A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in business administration or management. According to Kaplan business schools are "educational institutions that specialize in teaching courses and programs related to business and/or management"; such a school can be known as school of management, school of business administration, or colloquially b-school or biz school. A business school teaches topics such as accounting, strategy, entrepreneurship, human resource management, management science, management information systems, international business, marketing, organizational psychology, organizational behavior, public relations, research methods and real estate among others. There are several forms of business schools, including a school of business, business administration, management. Most of the university business schools consist of faculties, colleges, or departments within the university, predominantly teach business courses. In North America, a business school is understood to be a university program that offers a graduate Master of Business Administration degrees and/or undergraduate bachelor's degrees.
In Europe and Asia, some universities teach predominantly business courses. Owned business school, not affiliated with any university. Kaplan classifies business schools along four Corners: Culture: Independent of their actual location, business schools can be classified according to whether they follow the European or the US model. Compass: Business schools can be classified along a continuum, with international/ global schools on one end and regional/ local schools on the other. Capital: Business schools can either be publicly funded or funded, for example through endowments or tuition fees. Content: Business school can be classified according to whether a school considers teaching or research to be its primary focus. 1759 – The Aula do Comércio in Lisbon was the first institution to specialise in the teaching of accounting in the world. It provided a model for development of similar government-sponsored schools across Europe, closed in 1844. Therefore, the Aula do. 1819 -- The world's first business school, ESCP Europe was in France.
It is the oldest business school in the world and now has campuses in Berlin, Madrid, Paris and Warsaw. 1855 – The Institut Supérieur de Commerce d'Anvers and the Institut Saint-Ignace – École Spéciale de Commerce et d'Industrie were founded in the same year in the city of Antwerp, Belgium. After getting university status in 1965 and after 150 years of business education and rivalry between each other, both merged in 2003 into what became the University of Antwerp. 1857 – The world's first public business school, Budapest Business School was founded in Budapest in Austria-Hungary as the first business school in Central Europe. 1868 – The Ca' Foscari University was founded in Venice. It is one of the oldest in the world. 1871 – The Rouen Business School which has merged with Reims Management School under the name of NEOMA Business School. Rouen Business School is the second oldest French business school. 1871 – The ESC Le Havre was created. Created the same year than Rouen Business School it is the second oldest French business school.
1881 – The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania is the United States' first business school. HEC Paris was established by the Paris Chamber of Commerce. 1892 – The ESC Lille in northern France which has mergered with CERAM Business School under the name of Skema Business School since 2009. 1898 – On the west coast Haas School of Business is established as the College of Commerce of the University of California with Carl Copping Plehn as the Dean in 1898 and became the first public business school. The Booth School of Business The University of Chicago Booth School of Business traces its beginnings to 1898 when university faculty member James Laurence Laughlin chartered the College of Commerce and Politics. 1898 – Handelshochschule Leipzig, today Leipzig Graduate School of Management, was founded as the first Business School in Germany, so it is the oldest university teaching economics in German speaking regions. 1898 – The University of St. Gallen established the first university in Switzerland teaching business and economics.
1900 – The first graduate school of business in the United States, the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth College, was founded. The school conferred the first advanced degree in business a Master of Science in Commercial Sciences, the predecessor to the MBA. 1902 – The Birmingham Business School of University of Birmingham is the United Kingdom's first business school. Established as the School of Commerce in Birmingham, United Kingdom. 1903 – The Solvay Brussels School of Economics and Management of Université Libre de Bruxelles is the Belgium's first business school created by an entrepreneur Ernest Solvay, founder of the chemistry company Solvay. 1906 – The Department of Commerce was founded as part of McGill University in Montreal, Canada developing into the Desautels Faculty of Management. 1906 – The Warsaw School of Economics was established as the first university in Poland dedicated to teaching commerce and economics. 1907 – HEC Montréal is founded in Montreal, being the first Schoo
A personal computer is a multi-purpose computer whose size and price make it feasible for individual use. Personal computers are intended to be operated directly by an end user, rather than by a computer expert or technician. Unlike large costly minicomputer and mainframes, time-sharing by many people at the same time is not used with personal computers. Institutional or corporate computer owners in the 1960s had to write their own programs to do any useful work with the machines. While personal computer users may develop their own applications these systems run commercial software, free-of-charge software or free and open-source software, provided in ready-to-run form. Software for personal computers is developed and distributed independently from the hardware or operating system manufacturers. Many personal computer users no longer need to write their own programs to make any use of a personal computer, although end-user programming is still feasible; this contrasts with mobile systems, where software is only available through a manufacturer-supported channel, end-user program development may be discouraged by lack of support by the manufacturer.
Since the early 1990s, Microsoft operating systems and Intel hardware have dominated much of the personal computer market, first with MS-DOS and with Microsoft Windows. Alternatives to Microsoft's Windows operating systems occupy a minority share of the industry; these include free and open-source Unix-like operating systems such as Linux. Advanced Micro Devices provides the main alternative to Intel's processors; the advent of personal computers and the concurrent Digital Revolution have affected the lives of people in all countries. "PC" is an initialism for "personal computer". The IBM Personal Computer incorporated the designation in its model name, it is sometimes useful to distinguish personal computers of the "IBM Personal Computer" family from personal computers made by other manufacturers. For example, "PC" is used in contrast with "Mac", an Apple Macintosh computer.. Since none of these Apple products were mainframes or time-sharing systems, they were all "personal computers" and not "PC" computers.
The "brain" may one day come down to our level and help with our income-tax and book-keeping calculations. But this is speculation and there is no sign of it so far. In the history of computing, early experimental machines could be operated by a single attendant. For example, ENIAC which became operational in 1946 could be run by a single, albeit trained, person; this mode pre-dated the batch programming, or time-sharing modes with multiple users connected through terminals to mainframe computers. Computers intended for laboratory, instrumentation, or engineering purposes were built, could be operated by one person in an interactive fashion. Examples include such systems as the Bendix G15 and LGP-30of 1956, the Programma 101 introduced in 1964, the Soviet MIR series of computers developed from 1965 to 1969. By the early 1970s, people in academic or research institutions had the opportunity for single-person use of a computer system in interactive mode for extended durations, although these systems would still have been too expensive to be owned by a single person.
In what was to be called the Mother of All Demos, SRI researcher Douglas Engelbart in 1968 gave a preview of what would become the staples of daily working life in the 21st century: e-mail, word processing, video conferencing, the mouse. The demonstration required technical support staff and a mainframe time-sharing computer that were far too costly for individual business use at the time; the development of the microprocessor, with widespread commercial availability starting in the mid 1970's, made computers cheap enough for small businesses and individuals to own. Early personal computers—generally called microcomputers—were sold in a kit form and in limited volumes, were of interest to hobbyists and technicians. Minimal programming was done with toggle switches to enter instructions, output was provided by front panel lamps. Practical use required adding peripherals such as keyboards, computer displays, disk drives, printers. Micral N was the earliest commercial, non-kit microcomputer based on a microprocessor, the Intel 8008.
It was built starting in 1972, few hundred units were sold. This had been preceded by the Datapoint 2200 in 1970, for which the Intel 8008 had been commissioned, though not accepted for use; the CPU design implemented in the Datapoint 2200 became the basis for x86 architecture used in the original IBM PC and its descendants. In 1973, the IBM Los Gatos Scientific Center developed a portable computer prototype called SCAMP based on the IBM PALM processor with a Philips compact cassette drive, small CRT, full function keyboard. SCAMP emulated an IBM 1130 minicomputer in order to run APL/1130. In 1973, APL was available only on mainframe computers, most desktop sized microcomputers such as the Wang 2200 or HP 9800 offered only BASIC; because SCAMP was the first to emulate APL/1130 performance on a portable, single user computer, PC Magazine in 1983 designated SCAMP a "revolutionary concept" and "the world's first personal computer". This seminal, single user portable computer now resides in the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.
C.. Successful demonstrations of the 1973 SCAMP prototype led to the IBM 5100 portable microcomputer launched in 1975 with the ability to be programmed in both APL and BASIC for engineers, analysts and other business problem-solvers. In the late 1960s such a machine would have been nearly as large as two desks and would have weigh
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows Embedded. Defunct Windows families include Windows Mobile and Windows Phone. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces. Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25 %. This comparison however may not be relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows show one third market share, similar to that for end user use; as of October 2018, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets and embedded devices is Windows 10. The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2019. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One video game console. Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks, each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry; as of 2014, the following Windows families are being developed: Windows NT: Started as a family of operating systems with Windows NT 3.1, an operating system for server computers and workstations. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released at the same time and share the same kernel: Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers and smartphones.
The latest version is Windows 10. The main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server: The operating system for server computers; the latest version is Windows Server 2019. Unlike its client sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme; the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE: A lightweight version of its Windows sibling, meant to operate as a live operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers, recovery or troubleshooting purposes; the latest version is Windows PE 10. Windows IoT: Initially, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device, too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. However, Windows CE was renamed Windows Embedded Compact and was folded under Windows Compact trademark which consists of Windows Embedded Industry, Windows Embedded Professional, Windows Embedded Standard, Windows Embedded Handheld and Windows Embedded Automotive.
The following Windows families are no longer being developed: Windows 9x: An operating system that targeted consumers market. Discontinued because of suboptimal performance. Microsoft now caters to the consumer market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile: The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile phone operating system; the first version was called Pocket PC 2000. The last version is Windows Mobile 6.5. Windows Phone: An operating system sold only to manufacturers of smartphones; the first version was Windows Phone 7, followed by Windows Phone 8, the last version Windows Phone 8.1. It was succeeded by Windows 10 Mobile; the term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are categorized as follows: The history of Windows dates back to 1981, when Microsoft started work on a program called "Interface Manager", it was announced in November 1983 under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985.
Windows 1.0 was to achieved little popularity. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system. The shell of Windows 1.0 is a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Components included Calculator, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Control Panel, Paint, Reversi and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows. Microsoft sold as included Windows Development libraries with the C development environment, which included numerous windows samples. Windows 2.0 was released in December 1987, was more popular than its predecessor. It features several improvements to the user memory management. Windows 2.03 changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights. Windows 2.0
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles with an estimated population of 685,094 in 2017, making it the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999; the city is the economic and cultural anchor of a larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England, it was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Siege of Boston.
Upon gaining U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture. The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation, its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year. Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park, first public or state school and first subway system; the Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education, including law, medicine and business, the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2,000 startups. Boston's economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, government activities. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States; the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings.
Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630, was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water, their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC. In 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history. Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America. Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century.
Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, the city engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. Boston encountered financial difficulties as other cities in New England grew rapidly. Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution occurred near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city; when the British government passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, Thomas Hutchinson the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists; this did not sit well with the colonists. In 1770, during the Boston Massacre, the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston.
The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. In 1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts; the act prompted the Boston Tea Party, where a group of rebels threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts, demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels; this led to the American Revolutionary War. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Concord. Boston itself was besieged for a year during the Siege of Boston, which began on April 19, 1775; the New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege.
On June 17, the British captured the Charlestown peninsula in Boston, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Py
In marketing terminology, a killer application is any computer program, so necessary or desirable that it proves the core value of some larger technology, such as computer hardware, a gaming console, software, a programming language, a software platform, or an operating system. In other words, consumers would buy the hardware just to run that application. A killer app can increase sales of the platform on which it runs. One of the first recognized examples of a killer application is agreed to be the VisiCalc spreadsheet for the Apple II series; because it was not available on other computers for 12 months, people spent $100 for the software first $2,000 to $10,000 on the Apple computer they needed to run it. BYTE wrote in 1980, "VisiCalc is the first program available on a microcomputer, responsible for sales of entire systems", while Creative Computing's VisiCalc review was subtitled "reason enough for owning a computer". Others chose to develop software, such as EasyWriter, for the Apple II first because of its higher sales, helping Apple defeat rivals Commodore International and Tandy Corporation.
Lotus 1-2-3 benefited sales of the IBM PC and compatibles, just as VisiCalc did for Apple sales. Noting that computer purchasers did not want PC compatibility as much as compatibility with certain PC software, InfoWorld suggested "let's tell it like it is. Let's not say'PC compatible,' or even'MS-DOS compatible.' Instead, let's say'1-2-3 compatible.'" Another killer app is the most popular word processor during much of the 1980s. Once the Internet became more available to consumers, email was seen as a killer app that drove people to purchase computers though email is a genre of applications rather than a single "app." The UNIX Operating System served as a killer application for the DEC PDP-11 minicomputer and VAX-11 minicomputer during 1975–1985. Many of the PDP-11 and VAX-11 processors never ran DEC's operating systems, but instead, they ran UNIX, first licensed in 1975. To get a virtual-memory UNIX you had to purchase a VAX-11 computer. Many universities wanted a general-purpose timesharing system that would meet the needs of students and researchers.
From its inception UNIX could drive high-quality typesetting equipment and PostScript printers using the nroff/troff typesetting language, this was unprecedented for its time. UNIX was the first operating system offered in source-license form, allowing it to run on an unlimited number of machines, allowing the machines to interface to any type of hardware because the UNIX I/O system was extensible; the first recorded use of the term in print was 1988, in PC Week 24 May. 39/1. "Everybody has only one killer application. The secretary has a word processor; the manager has a spreadsheet."The definition of "killer app" came up during Bill Gates's questioning in the United States v. Microsoft Corp. antitrust case. Bill Gates had written an email. In the questioning, he said that the term meant "a popular application", did not connote an application that would fuel sales of a larger product or one that would supplant its competition, as the Microsoft Computer Dictionary defined it. AmigaOS: Deluxe Paint, Video Toaster Mac OS: Microsoft PowerPoint RISC OS: Sibelius The Internet: For accessing the World Wide Web, Netscape was the killer app until being forced out by Internet Explorer The term has been applied to computer and video games that cause consumers to buy a particular video game console or gaming hardware over a competing one, by virtue of being exclusive to that platform.
Such a game is known in gaming parlance as a "system seller". Examples of a video game killer applications are: The first agreed example of a "killer app" in gaming is the 1980 Atari VCS port of the arcade game Space Invaders, which quadrupled sales of the three-year-old console. Star Raiders, released in 1979, was considered to be the killer app for the Atari 400/800 computers. Another was Eastern Front; the port of Donkey Kong was the killer app for the ColecoVision console in 1982. The video gaming website GameTrailers considers the Super Mario Bros. games to be the killer app for nearly all Nintendo home consoles, Tetris as the killer app for the Game Boy, Grand Theft Auto III for the PlayStation 2, Super Smash Bros. Melee for the Nintendo GameCube, Wii Sports for the Wii. Computer Gaming World stated that The Legend of Zelda on the Nintendo Entertainment System, Phantasy Star II on the Sega Genesis, Far East of Eden for the NEC TurboGrafx-16 were killer apps for their consoles. John Madden Football's popularity in 1990 helped the Genesis gain market share against the Super Nintendo.
Sonic the Hedgehog, released in 1991, was hailed as a killer app as it revived sales of the three-year-old Genesis. Street Fighter II released for arcades in 1991, became a system-seller for the Super Nintendo when it was ported to the platform in 1992. Myst and The 7th Guest, both released in 1993, drove adoption of CD-ROM drives for personal computers. Pokémon Red and Blue could be classified a "killer app" for the seven-year-old Game Boy as a craze evolved around the series in the late 1990s, it was only available on that platform. Pokémon Gold and Silver were released at the height of the Pokémon craze alongside the Game Boy Color, fueled the sales for the console all the way to the release of the Game Boy Advance
Daniel Singer "Dan" Bricklin referred to as “The Father of the Spreadsheet”, is the American co-creator, with Bob Frankston, of the VisiCalc spreadsheet program. He founded Software Garden, Inc. of which he is president, Trellix Corporation, owned by Web.com. He serves as the chief technology officer of Alpha Software, his book, Bricklin on Technology, was published by Wiley in May 2009. Bricklin was born in a Jewish family in Philadelphia, where he attended Akiba Hebrew Academy during his high school years, he earned a Bachelor of Science in electrical engineering and computer science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1973, where he was a resident of Bexley Hall. He soon switched to computer science. Upon graduating from MIT, Bricklin worked for Digital Equipment Corporation where he was part of the team that worked on WPS-8 until 1976, when he began working for FasFax, a cash register manufacturer. In 1977, he decided to return to school, he earned a Master of Business Administration from Harvard University in 1979.
While a student at Harvard Business School, Bricklin co-developed VisiCalc in 1979, making it the first electronic spreadsheet available for home and office use. It ran on an Apple II computer, was considered a fourth generation software program. VisiCalc is credited for fueling the rapid growth of the personal computer industry. Instead of doing financial projections with manually calculated spreadsheets, having to recalculate with every single cell in the sheet, VisiCalc allowed the user to change any cell, have the entire sheet automatically recalculated; this allowed for more creativity. In 1979, Bricklin and Frankston began selling VisiCalc. Along with co-founder Bob Frankston, he started writing versions of the program for the Tandy TRS-80, Commodore PET and the Atari 800. Soon after its launch, VisiCalc became a fast seller at $100. Bricklin was awarded the Grace Murray Hopper Award in 1981 for VisiCalc. Bricklin never received a patent for VisiCalc, since software programs were considered inelgible for patent protection in the late 1970s.
Bricklin was chairman of Software Arts until 1985. Dan Bricklin founded Software Garden, a small consulting firm and developer of software applications, in 1985; the company's focus was to produce and market “Dan Bricklin's Demo Program”. The program allowed users to create demonstrations of their programs before they were written, was used to create tutorials for Windows-based programs. Other versions released soon after included demo-it!. He remained the president of the company until he co-founded Slate Corporation in 1990. In 1992, he became the vice president of Slate corporation; when Slate closed in 1994, Bricklin returned to Software Garden. In 1995 Bricklin founded Trellix Corporation. Trellix was bought by Interland in 2003, Bricklin became Interland's chief technology officer until early 2004, he introduced the term "friend-to-friend networking" on August 11, 2000. He introduced the term cornucopia of the commons about the same time. Bricklin continues to serve as president of Software Garden, a small company that develops and markets software tools he creates, as well as providing speaking and consulting services.
He has released Note Taker HD, an application that integrates handwritten notes on the Apple iPad tablet. He is developing wikiCalc, a collaborative, basic spreadsheet running on the Web, he is the chief technology officer of Alpha Software in Burlington, Massachusetts, a company that creates tools to develop cross-platform mobile business applications. In 1994, Bricklin was inducted as a Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery, he is a founding trustee of the Massachusetts Technology Leadership Council and has served on the boards of the Software Publishers Association and the Boston Computer Society. He was elected to be a member of the National Academy of Engineering. In 1981, Dan Bricklin was given a Grace Murray Hopper Award for VisiCalc. In 1996, Bricklin was awarded by the IEEE Computer Society with the Computer Entrepreneur Award for pioneering the development and commercialization of the spreadsheet and the profound changes it fostered in business and industry. In 2003, Bricklin was given the Wharton Infosys Business Transformation Award for being a technology change leader.
He was recognized for having used information technology in an industry-transforming way. He has received an Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters from Newbury College. In 2004, he was made a Fellow of the Computer History Museum "for advancing the utility of personal computers by developing the VisiCalc electronic spreadsheet."Bricklin appeared in the 1996 documentary Triumph of the Nerds, as well as the 2005 documentary Aardvark'd: 12 Weeks with Geeks, in both cases discussing the development of VisiCalc. Dan Bricklin interview on lowendmac.com Bricklin.com Trellix Software Garden Dan Bricklin on IMDb I'm working on a new product called wikiCalc, from Dan Bricklin's weblog on November 9, 2005, introducing wikiCalc This page has a link to Dan's interview conducted by Robert Cringely Bricklin On Technology book TED Talk – "Dan Bricklin: Meet the inventor of the electronic spreadsheet" TEDx Talk – "A Problem That Changed The World | Dan Bricklin | TEDxBeaconStreet"
OS/2 is a series of computer operating systems created by Microsoft and IBM under the leadership of IBM software designer Ed Iacobucci. As a result of a feud between the two companies over how to position OS/2 relative to Microsoft's new Windows 3.1 operating environment, the two companies severed the relationship in 1992 and OS/2 development fell to IBM exclusively. The name stands for "Operating System/2", because it was introduced as part of the same generation change release as IBM's "Personal System/2" line of second-generation personal computers; the first version of OS/2 was released in December 1987 and newer versions were released until December 2001. OS/2 was intended as a protected-mode successor of PC DOS. Notably, basic system calls were modeled after MS-DOS calls; because of this heritage, OS/2 shares similarities with Unix and Windows NT. IBM discontinued its support for OS/2 on 31 December 2006. Since it has been updated and marketed under the name eComStation. In 2015 it was announced that a new OEM distribution of OS/2 would be released, to be called ArcaOS.
ArcaOS is available for purchase. The development of OS/2 began when IBM and Microsoft signed the "Joint Development Agreement" in August 1985, it was code-named "CP/DOS" and it took two years for the first product to be delivered. OS/2 1.0 was released in December. The original release is textmode-only, a GUI was introduced with OS/2 1.1 about a year later. OS/2 features an API for controlling the video display and handling keyboard and mouse events so that programmers writing for protected-mode need not call the BIOS or access hardware directly. Other development tools included a subset of the video and keyboard APIs as linkable libraries so that family mode programs are able to run under MS-DOS, and, in the OS/2 Extended Edition v1.0, a database engine called Database Manager or DBM. A task-switcher named Program Selector was available through the Ctrl-Esc hotkey combination, allowing the user to select among multitasked text-mode sessions. Communications and database-oriented extensions were delivered in 1988, as part of OS/2 1.0 Extended Edition: SNA, X.25/APPC/LU 6.2, LAN Manager, Query Manager, SQL.
The promised user interface, Presentation Manager, was introduced with OS/2 1.1 in October 1988. It had a similar user interface to Windows 2.1, released in May of that year.. The Extended Edition of 1.1, sold only through IBM sales channels, introduced distributed database support to IBM database systems and SNA communications support to IBM mainframe networks. In 1989, Version 1.2 introduced Installable Filesystems and, the HPFS filesystem. HPFS provided a number of improvements over the older FAT file system, including long filenames and a form of alternate data streams called Extended Attributes. In addition, extended attributes were added to the FAT file system; the Extended Edition of 1.2 introduced Ethernet support. OS/2- and Windows-related books of the late 1980s acknowledged the existence of both systems and promoted OS/2 as the system of the future; the collaboration between IBM and Microsoft unravelled in 1990, between the releases of Windows 3.0 and OS/2 1.3. During this time, Windows 3.0 became a tremendous success, selling millions of copies in its first year.
Much of its success was. OS/2, on the other hand, was available only as an additional stand-alone software package. In addition, OS/2 lacked device drivers for many common devices such as printers non-IBM hardware. Windows, on the other hand, supported a much larger variety of hardware; the increasing popularity of Windows prompted Microsoft to shift its development focus from cooperating on OS/2 with IBM to building its own business based on Windows. Several technical and practical reasons contributed to this breakup; the two companies had significant differences in vision. Microsoft favored the open hardware system approach that contributed to its success on the PC. Microsoft programmers became frustrated with IBM's bureaucracy and its use of lines of code to measure programmer productivity. IBM developers complained about the terseness and lack of comments in Microsoft's code, while Microsoft developers complained that IBM's code was bloated; the two products have significant differences in API.
OS/2 was announced when Windows 2.0 was near completion, the Windows API defined. However, IBM requested that this API be changed for OS/2. Therefore, issues surrounding application compatibility appeared immediately. OS/2 designers hoped for source code conversion tools, allowing complete migration of Windows application source code to OS/2 at some point. However, OS/2 1.x did not gain enough momentum to allow vendors to avoid developing for both OS/2 and Windows in parallel. OS/2 1.x targets DOS fundamentally doesn't. IBM insisted on supporting the 80286 processor, with its 16-bit segmented memory mode, because of commitments made to customers who had purchased many 80286-based PS/2s as a result of IBM's promises surrounding OS/2; until release 2.0 in April 1992, OS/2 ran in 16-bit protected mode and therefor