Batting average (baseball)
In baseball, the batting average is defined by the number of hits divided by at bats. It is reported to three decimal places and read without the decimal: A player with a batting average of.300 is "batting three-hundred." If necessary to break ties, batting averages could be taken beyond the.001 measurement. In this context, a.001 is considered a "point," such that a.235 batter is 5 points higher than a.230 batter. Henry Chadwick, an English statistician raised on cricket, was an influential figure in the early history of baseball. In the late 19th century he adapted the concept behind the cricket batting average to devise a similar statistic for baseball. Rather than copy cricket's formulation of runs scored divided by outs, he realized that hits divided by at bats would provide a better measure of individual batting ability; this is because while in cricket, scoring runs is entirely dependent on one's own batting skill, in baseball it is dependent on having other good hitters on one's team.
Chadwick noted that hits are independent of teammates' skills, so used this as the basis for the baseball batting average. His reason for using at bats rather than outs is less obvious, but it leads to the intuitive idea of the batting average being a percentage reflecting how a batter gets on base, whereas hits divided by outs is not as simple to interpret in real terms. In modern times, a season batting average higher than.300 is considered to be excellent, an average higher than.400 a nearly unachievable goal. The last player to do so, with enough plate appearances to qualify for the batting championship, was Ted Williams of the Boston Red Sox, who hit.406 in 1941, though the best modern players either threaten to or do achieve it if only for brief periods of time. There have been numerous attempts to explain the disappearance of the.400 hitter, with one of the more rigorous discussions of this question appearing in Stephen Jay Gould's 1996 book Full House. Ty Cobb holds the record for highest career batting average with.366, 9 points higher than Rogers Hornsby who has the second highest average in history at.358.
The record for lowest career batting average for a player with more than 2,500 at-bats belongs to Bill Bergen, a catcher who played from 1901 to 1911 and recorded a.170 average in 3,028 career at-bats. The modern-era record for highest batting average for a season is held by Nap Lajoie, who hit.426 in 1901, the first year of play for the American League. The modern-era record for lowest batting average for a player that qualified for the batting title is held by Chris Davis, who hit.168 in 2018. While finishing six plate appearances short of qualifying for the batting title, Adam Dunn of the Chicago White Sox hit.159 for the 2011 season, nine points lower than the record. The highest batting average for a rookie was.408 in 1911 by Shoeless Joe Jackson. For non-pitchers, a batting average below.230 is considered poor, one below.200 is unacceptable. This latter level is sometimes referred to as "The Mendoza Line", named for Mario Mendoza, a stellar defensive shortstop whose defensive capabilities just made up for his offensive shortcomings.
The league batting average in Major League Baseball for 2016 was.255, the all-time league average is between.260 and.275. In rare instances, MLB players have concluded their careers with a perfect batting average of 1.000. John Paciorek had three hits in all three of his turns at bat. Esteban Yan went two-for-two, including a home run. Hal Deviney's two hits in his only plate appearances included a triple, while Steve Biras, Mike Hopkins, Chet Kehn, Jason Roach and Fred Schemanske went two-for-two. A few dozen others have hit safely in their one and only career at-bat. Sabermetrics, the study of baseball statistics, considers batting average a weak measure of performance because it does not correlate as well as other measures to runs scored, thereby causing it to have little predictive value. Batting average does not take into account walks or power, whereas other statistics such as on-base percentage and slugging percentage have been designed to measure such concepts. Adding these statistics together form a player's On-base plus slugging or "OPS".
This is seen as a much better, though not perfect, indicator of a player's overall batting ability as it is a measure of hitting for average, hitting for power and drawing bases on balls. In 1887, Major League Baseball counted bases on balls as hits; this skyrocketed batting averages, including some near.500, the experiment was abandoned the following season. The Major League Baseball batting averages championships is awarded annually to the player in each league who has the highest batting average. Ty Cobb holds the MLB record for most batting titles winning 11 in his pro career; the National League record of 8 batting titles is shared by Tony Gwynn. Most of Cobb's career and all of Wagner's career took place in what is known as the Dead-Ball Era, characterized by higher batting averages and much less power, whereas Gwynn's career took place in the Live-Ball Era. To determine which players are eligible to win the batting title, the following conditions have been used over the sport's history: Pre-1920 – A player is required to appear in at least 100 or more games when the schedule was 154 games, 90 games when the schedule was 140 games.
An exception to the rule was made for Ty Cobb in 1914, who appeared in 98 games but had a big lead and was a favorite of League President Ban Johnson. 1920–1949 – A player had to appear in 100 games to qualify in the National League.
The Pittsburgh Sun-Telegraph was an evening daily newspaper published in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania from 1927 to 1960. Part of the Hearst newspaper chain, it competed with the Pittsburgh Press and Post-Gazette until being purchased and absorbed by the latter paper; the Sun-Telegraph's history can be traced back through its 19th- and early 20th-century forebears: the Chronicle, Chronicle Telegraph, Sun. The Morning Chronicle was established on June 1841 by Richard George Berford. At first a semi-weekly paper, it became a daily on September 8 of the same year; the original editor was 19-year-old J. Heron Foster, who would be the founding editor of the Spirit of the Age and the Pittsburgh Dispatch. A weekly edition of the paper first appeared in November 1841 with the title The Iron City and Pittsburgh Weekly Chronicle. On August 30, 1851 the daily paper started issuing in the day, becoming the Evening Chronicle. Historian Leland D. Baldwin described the Chronicle's existence as "undistinguished for several decades".
On January 2, 1884, the Pittsburgh Evening Chronicle merged with the Pittsburgh Telegraph to form the Pittsburgh Chronicle Telegraph. In 1892, the Chronicle Telegraph Building on Fifth Avenue gained brief notoriety as the site where anarchist Alexander Berkman attempted to assassinate industrialist Henry Clay Frick. In October 1900 the paper sponsored the Chronicle Telegraph Cup, a postseason baseball series won by the Brooklyn Superbas over the Pittsburgh Pirates. Held only once, the contest was a precursor to the current World Series. Iron and steel manufacturer George T. Oliver a U. S. senator, purchased the evening Chronicle Telegraph in November 1900 to complement the morning paper he had acquired earlier in the year, the Commercial Gazette. The papers were soon housed under the same roof and exchanged or shared staff members. In 1915, a new eight-story building on the current site of the U. S. Steel Tower opened as home to the Chronicle Telegraph along with Oliver's merged and retitled morning paper, the Gazette Times.
Upon the death of George T. Oliver in 1919, control of the Chronicle Telegraph and Gazette Times passed to his sons George S. and Augustus K. Oliver; the Pittsburgh Sun was an evening paper first issued on March 1, 1906 by the publisher of the morning Pittsburgh Post. On August 1, 1927, William Randolph Hearst completed a purchase of the two Oliver papers, including the building, he coordinated the transaction with publisher Paul Block, who at the same time became owner of Pittsburgh's other morning-evening combination: the Post and Sun. An ensuing trade between the two buyers gave Hearst both evening dailies, which he merged to form the Pittsburgh Sun-Telegraph, while Block created the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette from the two morning papers; the first issues of the new publications rolled off the presses the next day. The deal stipulated that the Sun-Telegraph, but not the Post-Gazette, would publish on Sundays though the latter paper's predecessors had Sunday editions and the former's did not.
The combined Sunday circulation that the Post-Gazette would have inherited was instead transferred to the Sunday Sun-Telegraph. The Sun-Telegraph was patterned after Hearst's other twenty-five newspapers in its use of screaming headlines, large type, sensational reporting, unconventional picture layouts, splashes of color, front-page box scores. In the 1950s the "Sun-Telly" was losing subscribers and advertisers to its direct competitor in the evening and Sunday fields, the Pittsburgh Press, to a lesser degree the Post-Gazette; the Post-Gazette's co-publisher William Block Sr. recalled that "The Press, which had a great deal of newer equipment, was in a position to give news, better distribution, was killing on Sunday." In 1960 the Hearst organization sold its floundering Pittsburgh operation to the Post-Gazette, which in absorbing its rival gained a Sunday edition. The deal turned out badly for the purchaser: The Sunday edition proved unprofitable; these problems helped spur the Post-Gazette to enter into a joint operating agreement with the stronger Press in the following year.
The Post-Gazette bore the subtitle "Sun-Telegraph" from 1960 through 1977, though by late 1962 the subtitle's font size had shrunk to unnoticeable proportions. Andrews, J. Cutler. Pittsburgh's Post-Gazette: The First Newspaper West of the Alleghenies. Boston: Chapman & Grimes. Thomas, Clarke M.. Front-Page Pittsburgh: Two Hundred Years of the Post-Gazette. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 978-0-8229-4248-1
Erie is a city on the south shore of Lake Erie and the county seat of Erie County, United States. Named for the lake and the Native American Erie people who lived in the area until the mid-17th century, Erie is the fourth-largest city in Pennsylvania, as well as the largest city in Northwestern Pennsylvania, with a population of 101,786 at the 2010 census; the estimated population in 2017 had decreased to 97,369. The Erie metropolitan area, equivalent to all of Erie County, consists of 276,207 residents; the Erie-Meadville, PA Combined Statistical Area has a population of 369,331, as of the 2010 Census. Erie is halfway between the cities of Buffalo, New York, Cleveland and due north of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Erie's manufacturing sector remains prominent in the local economy, though health care, higher education, service industries and tourism are emerging as significant economic drivers. Over four million people visit Erie during summer months for recreation at Presque Isle State Park, as well as attractions such as Waldameer Park.
Erie is known as the "Flagship City" because of its status as the home port of Oliver Hazard Perry's flagship Niagara. The city has been called the "Gem City" because of the sparkling lake. Erie won the All-America City Award in 1972, in 2012 hosted the Perry 200, a commemoration, celebrating 200 years of peace between England and Canada following the War of 1812 and Battle of Lake Erie. Cultures of indigenous peoples occupied the shoreline and bluffs in this area for thousands of years, taking advantage of the rich resources; the Sommerheim Park Archaeological District in Millcreek Township, Pennsylvania west of the city, includes artifacts from the Archaic period in the Americas, as well as from the Early and Middle Woodland Period a span from 8,000 BCE to 500 CE. The historic Iroquoian-speaking Erie Nation occupied this area before being defeated by the five nations of the Iroquois Confederacy in the 17th century during the Beaver Wars; the Iroquois tribes had developed and five nations formed a political league in the 1500s, adding their sixth nation in the early 18th century.
The Erie area became controlled by the Seneca, "keeper of the western door" of the Iroquois, who were based in present-day New York. Europeans first arrived as settlers in the region when the French constructed Fort Presque Isle near present-day Erie in 1753, as part of their effort to defend New France against the encroaching British colonists; the name of the fort refers to the peninsula that juts into Lake Erie, now protected as Presque Isle State Park. The French term "presque-isle" means peninsula; when the French abandoned the fort in 1760 during the French and Indian War, it was the last post they held west of Niagara. The British established a garrison at the fort at Presque Isle that same year, three years before the end of the French and Indian War. Erie is in what was the disputed Erie Triangle, a tract of land comprising 202,187 acres in the northwest corner of Pennsylvania fronting Lake Erie, claimed after the American Revolutionary War by the states of New York, Pennsylvania and Massachusetts.
The Iroquois claimed ownership first so a conference was arranged for on January 9, 1789 wherein representatives from the Iroquois signed a deed relinquishing their ownership of the land. The price for it was $1,200 from the federal government; the Seneca Nation separately settled land claims against Pennsylvania in February 1791 for the sum of $800. It became a part of Pennsylvania on March 3, 1792, after Connecticut and New York relinquished their rights to the land and sold the land to Pennsylvania for 75 cents per acre or a total of $151,640.25 in continental certificates. The General Assembly of Pennsylvania commissioned the surveying of land near Presque Isle through an act passed on April 18, 1795. Andrew Ellicott, who completed Pierre Charles L'Enfant's survey of Washington, D. C. and helped resolve the boundary between Pennsylvania and New York, arrived to begin the survey and lay out the plan for the city in June 1795. Initial settlement of the area began that year. Lt. Colonel Seth Reed and his family moved to the Erie area from New York.
They became the first European-American settlers of Erie, settling at what became known as "Presque Isle". President James Madison began the construction of a naval fleet during the War of 1812 to gain control of the Great Lakes from the British. Daniel Dobbins of Erie and Noah Brown of Boston were notable shipbuilders who led construction of four schooner−rigged gunboats and two brigs. Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry arrived from Rhode Island and led the squadron to success in the historic Battle of Lake Erie. Erie was an important shipbuilding and railroad hub during the mid-19th century; the city was the site. While the delays engendered cargo troubles for commerce and travel, they provided much-needed local jobs in Erie; when a national standardized gauge was proposed, those jobs, the importance of the rail hub itself, were put in jeopardy. In an event known as the Erie Gauge War, the citizens of Erie, led by the mayor, set fire to bridges, ripped up track and rioted to try to stop the standardization.
On August 3, 1915, the Mill Creek flooded downtown Erie. A culvert, or a tunnel, was blocked by debris, collapsed. A four-block reservoir, caused by torrential downpours, had formed behind it; the resulting deluge killed 36 people. After the flood, Mayor Miles Brown Kitts had the Mill Creek directed into another larger culvert, constructed under more than 2 mi
Three Rivers Stadium
Three Rivers Stadium was a multi-purpose stadium located in Pittsburgh, from 1970 to 2000. It was home to the Pittsburgh Pirates of Major League Baseball and the Pittsburgh Steelers of the National Football League. Built as a replacement for Forbes Field, which opened in 1909, the US$55 million multi-purpose facility was designed to maximize efficiency. Ground was broken in an oft behind-schedule construction plan lasted for 29 months; the stadium opened on July 1970, when the Pirates played their first game there. In the 1971 World Series, Three Rivers Stadium hosted the first World Series game played at night; the following year, the stadium was the site of the Immaculate Reception. The final game in the stadium was won by the Steelers on December 16, 2000. Three Rivers Stadium hosted the Pittsburgh Maulers of the United States Football League and the University of Pittsburgh Panthers football team for a single season each. After its closing, Three Rivers Stadium was imploded in 2001, the Pittsburgh Pirates and Pittsburgh Steelers moved into newly built stadiums: PNC Park and Heinz Field, respectively.
A proposal for a new sports stadium in Pittsburgh was first made in 1948. The Pittsburgh Pirates played their home games at Forbes Field, which opened in 1909, was the second oldest venue in the National League; the Pittsburgh Steelers, who had moved from Forbes Field to Pitt Stadium in 1964, were large supporters of the project. For their part, according to longtime Pirates announcer Bob Prince, the Pirates wanted a bigger place to play in order to draw more revenue. In 1958, the Pirates sold Forbes to the University of Pittsburgh for $2 million; the university wanted the land for expanded graduate facilities. As part of the deal, the university leased Forbes back to the Pirates until a replacement could be built. An early design of the stadium included plans to situate the stadium atop a bridge across the Monongahela River, it was to call for a 70,000-seat stadium with hotels, a 100-lane bowling alley. Plans of the "Stadium over the Monongahela" were not pursued. A design was presented in 1958 which featured an open center field design—through which fans could view Pittsburgh's "Golden Triangle".
A site on the city's Northside was approved on August 10, 1958, due to land availability and parking space, the latter of, a problem at Forbes Field. The same site had hosted Exposition Park, which the Pirates had left in 1909; the stadium was located in a hard-to-access portion of downtown, making it hard in years to get in before games and leave after games. Political debate continued over the North Side Sports Stadium and the project was behind schedule and over-budget. Arguments were made by commissioner Dr. William McCelland that the Pirates and Steelers should fund a higher percentage of the $33 million project. Due to lack of support, the arguments faded. Ground was broken on April 25, 1968, due to the Steelers' suggestions, the design was changed to enclose center field. Construction continued, though it became plagued with problems such as thieves stealing materials from the building site. In April 1969, construction was behind schedule and the target opening of April 1970 was deemed unlikely.
That November, Arthur Gratz asked the city for an additional $3 million, granted. In January 1970, the new target date was set for May 29; the stadium was named in February 1969 for to its location at the confluence of the Allegheny River and Monongahela River, which forms the Ohio River. It would sometimes be called The House That Clemente Built after Pirates' right-fielder Roberto Clemente. In their first game after the All-Star Break in 1970, the Pirates opened the stadium against Cincinnati on Thursday, July 16; the team donned new uniform designs for the first time that day, a similar plan was for new "mini-skirts" for female ushers. However, the ushers' union declined the uniform change for female workers. A parade was held before opening ceremonies; the expansive parking lot, both Pirates and Steelers team offices, the Allegheny Club and the press boxes and facilities were not opened until weeks due to extended labor union work stoppages. Instead of allowing cars to park, the team instructed fans to park downtown and walk to the stadium over bridges or take shuttle buses.
The opening of Three Rivers marked the first time the Pirates allowed beer to be sold in the stands during a game since the early 1960s. During batting practice on that day, a stray foul ball hit a woman named Evelyn Jones in the eye while she was walking the stadium's concourse, she sued the Pirates and their subsidiary that managed the stadium, arguing that the Baseball Rule, which prevents spectators at baseball games from holding teams liable for foul ball injuries, did not apply because she was away from the seating areas and not watching what was going on on the field. A jury awarded Jones $125,000; that decision was in turn reversed by the Pennsylvania Supreme Court, which agreed with her argument about the Baseball Rule and noted that the opening to the concourse through which the foul had passed was a purely architectural choice, not necessary to the game of baseball. Three Rivers Stadium was similar in design to other stadiums built in the 1960s and 1970s, such as Riverfront Stadium, the Houston Astrodome, an
Ned Hanlon (baseball)
Edward Hugh Hanlon known as "Foxy Ned", sometimes referred to as "The Father of Modern Baseball," was an American professional baseball player and manager whose career spanned from 1876 to 1914. He was posthumously inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1996 by vote of the Veterans Committee. Hanlon was a manager in Major League Baseball from 1889 to 1907, compiling a 1,313–1,164 record with five different clubs, he is best remembered as the manager of the Baltimore Brooklyn Superbas. In the seven seasons from 1894 to 1900, Hanlon compiled a 635–315 record, his teams won five National League pennants. During his years with the Orioles, Hanlon was credited with inventing and perfecting the "inside baseball" strategy, including the "hit and run" play and the Baltimore chop. Hanlon played 13 seasons in Major League Baseball, principally as a center fielder, he played in over 800 games as an outfielder for the Detroit Wolverines, remaining with the team during all eight years of its existence from 1881 to 1888.
He compiled a career batting average of.260 and an on-base percentage of.325 with 930 runs scored and 1,317 hits. Although stolen base records are not available for the early portion of his playing career, Hanlon stole 329 bases in his last six years as a full-time player. Hanlon was born in 1857 at Connecticut, his parents and Mary Hanlon, were immigrants from Ireland. In 1870, Hanlon's father worked as a railroad laborer while Ned, at age 13, along with his older brother James and younger brother O'Brien worked in a cotton mill to help support the family. By 1880, the family had moved a few miles south to New London, where Hanlon's father, three brothers and a step-sister were all working in a cotton mill. Ned was saved from life in the mill by his talent for baseball; the 1880 census recorded his occupation, in contrast to his other family members, as a professional ball player. Hanlon began his professional baseball career in 1876 at age 17 or 18 with the Providence, Rhode Island club, he next played for the Fall River, Massachusetts club in the New England League in 1877, the Rochester, New York club in the International Association in 1878, the Albany, New York team in the National Association in 1879.
He posted a. 315 batting average and scored 44 runs in 47 games. Hanlon made his major league debut on May 1, 1880, as a member of the Cleveland Blues of the National League, he appeared in 73 games for the Blues, 69 as an outfielder and four as a shortstop, compiled a.246 batting average with 32 RBIs. On June 12, 1880, he made the final out of the first perfect game in major league history, a 1-0 victory by Lee Richmond of the Worcester Ruby Legs. Hanlon joined the newly formed Detroit Wolverines in 1881, he is one of only two players, along with Charlie Bennett, who played for the Wolverines during all eight years of the team's existence. In his eight seasons with the Wolverines, Hanlon compiled a.261 batting average, boosted to a.318 on-base percentage by 271 bases on balls and six times hit by pitch. He hit over.300 only once in his career, compiling a.302 batting average in 1885. During his time with Detroit, Hanlon was considered to be an excellent base-runner. Although stolen base records are not available for the years before 1886, Hanlon stole 329 bases in his last six years as a full-time player.
His base-running prowess is evidenced by his scoring 623 runs on only 879 hits for the Wolverines. The Sporting News called him a "wonderful base runner and a spark plug." In October 1885, The Sporting Life wrote that it was a "striking illustration of Ned Hanlon's daring and speed that for two years Buck Ewing has never once succeeded in throwing him out at second on a steal. And Buck is one of the best throwers in the League."Hanlon had excellent range in center field, leading the league in outfield putouts in 1882 and 1884 and ranking among the league leaders every year from 1882 to 1887. He led the league in double plays turned from the outfield in 1882 and 1883 and ranked among the leading outfielders in range factor five times from 1882 to 1887; as a result of his extensive range, Hanlon was regularly among the leaders in outfield errors and led the league with 35 errors in 1880, 38 in 1885 and 31 in 1891. In 1886, The Sporting Life wrote: "Ned Hanlon never played a more brilliant fielding game than now.
It is doubtful if any other fielder did, either." Decades The Sporting News opined that Hanlon was "one of the greatest ground coverers the game had." Hanlon became captain of the Wolverines in 1885, during the 1886 and 1887 seasons, led teams that rank among the greatest in Detroit baseball history. After acquiring sluggers Sam Thompson, Dan Brouthers and Hardy Richardson, with pitcher Lady Baldwin winning 42 games, the 1886 Wolverines compiled an 87–36 record, but finished 2½ games behind the Chicago White Stockings; the 1887 Wolverines won the pennant with a 79-45 record. In 1888, the Wolverines finished in fifth place with a 68-63 record; the team folded in October 1888, Hanlon was sold to the Pittsburgh Alleghenys. During the winter of 1888–89, Hanlon traveled to Hawaii, Ceylon, Egypt and the British Isles as part of Albert Spalding's "Around the World Baseball Tour". Baseball games were held between the Chicago White Stockings and a picked team called the "All-Americans". After returning from the Spalding tour, Hanlon joined the Pittsburgh Alleghenys and took
Riverside Park, Dawson Springs
Riverside Park, located in Dawson Springs, was built in 1914 to serve as a spring training park for the Pittsburgh Pirates from 1914 to 1917. Sometimes referred to as Tradewater Park, it is the only known baseball park in Kentucky to have hosted a major league team since the Louisville Colonels folded in 1899. While the original stadium was destroyed in a flood in the 1930s, it was rebuilt in 1999. Like the original stadium, the rebuilt park is reconstructed out of wood, it is the only ballpark of its kind in Western Kentucky. Dawson Springs is home to a mineral spring, believed by many to have medical healing qualities; this led to it becoming a huge resort town. Thousands of people came to bathe in the spring. Forty hotels sprung up to accommodate the tourists; the Pittsburgh Pirates seeing these large crowds decided to make Dawson Springs their spring training home. In 1914 Riverside Park was built to serve as the spring training venue for the Pirates; the entire ballpark was made from wood, from the grandstand to the dugout.
Local citizens constructed a large indoor pavilion for spring training and exhibition games and an additional wing was built onto the New Century Hotel to accommodate the players. Teams soon came from St. Louis, Kansas City, Indianapolis and Philadelphia, as well as minor league squads from Columbus and Toledo, Ohio to play the Pirates at Riverside Park; these teams consisted of other major league squads, American Association teams, semi-professional teams, teams formed by local mining companies and businesses. Hall of Famer Honus Wagner and his friends went fishing at the Old Mill Dam, located right beside Riverside Park and a short walking distance from the New Century Hotel. Wagner, who trained on this field for 3 years, organized a team of local young boys known as "Honus Wagners' Young Recruits." Several other future members of the Hall of Fame including. The team remained there through the 1917 season; the following season, the Pirates when they moved into Barrs Field, located in Jacksonville, Florida.
Records show that some major league teams played expedition games at Riverside Park until the early 1920s. Riverside Park hosted many local teams, among them members of the Kentucky–Illinois–Tennessee League, continued to provide baseball for western Kentucky. In the 1930s a devastating storm flooded a river; the flood washed away the entire stadium. In the decades following the flood, residents in Dawson Springs were only left with the memories of the ballpark, as there was effort to rebuild the park. In 1999 Dawson Springs' Mayor Stacia Peyton funded a public project to rebuild the park, to help preserve the history of the city. While public opinion reflected the need for the city to fund other civic needs, instead of rebuilding an old ballpark, Peyton pressed ahead with the plan; the goal of the project was to make the stadium as authentic as possible to the original. Riverside Park was rebuilt using the exact blueprints from the original 1914 design; the largest stumbling block for the engineers reconstructing the park was building the field of wood, just like it had been in 1914.
The rebuilt stadium's seats and beams were all made from wood, to create a one-of-a kind ballpark. It is the only wooden ballpark in the region; the stadium was used until 2012 by the Tradewater Pirates of the KIT League and the Ohio Valley League. The team was founded in 1999 and joined the KIT League in 2007; the Pirates' first game at Riverside was held on July 4, 1999. In 2008, the team celebrated its 10th anniversary; the club folded in 2012. Dawson Springs Online Digital Ballparks The Times Leader Madisonville Tradewater Pirates
In baseball and softball, second baseman is a fielding position in the infield, between second and first base. The second baseman possesses quick hands and feet, needs the ability to get rid of the ball and must be able to make the pivot on a double play. In addition, second basemen are right-handed. In the numbering system used to record defensive plays, the second baseman is assigned the number 4. Good second basemen need to have good range, since they have to field balls closer to the first baseman, holding runners on, or moving towards the base to cover. On a batted ball to right field, the second baseman goes out towards the ball for the relay. Due to these requirements, second base is sometimes a defensive position in the modern game, but there are hitting stars as well; the second baseman catches line drives or pop flies hit near him, fields ground balls hit near him and throws the ball to a base to force out a runner. In this case, if the runner is to be forced out at second base that base is covered by the shortstop.
With a runner on first base, on a ground ball to the shortstop or third baseman the second baseman will cover second base to force out the runner coming from first. Moreover, if there are fewer than two outs he will attempt to turn the double play: that is, he will receive the throw from the other player with his foot on second base, in one motion pivot toward first base and throw the ball there. If a runner on first base attempts to steal second base, or if the pitcher attempts to pick off a runner at second base either the second baseman or the shortstop will cover second base; the following second basemen have been elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum: Notes Bill Mazeroski: 11 Nellie Fox: 10 Bobby Doerr: 9 Red Schoendienst: 8 Charlie Gehringer: 7 Joe Gordon: 7 Billy Herman: 5 Jackie Robinson: 4 Roberto Alomar: 3 Craig Biggio: 2 Frankie Frisch: 2 Rogers Hornsby: 2 Joe Morgan: 2 Ryne Sandberg: 2 Tony Lazzeri: 1 Bid McPhee: 1Source: baseball-reference.com