New York University
New York University is a private research university founded in New York City but now with campuses and locations throughout the world. Founded in 1831, NYU's historical campus is in New York City; as a global university, students can graduate from its degree-granting campuses in NYU Abu Dhabi and NYU Shanghai, as well as study at its 12 academic centers in Accra, Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Sydney, Tel Aviv, Washington, D. C. For the class that matriculated in the fall of 2019, NYU received nearly 85,000 applications for its undergraduate programs. In 2018, NYU was ranked amongst the top 40 universities worldwide by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, Times Higher Education World University Rankings, U. S. News & World Report. Alumni include heads of state, eminent scientists and entrepreneurs, media figures, founders and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, astronauts; as of March 2019, 37 Nobel Laureates, 8 Turing Award winners, 5 Fields Medalists, over 30 Academy Award winners, over 30 Pulitzer Prize winners, hundreds of members of the National Academies of Sciences and United States Congress have been affiliated as faculty or alumni.
Globally, NYU is ranked 7th by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings for producing alumni who are millionaires, 4th by Wealth-X for producing ultra high net-worth and billionaire alumni. Albert Gallatin, Secretary of Treasury under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, declared his intention to establish "in this immense and fast-growing city... a system of rational and practical education fitting and graciously opened to all". A three-day-long "literary and scientific convention" held in City Hall in 1830 and attended by over 100 delegates debated the terms of a plan for a new university; these New Yorkers believed the city needed a university designed for young men who would be admitted based upon merit rather than birthright or social class. On April 18, 1831, an institution was established, with the support of a group of prominent New York City residents from the city's merchants and traders. Albert Gallatin was elected as the institution's first president. On April 21, 1831, the new institution received its charter and was incorporated as the University of the City of New York by the New York State Legislature.
The university has been popularly known as New York University since its inception and was renamed New York University in 1896. In 1832, NYU held its first classes in rented rooms of four-story Clinton Hall, situated near City Hall. In 1835, the School of Law, NYU's first professional school, was established. Although the impetus to found a new school was a reaction by evangelical Presbyterians to what they perceived as the Episcopalianism of Columbia College, NYU was created non-denominational, unlike many American colleges at the time. American Chemical Society was founded in 1876 at NYU, it became one of the nation's largest universities, with an enrollment of 9,300 in 1917. NYU had its Washington Square campus since its founding; the university purchased a campus at University Heights in the Bronx because of overcrowding on the old campus. NYU had a desire to follow New York City's development further uptown. NYU's move to the Bronx occurred in 1894, spearheaded by the efforts of Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken.
The University Heights campus was far more spacious. As a result, most of the university's operations along with the undergraduate College of Arts and Science and School of Engineering were housed there. NYU's administrative operations were moved to the new campus, but the graduate schools of the university remained at Washington Square. In 1914, Washington Square College was founded as the downtown undergraduate college of NYU. In 1935, NYU opened the "Nassau College-Hofstra Memorial of New York University at Hempstead, Long Island"; this extension would become a independent Hofstra University. In 1950, NYU was elected to the Association of American Universities, a nonprofit organization of leading public and private research universities. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, financial crisis gripped the New York City government and the troubles spread to the city's institutions, including NYU. Feeling the pressures of imminent bankruptcy, NYU President James McNaughton Hester negotiated the sale of the University Heights campus to the City University of New York, which occurred in 1973.
In 1973, the New York University School of Engineering and Science merged into Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, which merged back into NYU in 2014 forming the present Tandon School of Engineering. After the sale of the Bronx campus, University College merged with Washington Square College. In the 1980s, under the leadership of President John Brademas, NYU launched a billion-dollar campaign, spent entirely on updating facilities; the campaign was set to complete in 15 years, but ended up being completed in 10. In 1991, L. Jay Oliva was inaugurated the 14th president of the university. Following his inauguration, he moved to form the League of World Universities, an international organization consisting of rectors and presidents from urban universities across six continents; the league and its 47 representatives gather every two years to discuss global issues in education. In 2003 President John Sexton launched a $2.5 billion campaign for funds to be spent on faculty and financial aid resources.
Under Sextons leadership, NYU began its radical transformation into a global university. In 2009, the university responded to a series of New York Times interviews that showed a pattern of labor abuses in its fledgling Abu Dhabi location, creating a statement of
1968 Summer Olympics
The 1968 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XIX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Mexico City, from October 12th to the 27th. These were the first Olympic Games to be staged in Latin America and the first to be staged in a Spanish-speaking country, they were the first Games to use an all-weather track for track and field events instead of the traditional cinder track. The 1968 Games were the third to be held in the last quarter of the year, after the 1956 Games in Melbourne and the 1964 Games in Tokyo; the Mexican Student Movement of 1968 happened concurrently and the Olympic Games were correlated to the government's repression. On October 18, 1963, at the 60th IOC Session in Baden-Baden, West Germany, Mexico City finished ahead of bids from Detroit, Buenos Aires and Lyon to host the Games; the 1968 torch relay recreated the route taken by Christopher Columbus to the New World, journeying from Greece through Italy and Spain to San Salvador Island, on to Mexico. American sculptor James Metcalf, an expatriate in Mexico, won the commission to forge the Olympic torch for the 1968 Summer Games.
In the medal award ceremony for the men's 200 meter race, black American athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos took a stand for civil rights by raising their black-gloved fists and wearing black socks in lieu of shoes. The Australian Peter Norman, who had run second, wore an American "civil rights" badge as support to them on the podium. In response, the IOC banned Smith and Carlos from the Olympic Games for life, Norman's omission from Australia's Olympic team in 1972 was as punishment. George Foreman won the gold medal in heavyweight boxing division by defeating Soviet Ionas Chepulis via a second-round TKO. After the victory, Foreman waved a small American flag; the high elevation of Mexico City, at 2,240 m above sea level, influenced many of the events in track and field. No other Summer Olympic Games before or since have been held at high elevation. In addition to high elevation, this was the first Olympics to use a synthetic all-weather surface for track and field events; the tracks at previous Olympics were conventional cinder.
For the first time and West Germany competed as separate teams, after being forced by the IOC to compete as a combined German team in 1956, 1960, 1964. Al Oerter won his fourth consecutive gold medal in the discus to become only the second athlete to achieve this feat in an individual event, the first in track & field. Bob Beamon leapt 8.90 m in the long jump, an incredible 55 cm improvement over the previous world record. It remained the Olympic record and stood as the world record for 23 years, until broken by American Mike Powell in 1991. Jim Hines, Tommie Smith and Lee Evans set long-standing world records in the 100 m, 200 m and 400 m, respectively. In the triple jump, the previous world record was improved five times by three different athletes. Winner Viktor Saneev won in 1972 and 1976, won silver in 1980. Dick Fosbury won the gold medal in the high jump using his unconventional Fosbury flop technique, which became the dominant technique in the event. Věra Čáslavská of Czechoslovakia won four gold medals in gymnastics and protested the Soviet invasion of her country.
Debbie Meyer became the first swimmer to win three individual gold medals, in the 200, 400 and 800 m freestyle events. The 800 m was a new long-distance event for women. Meyer was only 16 years old, a student at Rio Americano High School in California. Meyer was the first of several American teenagers to win the 800 m. American swimmer Charlie Hickcox won three gold medals and one silver medal; the introduction of doping tests resulted in the first disqualification because of doping: Swedish pentathlete Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall was disqualified for alcohol use. John Stephen Akhwari of Tanzania became internationally famous after finishing the marathon, in the last place, despite a dislocated knee; this was the first of three Olympic participation by Jacques Rogge. He competed in yachting and would become the president of the IOC. Norma Enriqueta Basilio de Sotelo of Mexico became the first woman to light the Olympic cauldron with the Olympic flame, it was the first games. Africans won at least one medal in all running events from 800 meters to the marathon, in so doing they set a trend for future games.
Most of these runners came from high-altitude areas of countries like Kenya and Ethiopia, they were well-prepared for the 2240 m elevation of Mexico City. Kipchoge Keino of Kenya, competing in spite of unexpected bouts of severe abdominal pain diagnosed as a gall bladder infection, finished the 10,000 meters in spite of collapsing from pain with two laps to go, won silver in the 5000, won gold in the 1500 meters, it was the first Olympic games in which the closing ceremony was transmitted in color to the world, as well as the events themselves. South Africa was provisionally invited to the Games, on the understanding that all segregation and discrimination in sport would be eliminated by the 1972 Games. However, African countries and African American athletes promised to boycott the Games if South Africa was present, Eastern Bloc countries threatened to do likewise. In April 1968 the IOC conceded that "it would be most unwise for South Africa to participate". Responding to growing social unrest and protests, the government of Me
St. Francis College
St. Francis College referred to as St. Francis of Brooklyn or SFC, is a private, coeducational college located in Brooklyn Heights, New York, it was founded in 1859 by the Franciscan Brothers of Brooklyn, a Franciscan order, as the St. Francis Academy and was the first private school in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Brooklyn. St. Francis College began as a parochial all-boys academy in the City of Brooklyn and has become a small liberal arts college that has 19 academic departments which offer 72 majors and minors. St. Francis College is a predominantly undergraduate institution, yet does have graduate programs in accounting, project management and creative writing. St. Francis has been ranked nationally and regionally by Forbes magazine, Washington Monthly, Money magazine and U. S. News & World Report as one of the top baccalaureate colleges. St. Francis is considered a commuter college; as of 2015, there were 78 graduates. The student to faculty ratio is 17:1 and 55.9% of classes have 20 or fewer students.
The 2,749 students that attend St. Francis College hail from over 80 countries. St. Francis College has been ranked by The New York Times and Forbes as one of the more diverse colleges in the United States. St. Francis College has 21 athletic teams that compete in Division I of the NCAA and are known as the Terriers. SFC's teams participate in the Northeast Conference, with the exception of the men's and women's water polo teams which compete in the CWPA and the MAAC, respectively. In 1858 Brother John McMahon, O. S. F. and Brother Vincent Hayes, O. S. F. from the Roundstone Monastery in Ireland came to the United States to begin work on establishing an academy dedicated to educating underprivileged youth in the Brooklyn diocese. This was done at the request of the Bishop of Reverend John Loughlin. In 1859 St. Francis College was founded as the St. Francis Academy, the first Catholic school in Brooklyn. St. Francis Academy started in a building on 300 Baltic Street in Cobble Hill, with 30 students and 6 Brothers.
The first President was founder Brother John McMahon. The Academy expanded and grew to encompass six row houses, with 150 feet of frontage and a former Methodist Church on Baltic Street. In 1868, the academy was incorporated and on May 8, 1884 it was chartered: the trustees of the Academy received permission from the New York State Legislature to “establish a literary college in the City of Brooklyn under the title of St. Francis College, with the same powers to confer diplomas and literary honors possessed by the universities and colleges of New York State.” St. Francis Academy became St. Francis College, in June 1885 bestowed its first Bachelor of Arts degree. By 1884, St. Francis College encompassed interconnected buildings that were on Baltic and Butler Streets, between Court and Smith Streets; the entrance to the College was on Baltic Street and the entrance to the monastery was on Butler Street. In June 1892, the college conferred it first Bachelor of Science degree. In 1896, St. Francis fielded the first collegiate men’s basketball team in the New York City.
In 1902 St. Francis received its charter from the State of New York in May. From this time on, the College’s curriculum offered only a post-secondary course of study. By 1917, the College's enrollment dropped to half due to students enlisting in the military as the United States entered World War I. In 1926, the Franciscan Brothers opened a new facility on Butler Street after raising USD$250,000 through a fundraising campaign dubbed the "Great Drive." Less than ten years its preparatory school moved out and became a separate institution, St. Francis Preparatory School, is now located in Queens; as the U. S. moved closer to its entrance into World War II, 240 students were enrolled at St. Francis. While the student body remained Irish, the changing demographics of working class Brooklyn were reflected by the growing number of Italian-American students. By the spring semester of 1944, when the war was at its peak, the number of students enrolled dropped to 45. Most of those still enrolled were members of the Franciscan order and those exempt from military service.
After the War and with the passage of the G. I. Bill, which paid tuition for returning soldiers, enrollment at St. Francis increased to 878 students. In 1957, the Regents of the University of the State of New York granted an absolute Charter to the Trustees of the College making it a separate legal entity from the St. Francis Monastery; the new corporate status enabled St. Francis students to qualify for federal financial aid. Shortly after, in 1959, the Middle States Commission on Higher Education accredited St. Francis College. After these developments the College embarked on an expansion program. In 1961, the college purchased the Herman Behr Mansion in Brooklyn Heights to serve as a residence for the Franciscan Brothers and signaled the move from Cobble Hill to Brooklyn Heights. In 1963 the College decided to move to Remsen Street in Brooklyn Heights, where it had purchased two office buildings from the Brooklyn Union Gas Company, allowing it to double its enrollment. One of the office buildings went on to become SFC's Administration Building, it was constructed in 1914, by Brooklyn architect Frank Freeman.
In 1965 the College started the expansion of its facilities with the construction of the Science and Technology Building in 1968, the Generoso Pope Athletic Complex in 1971, the Student Services Building which has housing to accommodate the Franciscan Brothers and provides space for faculty. In 1969, the college became a co-educational institution and additional property was purchased on both Remsen and Joralemon S
College basketball today is governed by collegiate athletic bodies including the United States's National Collegiate Athletic Association, the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics, the United States Collegiate Athletic Association, the National Junior College Athletic Association, the National Christian College Athletic Association. Governing bodies in Canada include the Canadian Collegiate Athletic Association; each of these various organizations are subdivided into from one to three divisions based on the number and level of scholarships that may be provided to the athletes. Each organization has different conferences to divide up the teams into groups. Teams are selected into these conferences depending on the location of the schools; these conferences are put in due to the regional play of the teams and to have a structural schedule for each to team to play for the upcoming year. During conference play the teams are ranked not only through the entire NCAA, but the conference as well in which they have tournament play leading into the NCAA tournament.
The history of basketball can be traced back to a YMCA International Training School, known today as Springfield College, located in Springfield, Massachusetts. The sport was created by a physical education teacher named James Naismith, who in the winter of 1891 was given the task of creating a game that would keep track athletes in shape and that would prevent them from getting hurt; the date of the first formal basketball game played at the Springfield YMCA Training School under Naismith's rules is given as December 21, 1891. Basketball began to be played at some college campuses by 1893; the first known college to field a basketball team against an outside opponent was Vanderbilt University, which played against the local YMCA in Nashville, Tennessee, on February 7, 1893. The second recorded instance of an organized college basketball game was Geneva College's game against the New Brighton YMCA on April 8, 1893, in Beaver Falls, which Geneva won 3–0; the first recorded game between two college teams occurred on February 9, 1895, when Hamline University faced Minnesota A&M. Minnesota A&M won the game, played under rules allowing nine players per side, 9–3.
The first intercollegiate match using the modern rule of five players per side is credited as a game between the University of Chicago and the University of Iowa, in Iowa City, Iowa, on January 18, 1896. The Chicago team won the game 15-12, under the coaching of Amos Alonzo Stagg, who had learned the game from James Naismith at the Springfield YMCA. However, some sources state the first "true" five-on-five intercollegiate match was a game in 1897 between Yale and Penn, because although the Iowa team that played Chicago in 1896 was composed of University of Iowa students, it did not represent the university, rather it was organized through a YMCA. By 1900, the game of basketball had spread to colleges across the country; the Amateur Athletic Union's annual U. S. national championship tournament featured collegiate teams playing against non-college teams. Four colleges won the AAU tournament championship: NYU, Butler and Washburn. College teams were runners-up in 1915, 1917, 1920, 1921, 1932 and 1934.
The first known tournament featuring college teams was the 1904 Summer Olympics, where basketball was a demonstration sport, a collegiate championship tournament was held. The Olympic title was won by Hiram College. In March 1908, a two-game "championship series" was organized between the University of Chicago and Penn, with games played in Philadelphia and Bartlett, Illinois. Chicago swept both games to win the series. In March 1922, the 1922 National Intercollegiate Basketball Tournament was held in Indianapolis – the first stand-alone post-season tournament for college teams; the champions of six major conferences participated: Pacific Coast Conference, Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association, Western Pennsylvania League, Illinois Intercollegiate Athletic Conference, Michigan Intercollegiate Athletic Association and Indiana Intercollegiate Athletic Association. The Western Conference and Eastern Intercollegiate League declined invitations to participate. Wabash College won the 1922 tournament.
The first organization to tout a occurring national collegiate championship was the NAIA in 1937, although it was surpassed in prestige by the National Invitation Tournament, or NIT, which brought six teams to New York's Madison Square Garden in the spring of 1938. Temple defeated Colorado in the first NIT tournament championship game, 60–36. In 1939, another national tournament was implemented by the National Collegiate Athletic Association; the location of the NCAA Tournament varied from year to year, it soon used multiple locations each year, so more fans could see games without traveling to New York. Although the NIT was created earlier and was more prestigious than the NCAA for many years, it lost popularity and status to the NCAA Tournament. In 1950, following a double win by the 1949–50 CCNY Beavers men's basketball team, the NCAA ruled that no team could compete in both tournaments, indicated that a team eligible for the NCAA tournament should play in it. Not long afterward, assisted by the 1951 scandals based in New York City, the NCAA tournament had become more prestigious than before, with conference champions and the majority of top-ranked teams competing there.
The NCAA tournament overtook the NIT by 1960. Through the 1960s and 1970s, with UCLA leading the way as winner
St. Francis Brooklyn Terriers men's basketball
The St. Francis Brooklyn Terriers men's basketball program represents St. Francis College in intercollegiate men's basketball; the team is a member of the Division I Northeast Conference. The Terriers play on the Peter Aquilone Court at the Generoso Pope Athletic Complex located on the St. Francis College Brooklyn Heights campus; the Terriers have hosted home games at Madison Square Garden and at the Barclays Center. The St. Francis Brooklyn men's basketball program was founded in 1896 and is the oldest collegiate program in New York City; the Terriers have an overall record of 1211–1281, 48.6 W–L%, over a 98-year span from the 1920–1921 to the 2018–2019 season. The program has won 6 regular season championships and has participated in 5 National Invitational Tournaments; as of 2010, Glenn Braica was announced as the 17th head coach in the history of the St. Francis Terriers men's basketball program. Braica was an assistant under Norm Roberts at St. John's University. Braica, in his sixth year with the team, has qualified for the NEC tournament six consecutive years and in 2015 led the team to its first post season tournament in 52 years.
The Terriers are one of only seven NCAA Division I programs in New York City and in 2011 attending a Terriers game was named one reason to love New York by New York Magazine in their seventh annual Reasons to Love New York 2011 piece. The Terriers are one of only four original Division I programs to have never participated in the NCAA tournament; the Terriers have been one win away from participating on three occasions, first in the 2000–01 season in the 2002–03 season, again in the 2014–15 season. Beginning on November 27, 2012, St. Francis College rebranded its Athletics programs from St. Francis to St. Francis Brooklyn; the change reflects the move of the Nets to Brooklyn and putting Brooklyn back on the map as a basketball mecca. The St. Francis College's men's basketball program was founded in 1896 and is the oldest collegiate program in New York City; the program had players on the court only 5 years after Dr. James Naismith invented the game in 1891; the College's first official game came in 1901 against Brown University.
The Boys from Brooklyn, as they were referred to, finished the 1901 season with a 13–1 mark. From the 1902 to the 1920 season the Terrier basketball records are incomplete. From 1920 to 1940 the Terriers compiled a 246–187 record and established themselves as a premier basketball program in New York City, playing their home games in Brooklyn; the Terriers had played as Independents for most of these years, but in 1933 they were a founding member of the now defunct Metropolitan New York Conference. The Terriers had 6 head coaches during this period, the most successful of, Rody Cooney. Who in his 9 years at the helm of the program didn't have a single losing season and compiled a 116–77 record. During this period the Terriers had their first 20-win season, head coach Frank Brennan led the 1922–23 Terrier squad to a 21–8 record. Joseph Brennan is the Terriers head coach with the highest winning percentage and he was elected to the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame in 1975. Brennan helped make the Terriers into a popular team during New York City's Basketball glory days of the 1940s and 50s.
Due to their popularity the Terriers would play around 2 or 3 games a year at Madison Square Garden and the Terrier's were one of the few programs hosting big Division I games in Brooklyn at the Park Slope Armory, their home court. Brennan's 1942 squad averaged 59 points per game, quite high during those years; the Terriers had the first college player to score 20 or more points at Madison Square Garden, Vincent T. Agoglia, he did it twice in the 1941–1942 season, first against LaSalle College of Philadelphia. Brennan ended his head coaching career with a 90–46 record over 7 seasons; the greatest head coach in the programs history is Daniel Lynch. Lynch was a graduate of St. Francis College and played basketball at his alma mater from 1934–38 under head coach Rody Cooney; when Lynch took over in 1948 the Terriers became the first team in the New York City area to have a game televised. The Terriers defeated Seton Hall in its inaugural telecast on WPIX. Lynch is the Terrier head coach with the most wins in the programs history.
Part of that wins total came during a 6-year span from 1950 to 1956, where Lynch guided the Terriers to five consecutive winning seasons going 121–43. From 1949–1951 the Terriers participated in 4 National Catholic Invitational Tournaments; the NCIT was a premier post-season tournament in those years. The Terriers went to the NCIT finals three consecutive times and won the Championship in 1951. Lynch's 1950–51 squad defeated the Seattle University Redhawks 93–79 in the Championship game. Ray Rudzinski scored 26 points, Vernon Stokes scored 22 and Roy Reardon scored 21 points in the NCIT Championship that took place in Albany, New York; the Terriers appeared in the 1955 NAIA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament, losing in the first round to Quincy University. St. Francis first participated in the NAIA District 31 playoffs to qualify for the tournament, in it they defeated St. Peter's and Panzer College, their record in the tournament have only made one appearance in their history. Lynch led the Terriers to 3 NIT appearances.
Lynch's 1953–54 squad won the Metropolitan New York Conference Regular Season Championship and were invited to the 1954 NIT where they defeated Louisville in the first round before losing to Holy Cross in the Quarterfinals. The 1955–56 squad won the Metropolitan New York Conference Regular Season Championship and participated in the 1956 NIT, they went as far as the 3rd place game where th
National Invitation Tournament
The National Invitation Tournament is a men's college basketball tournament operated by the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Played at regional sites and at Madison Square Garden in New York City each March and April, it was founded in 1938 and was the most prestigious post-season showcase for college basketball. Over time it became eclipsed by the NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament – known today informally as "March Madness"; the NIT has since been regarded more as a "consolation" tournament for teams that did not receive a berth in the NCAA tournament. A second, much more recent "NIT" tournament is played in November and known as the NIT Season Tip-Off; the "Preseason NIT", it was founded in 1985. Like the postseason NIT, its final rounds are played at Madison Square Garden. Both tournaments were operated by the Metropolitan Intercollegiate Basketball Association until 2005, when they were purchased by the NCAA, the MIBA disbanded. Unless otherwise qualified, the terms "NIT" or "National Invitation Tournament" refer to the post-season tournament in both common and official use.
The post-season National Invitation Tournament was founded in 1938 by the Metropolitan Basketball Writers Association, one year after the NAIA Tournament was created by basketball's inventor Dr. James Naismith, one year before the NCAA Tournament; the first NIT was won by the Temple University Owls over the Colorado Buffaloes. Responsibility for the NIT's administration was transferred in 1940 to the Metropolitan Intercollegiate Basketball Committee, a body of local New York colleges: Fordham University, Manhattan College, New York University, St. John's University, Wagner College; this became the Metropolitan Intercollegiate Basketball Association in 1948. The tournament invited a field of 6 teams, with all games played at Madison Square Garden in downtown Manhattan; the field was expanded to 8 teams in 1941, 12 in 1949, 14 in 1965, 16 in 1968, 24 in 1979, 32 in 1980, 40 from 2002 through 2006. In 2007, the tournament reverted to the current 32-team format. In its early years, the NIT offered some advantages over the NCAA tournament: There was limited national media coverage of college basketball in the 1930s and'40s, playing in New York City provided teams greater media exposure, both with the general public and among high school prospects in its rich recruiting territory.
The NCAA tournament selection committee invited only one team each from eight national regions leaving better quality selections and natural rivals out of its field, which would opt for the NIT. From its onset and at least into the mid-1950s, the NIT was regarded as the most prestigious showcase for college basketball. All-American at Princeton and NBA champion with the New York Knicks and United States Senator Bill Bradley stated: In the 1940's, when the NCAA tournament was less than 10 years old, the National Invitation Tournament, a saturnalia held in New York at Madison Square Garden by the Metropolitan Intercollegiate Basketball Association, was the most glamorous of the post-season tournaments and had the better teams; the winner of the National Invitation Tournament was regarded as more of a national champion than the actual, national champion, or winner of the NCAA tournament. Several teams played in both the NIT and NCAA tournaments in the same year, beginning with Colorado and Duquesne in 1940.
Colorado subsequently finished fourth in the NCAA West Region. In 1944, Utah lost its first game in the NIT but proceeded to win not only the NCAA tournament, but the subsequent Red Cross War Charities benefit game in which they defeated NIT champion St. John's at Madison Square Garden. In 1949, some Kentucky players were bribed by gamblers to lose their first round game in the NIT; this same Kentucky team went on to win the NCAA. In 1950, City College of New York won both the NIT and the NCAA tournaments in the same season, coincidentally defeating Bradley University in the championship game of both tournaments, remains the only school to accomplish that feat because of an NCAA committee change in the early 1950s prohibiting a team from competing in both tournaments; the champions of both the NCAA and NIT tournaments played each other for a few years during World War II. From 1943 to 1945, the American Red Cross sponsored a postseason charity game between each year's tournament champions to raise money for the war effort.
The series was described by Ray Meyer as not just benefit games, but as "really the games for the national championship". The NCAA champion prevailed in all three games; the Helms Athletic Foundation retroactively selected the NIT champion as its national champion for 1938, chose the NIT champion over the NCAA champion once, in 1939. More the mathematically based Premo-Porretta Power Poll published in the ESPN College Basketball Encyclopedia retroactively ranked teams for each season prior to 1949, with the NIT champion finishing ahead of the NCAA champion in 1939 and 1941. Premo-Porretta ranks four NCAA champions as the best for each season, the rest being non-championship winning teams. Between 1939 and 1970, when teams could compete in either tournament, only DePaul, San Francisco and Holy Cross claim or celebrate national championships for their teams based on an NIT championship, although Long Island recognizes its selection as the 1939 national champion by the Helms Athletic Foundation, made in 1943.
In 1943 the NCAA tournament moved to share Madison Square Garden with the NIT in an effort to increase the credibility of the NCAA Tournament. In 1945, The New York Times indicated that many teams could get bids to enter either tournament, not unco
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr