Bresse is a former French province. It is located in the regions of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté of eastern France; the geographical term Bresse has two meanings: Bresse bourguignonne, situated in the east of the department of Saône-et-Loire, Bresse, located in the department of Ain. The corresponding adjective is bressan, the inhabitants are Bressans. Bresse extends from the Dombes on the south to the Doubs River on the north, from the Saône eastwards to the Jura mountains, measuring some 60 miles in the former, 20 miles in the latter direction, it is a plain varying from 600 to 800 feet above the sea, with few eminences and a slight inclination westwards. Heaths and coppice alternate with pastures and arable land, its chief rivers are all tributaries of the Saône. The soil is a gravelly clay but moderately fertile, cattle-raising is carried on; the region is, more celebrated for its table poultry. During the Middle Ages Bresse belonged to the lords of Bâgé, from whom it passed to the House of Savoy in 1272.
It was not until the first half of the 15th century that the province, with Bourg as its capital, was founded as such. In 1601 it was ceded to France by the Treaty of Lyon, after which it formed first a separate government and part of the government of Burgundy. Bâgé was the principal city of the province, but its location, close to the borders of France, encouraged the emergence of Bourg-en-Bresse, which became the capital. The province was coveted by the King of France; the flat nature of Bresse was difficult to defend. The sovereigns of Savoy agreed to relocate to the Alpine part of the Duchy and to give up Bresse and Bugey in exchange for Château-Dauphin in Piedmont. Bresse is noted for the 1,200,000 chickens per year which are raised outdoors by 330 stockbreeders, with a minimum of 10 square metres per bird, they are sold at an average of 10 euros per kilo. The chickens of Bresse ranging were the first animals to have an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée. Bresse chickens are noted as the best quality chicken for cooking.
The Bleu de Bresse cheese originates here. Bourg-en-Bresse Louhans A chiefly rural region, Bresse was organized around an agricultural economy; the countryside is bocage, resulting in independent individuals within the community, organized around the parish and the commune. Social structures are defined by a mixture of conservatism, attachment to ancestral values, direct democratic participation in community life; the traditional festival costumes of Bresse are preserved by historical societies. They include, in the shape of plate, topped by a black cone. For men, they comprise a long bonnet, long trousers and shoes; the "conscripts' festival" is a ceremony for young people, 20 years of age. It has its roots in the period of "conscription" founded by General Jourdan in 1798, who required that every man between 20 and 25 years could be called to national service; the people organized festivals before their departure. The ceremonies survive to the present, are appreciated by the population, seeing them as a way of maintaining social bonds.
These festivals take place between January and March. The people gather in a large banquet during which traditional "rigodon" music is played by two musicians, on clarinet and drum; the banquet is organized by 20-year-old people, who make it a point of honor to invite each guest to visit their home. They are given rosettes, in distinctive designs corresponding to their age; the conscripts' festivals coincide with patron saints' days. Those are the occasions of a weekend festival. Bressan, a dialect of the Franco-Provençal language, was the principal language of informal communication in the Bressan countryside until the 1950s, it is still spoken, though more rarely. The church of Brou Saracen chimneys Bressan farmsVisit Bresse and Louhans, the true France This article is based on the equivalent French-language Wikipedia article
Azé is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France. Communes of the Saône-et-Loire department INSEE statistics
Ameugny is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France. The river Grosne flows through the commune. Communes of the Saône-et-Loire department INSEE statistics Official website Ameugny Notre-Dame
Autun is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department, France. Located in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region, it was founded during the Principate era of the early Roman Empire by Emperor Augustus as Augustodunum to give a Roman capital to the Gallic people Aedui, who had Bibracte as their political centre. In Roman times the city may have been home to 30,000 to 100,000 people, according to different estimates. Nowadays, Autun has a population of about 15,000. Augustodunum was founded during the reign of the first Roman emperor, after whom it was named, it was the civitas "tribal capital" of the Aedui, Continental Celts, allies and "brothers" of Rome since before Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars. Augustodunum was a planned foundation replacing the original oppidum Bibracte, located some 25 km away. Several elements of Roman architecture such as walls, a Roman theater are still visible in the town. In AD 356, a force of Alemanni brought the siege of Autun; the disrepair of the walls left the city in danger of falling.
Autun was saved by the arrival of the Emperor Julian in one of his early military successes. In Late Antiquity, Autun became famous for its schools of rhetoric. A world map based on the Geography of Ptolemy was famous for its size and was displayed in the portico of one of the schools, it may have survived until early modern times. In 532 the Merovingian kings Childebert I and Clothar I in battle of Autun defeated the Burgundians led by king Godomar and took over the country of Burgundy. In 725, the Umayyad general Anbasa ibn Suhaym Al-Kalbi marched up the Saône valley to Autun. On 22 August 725 he captured the town after defeating forces led by the local bishop, Émilien of Nantes, slain during the course of the battle. Autun marks the easternmost extent of the Umayyad campaign in Europe. However, the position was never retained, Anbasa died soon after; the Umayyads are known to have raided the lower Rhone during the next decade, but Uzès was their northernmost stronghold and Marseille the easternmost coastal stronghold.
In 880, Count Richard of Autun was made the first duke of Burgundy. In 1788, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord became bishop of Autun, he was elected member of the clergy for the Estates-General of 1789. The High School plays an important role in the history of the city and France since Napoleon, who gave it its current name and whose brothers Joseph and Lucien studied there; this school continues to operate today. The decorated wrought iron gates were erected in 1772. During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, the leader of the Army of the Vosges, Giuseppe Garibaldi, chose the city as his headquarters; the city boasts other ruins dating to the time of Augustus. One of the most impressive remains is that of the ancient theatre, one of the largest in the western part of the empire with a 17,000 seat capacity. To the northwest of the city is the so-called Temple of Janus, only two walls of which remain. To the southeast is the mysterious Pierre de Couhard, a rock pyramid of uncertain function which may date to Roman times.
The Autun Cathedral known as Saint Lazare's Cathedral, dates from the early twelfth century and is a major example of Romanesque architecture. It was the chapel of the Dukes of Burgundy; the cathedral was built as a pilgrimage church for the veneration of the relic Saint Lazarus, mentioned in the Gospels, considered the first bishop of Marseille, who, always according to tradition, arrived in Provence with Mary Magdalen. Autun's 12th-century bishop, Étienne de Bâgé built the church in response to the construction of Ste. Madeleine at nearby Vézelay, home to the French cult of Mary Magdalene. St. Lazare was only elevated to the rank of cathedral, replacing the former cathedral dedicated to St. Nazaire; the Autun Cathedral is famous for its architectural sculpture the tympanum of The Last Judgment above the west portal, surviving fragments from the lost portal of the north transept, the capitals in the nave and choir. All of these are traditionally considered the work of Gislebertus, whose name is on the west tympanum.
It is uncertain or of a patron. If Gislebertus is in fact the artist, he is one of few medieval artists whose name is known. Bishop and Saint Leodegar Nivelon I was known as Count of Autun In the late 9th century, Charles Martel's daughter married Thierry IV, Count of Autun. In the late 9th century, the countship was vacant after the death of Robert the Strong, but was returned to Bernard Plantapilosa, son of Bernard of Septimania, later to Bernard of Gothia after Bernard fell out of favor. In 878, King Louis the Younger gave it to his chamberlain, Theodoric. Honorius Augustodunensis Nicolas Rolin, Chancellor of Burgundy under Philip the Good, came from Autun, where several examples of his artistic patronage can be seen; the Rolin Madonna, by Jan van Eyck, in the Louvre, shows what was at least intended as a view of Autun in the background. In 1837, a commercial mining of oil shale deposit near Autun marked the beginning of the modern oil shale industry. In 1852, the uranium mineral autunite was first discovered near Autun, named for the town.
Autun is the main setting for James Salter's 1967 novel "A Sport and a Pastime". The European Triathlon Championships were held in the town in 20
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
Bantanges is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in the region of Bourgogne in eastern France. The Seille forms the commune's northwestern border; the Sâne Morte forms most of the commune's southeastern border. Communes of the Saône-et-Loire department INSEE statistics
Anost is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in Bourgogne in eastern France. Communes of the Saône-et-Loire department Parc naturel régional du Morvan INSEE statistics Bootes.be Anost.fr