 he participated with the other CoBrA artists in the Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam, he was influenced by Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, the French brute-art artist Jean Dubuffet. In 1947 he started sculpting with all kinds of used materials and painted them in bright colors: white, yellow and black, he joined the Experimentele Groep in Holland together with the young Dutch painters Anton Rooskens, Theo Wolvecamp, Jan Nieuwenhuys. The Belgian writer Hugo Claus joined the group. In 1948 Appel joined CoBrA together with the Dutch artists Corneille and Jan Nieuwenhuys, with the Belgian poet Christian Dotremont; the new art of the CoBrA group was not popular in the Netherlands, but it found a warm and broad welcome in Denmark. By 1939, Danish artists had started to make spontaneous art and one of their sources of inspiration was Danish and Nordic mythology, it was in Denmark that the CoBrA artists started cooperating by collectively painting the insides of houses, which encouraged and intensified the exchange of the typical'childish' and spontaneous picture language used by the CoBrA group.
Appel used this intensively. As a result of this controversy and other negative Dutch reactions to CoBrA, Appel moved to Paris in 1950 and developed his international reputation by travelling to Mexico, the USA, Brazil, he lived in New York City and Florence. His first American gallery exhibition took place in 1954 at the Martha Jackson Gallery; the following year his painting Child and Beast II was included in the influential exhibition, The New Decade at the Museum of Modern Art which featured the work of twenty-two European painters and sculptors including newcomers like Francis Bacon, Jean Dubuffet, Pierre Soulages. He is noted for his mural work. After 1990 he became much more popular in the Netherlands; the CoBrA-museum in Amstelveen organized several shows featuring his work. He became the most famous Dutch CoBrA artist. Appel's work has been exhibited in a number of galleries, including the Anita Shapolsky Gallery in New York City, Galerie Lelong in Paris, Galerie Ulysses in Vienna, Gallery LL in Amsterdam.
Appel died on 3 May 2006 in his home in Switzerland. He suffered from a heart ailment, he was buried on 16 May 2006 at the Père Lachaise Cemetery in France. Years before his death, Appel established the Karel Appel Foundation, whose purpose is "to preserve artworks, to promote public awareness and knowledge of Karel Appel's oeuvre, to supervise publication of the Oeuvre Catalogue of the paintings, the works on paper, the sculptures."In 2002 a number of Appel's works went missing on the way to his foundation, an event, not to be resolved before his death. However, in 2012 the works were returned to the foundation. In the wake of his death, the Foundation functions as his official estate in addition to its primary service as an image archive; the U. S. copyright representative for the Karel Appel Foundation is the Artists Rights Society. Among the public collections holding works by Karel Appel are: Museum de Fundatie, The Netherlands Aboa Vetus & Ars Nova, Finland Art Gallery of Hamilton, Canada Rijksmuseum, The Netherlands The Phillips Collection, Washington DC, USA Gallery Delaive, The Netherlands Frances Lehman Loeb Art Center, Poughkeepsie, NY, USA Appel, Karel: Psychopathological Notebook.
Drawings and Gouaches 1948–1950. Bern – Berlin: Verlag Gachnang & Springer, 1999. ISBN 978-3-906127-57-6 Kuspit, Donald. "Titanic Power: Karel Appel in the Tradition of the New". Psychodrama: Modern Art as Group Therapy. London: Ziggurat. Pp. 13–45. ISBN 9780956103895. Tapié, Michel. Stedelijk Museum. Karel Appel OCLC 11554905 Lyotard, Jean-François. Karel Appel, A Gesture of Colour
Nieuwegein is a municipality and city in the Dutch province of Utrecht. It is bordered on the north by the city of the provincial capital, it is separated from Vianen to the south by the river Lek and borders on IJsselstein in the southwest and Houten in the east. Nieuwegein was founded on 1 July 1971 as a planned city, following the merger of the former municipalities of Jutphaas and Vreeswijk; the new town was built for the expanding population of the city of Utrecht, grew during the decades following its foundation. Nieuwegein is surrounded by three motorways, the A2 to the west, the A12 to the north and the A27 to the east. Nieuwegein is connected to IJsselstein by the Sneltram line. There is a pedestrian ferry across the river Lek to Vianen. Three canals flow through Nieuwegein: the Amsterdam-Rhine Canal, the Lek River and the Merwede Canal. There are a few sports clubs in Nieuwegein, such as: KV Koveni, SV Geinoord, VSV Vreeswijk and JSV Nieuwegein. Several national sports federations are housed including the NeVoBo, KNZB and NBb.
There are three main secondary schools in the city, including the Anna van Rijn College, Oosterlicht College and the Cals College. Dutch Topographic map of Nieuwegein and neighboring IJsselstein, as of March 2014. Puławy, Poland Rundu, Namibia Media related to Nieuwegein at Wikimedia Commons Official website
COBRA (avant-garde movement)
COBRA was a European avant-garde movement active from 1948 to 1951. The name was coined in 1948 by Christian Dotremont from the initials of the members' home cities: Copenhagen, Amsterdam. During the time of occupation of World War II, the Netherlands had been disconnected from the art world beyond its borders. COBRA was formed shortly thereafter; this international movement of artists who worked experimentally evolved from the criticisms of Western society and a common desire to break away from existing art movements, including "detested" naturalism and "sterile" abstraction. Experimentation was the symbol of an unfettered freedom, according to Constant, was embodied by children and the expressions of children. COBRA was formed by Karel Appel, Corneille, Christian Dotremont, Asger Jorn, Joseph Noiret on 8 November 1948 in the Café Notre-Dame, with the signing of a manifesto, "La cause était entendue", drawn up by Dotremont. Formed with a unifying doctrine of complete freedom of colour and form, as well as antipathy towards Surrealism, the artists shared an interest in Marxism as well as modernism.
Their working method was based on spontaneity and experiment, they drew their inspiration in particular from children’s drawings, from primitive art forms and from the work of Paul Klee and Joan Miró. Coming together as an amalgamation of the Dutch group Reflex, the Danish group Høst and the Belgian Revolutionary Surrealist Group, the group only lasted a few years but managed to achieve a number of objectives in that time: the periodical Cobra, a series of collaborations between various members called Peintures-Mot and two large-scale exhibitions; the first of these was held at the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam, November 1949, the other at the Palais des Beaux-Arts in Liège in 1951. In November 1949 the group changed its name to Internationale des Artistes Expérimentaux with membership having spread across Europe and the United States, although this name has never stuck; the movement was disbanded in 1951, but many of its members remained close, with Dotremont in particular continuing collaborations with many of the leading members of the group.
The primary focus of the group consisted of semi-abstract paintings with brilliant color, violent brushwork, distorted human figures inspired by primitive and folk art and similar to American action painting. Cobra was a milestone in the development of European abstract expressionism. Cobra was the last avant-garde movement of the twentieth century. According to Nathalie Aubert the group only lasted for three years. After that period each artist in the group developed their own individual paths; the manifesto, entitled, "La cause était entendue" was written by CoBrA member Christian Dotremont and signed by all founding members in Paris in 1948. It was directly speaking to their experience attending the Centre International de Documentation sur l’Art d’Avant-garde in which they felt the atmosphere was sterile and authoritarian, it was a statement of working collaboratively in an organic mode of experimentation in order to develop their work separate from the current place of the avant-garde movement.
The name of the manifesto was a play on words from an earlier document signed by Belgian and French Revolutionary Surrealists in July 1947, entitled "La cause est entendue". The European artists were different from their American counterparts for they preferred the process over the product and introduced primitive and folkloric elements along with a decorative input from their children. One of the new approaches that united the COBRA artists was their unrestrained use of strong colors, along with violent handwritings and figuration which can be either frightening or humorous, their art was alive with subhuman figures in order to mirror the terror and weakness of our time unlike the dehumanized art of Abstraction. This spontaneous method was a rejection of Renaissance art, ‘civilized art’, they preferred ‘uncivilized’ forms of expression which created an interplay between the conscious and the unconscious instead of the Surrealist interest in the unconscious alone; the childlike in their method meant a pleasure in painting, in the materials and the picture itself.
The Dutch Artists in particular within Cobra were interested in Children's art.“We Wanted to start again like a child” Karel Appel insisted. As part of the Western Left, they were built upon the fusion of Art and Life through experiment in order to unite form and expression, they exhibited in Holland, but Paris and other countries in Europe. The first major exhibition was held at the Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam in November 1949 under the title "International Experimental Art"; the museum's director and curator Willem Sandberg was interested in bringing experimentalism and abstraction to The Netherlands, had been an active member of the Dutch Resistance during the war. He was involved with the CoBrA group and maintained direct contacts between the artists and the Stedelijk Museum; the architect Aldo van Eyck, who would become known for his architecture of playgrounds as cultural critique, was asked to do the interior design of the exhibition. The close relationship between Van Eyck and the artists from the CoBrA, who drew their inspiration in particular from children's drawings, makes it probable that much of Eyck's early inspiration for the playgrounds may have derived from CoBrA.
The Stedelijk Museum exhibition gave rise to furious criticism from the public. A critic f
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Simon Vinkenoog was a Dutch poet, spoken word poet and writer. He was the editor of the anthology Atonaal, which launched the Dutch "Fifties Movement". In 2004 he was chosen as "Poet Laureate", for the Netherlands. On 11 July 2009 Vinkenoog was admitted to an Amsterdam hospital after suffering a seizure, he died the following day. 1950 - Wondkoorts - poems 1951 - Atonaal - anthology 1954 - Zo lang te water, een alibi - novel 1962 - Hoogseizoen - novel 1965 - Liefde - novel 1968 - How to Enjoy Reality - pamphlet, included in International Times. With Jean-Paul Vroom 1976 - Mij best - novel 1978 - Het huiswerk van de dichter - poems 1979 - Bestaan en begaan 1980 - Jack Kerouac in Amsterdam 1980 - Moeder Gras 1981 - Poolshoogte/Approximations 1982 - Voeten in de aarde en bergen verzetten - poems 1986 - Stadsnatuur, dagboeknotities 1986 - Coito ergo Sum: samenspraak der eenwording 1986 - O boze droom 1987 - Leven en dood van Marcel Polak - biography 1987 - Heren zeventien, proeve van waarneming 1988 - Op het eerste gehoor - poems 1993 - Louter genieten - poems 1996 - Het hoogste woord: De stem van Simon Vinkenoog 1998 - Vreugdevuur - poems 1998 - Herem'n tijd - collected articles 2000 - De ware Adam - poems 2001 - Me and my peepee International Poetry Incarnation Webstek Simon Vinkenoog NL Planet Blog - obit Simon Vinkenoog Simon Vinkenoog te gast bij Barend en van Dorp