Couvent des Jacobins de la rue Saint-Jacques
The Couvent Saint-Jacques, Grand couvent des Jacobins or Couvent des Jacobins de la rue Saint-Jacques was a Dominican monastery on rue Saint-Jacques in Paris. Its complex was between what are now rue Soufflot and rue Cujas and its teaching activities was the origin of the collège des Jacobins, a college of the historic university of Paris. The Dominican order established a base in Paris in 1217 in a house near Notre-Dame, in 1218 Jean Barastre gave the order a house with a chapel near the city walls. Major benefactions from Louis IX of France allowed the order to complete its church and build a dormitory, a rich merchant named Hennequin gave the order a gift in 1556 which enabled it to rebuild its cloister. Its study room, known as the Écoles Saint-Thomas, was rebuilt in 1563. A few years before the French Revolution this room was used for services, since the church closed, the monastery was suppressed in 1790 and its buildings demolished between 1800 and 1849. ---> The monastery church housed many notable tombs, the guts of king Philip V of France Philip VI of France.
Claude Dormy, Bishop of Boulogne-sur-Mer, Pierre de Rostrenen, chamberlain to Charles VII, the poet Jean de Meung, who continued the roman de la Rose
Robert III of Artois
He was briefly Earl of Richmond in 1341 after the death of John III, Duke of Brittany. Robert was the son of Philip of Artois, Lord of Conches-en-Ouche and he was only eleven when his father died on 11 September 1298 from wounds he received at the Battle of Furnes on 20 August 1297 against the Flemish people. The early death of his father was a cause of the dispute over the succession to the County of Artois. After the death of his grandfather, Robert II, Count of Artois, in the Battle of Courtrai in 1302, because of his age, Robert III could not object to his aunt and assert the rights which he inherited from his father. The rancor and intrigues between Mahaut and Robert occurred within a period of strife between France and England, before the Hundred Years War, Robert played an important role in the succession of Philip VI of France to the throne, and was his trusted adviser for some time. From this he drew a certain influence in the council which he used to try to wrest from Mahaut what he considered his county.
At Mahauts death in 1329, the passed to her daughter Joan II. Building on the example of the estate of the County of Flanders, Artois was put under the custody of the King of France. However, in 1331, he used a forgery created by Jeanne Divion attesting to the will of his father and this deception was discovered, and Robert lost any hope of acquiring Artois. The forger Divion was condemned at the stake, roberts property was confiscated by Philip in 1331, and his wife and his sons John and Charles imprisoned. Robert fled France in 1332 to escape arrest and execution, and took refuge with his nephew John II, Philip requested that the Bishop of Liège attack Namur. Accordingly, Robert fled again to John III, Duke of Brabant, the influence of Philip stirred up a war against Brabant, and Robert was exiled again, this time to England. There he joined Edward III and urged Edward–whose wife Philippa of Hainault descended from Charles of Valois–to start a war to reclaim the Kingdom of France. While in England, he became a member of Edwards royal council, Robert followed Edward in his campaigns thereafter, including command of the Anglo-Flemish army at the Battle of Saint-Omer in 1340.
He ultimately succumbed to dysentery after being wounded while retreating from the city of Vannes in November 1342 and he was originally buried in the Blackfriars church, in London, though his grave is now in St. Pauls Cathedral. Around 1320 Robert married Joan of Valois, Countess of Beaumont, Robert III of Artois is a major character in Les Rois maudits, a series of French historical novels by Maurice Druon in which many of these events are retold. He was played by Jean Piat in the 1972 French miniseries adaptation of the series, list of works by James Pradier
Joan II of Navarre
Joan II was Queen of Navarre from 1328 until her death. She was the surviving child of Louis X of France, King of France and Navarre. Joans paternity was dubious because her mother was involved in a scandal, the French lords were opposed to the idea of a female monarch and elected Louis Xs brother, Philip V, king. The Navarrese noblemen did homage to Philip, after Philip V married his daughter to Odo and granted him two counties as her dowry, Odo renounced Joans claim to Champagne and Brie in exchange for a compensation in March 1318. Joan married Philip of Évreux, who was a member of the French royal family, Philip V was succeeded by his brother, Charles IV, in both France and Navarre in 1322, but most Navarrese lords refused to swear loyalty to him. After Charles IV died in 1328, the Navarrese expelled the French governor, in France, Philip of Valois was crowned king. He concluded an agreement with Joan and her husband, who renounced Joans claims to Champagne and her husband were together crowned in Pamplona Cathedral on 5 March 1329.
The royal couple closely cooperated during their joint reign, but Philip of Évreux was more active, they mostly lived in their French domains. Navarre was administered by governors during their absence, Joan was the daughter of Louis, King of Navarre, and his wife, Margaret of Burgundy. Her father was the oldest son of and heir to Philip IV of France, Joans mother and Margarets sisters-in-law and Blanche of Burgundy, were arrested, together with two knights, the brothers Philip and Walter of Aunay, in 1314. After being tortured, one of the brothers confessed that they had been the lovers of Margaret, the Aunay brothers were soon executed, and Margaret and Blanche were imprisoned. Before long, Margaret died in her prison in Château Gaillard, after the scandal, the legitimacy of Joan became dubious, because her mother was accused of having had an extramarital affair around the year of Joans birth. Philip IV died on 26 November 1314, and Joans father became Louis X of France, Louis stated that Joan was his legitimate daughter on his deathbed.
His second wife, Clementia of Hungary, was pregnant and it was agreed that Joan was to be sent to her mothers relatives in Burgundy, but her marriage could not be decided without the consent of the members of the French royal family. Clementia gave birth to a son, John the Posthumous, on 13 November 1316, instead, he made arrangements for his own coronation, which took place in Reims on 9 January 1317. The Estates-General of 1317, an assembly of the French lords strengthened Philips position on 2 February, the Navarrese noblemen sent a delegation to Paris to swear fidelity to Philip. Philip refused to give Champagne and Brie to Joan, Joans maternal grandmother, Agnes of France, Duchess of Burgundy, sent letters to the leading French lords, protesting against his coronation, but Philip V mounted the throne without real opposition. Letters were written to the lords of Champagne in Joans name, urging them to refrain from paying homage to Philip, Philip Vs uncle, Charles of Valois, defeated Joans supporters
Philip V of France
Philip V, the Tall, was King of France and King of Navarre. He reigned from 1316 to his death and was the monarch of the main line of the House of Capet. As the second son of king Philip IV, he was entitled to an appanage, when Louis died in 1316, he left a daughter and a pregnant wife, Clementia of Hungary. Philip the Tall successfully claimed the regency, Queen Clementia gave birth to a boy, who was proclaimed king as John I, but the infant king lived only for five days. At the death of his nephew, Philip immediately had himself crowned at Reims, his legitimacy was challenged by the party of Louis X’s daughter Joan. The succession of Philip, instead of Joan, set the precedent for the French royal succession that would be known as the Salic law. A spontaneous popular crusade started in Normandy in 1320 aiming to liberate Iberia from the Moors, instead the angry populace marched to the south attacking castles, royal officials, priests and Jews. Philip V engaged in a series of reforms intended to improve the management of the kingdom.
These reforms included the creation of an independent Court of Finances, the standardization of weights and measures, Philip V died from dysentery in 1322 without a male heir and was succeeded by his younger brother Charles IV. Philip was born in Lyon, the son of King Philip IV of France. His father granted to him the county of Poitiers in appanage, modern historians have described Philip V as a man of considerable intelligence and sensitivity, and the wisest and politically most apt of Philip IVs three sons. At the heart of the problems for both Philip IV and Louis X were taxes and the difficulty in raising them outside of crises, Philip married Joan, the eldest daughter of Count Otto IV of Burgundy, in 1307. The original plan had been for Louis X to marry Joan, Philip went to great lengths not only to endow Joan with lands and money but to try to ensure that these gifts were irrevocable in the event of his early death. Amongst the various gifts were a palace, additional money for jewels, and her servants and the property of all the Jews in Burgundy, which he gave to Joan in 1318.
Joan was implicated in Margarets adultery case during 1314, Margaret was accused and convicted of adultery with two knights, upon the testimony of their sister-in-law, Isabella. Joan was suspected of having known about the adultery, placed under house arrest at Dourdan as punishment. With Philips support she continued to protest her innocence, and by 1315 her name had been cleared by the Paris Parlement, partially through Philips influence and it is unclear why Philip stood by her in the way that he did. Philips older brother, Louis X, died in 1316 leaving the pregnant Clementia of Hungary as his widow
Louis VIII of France
Louis VIII the Lion was King of France from 1223 to 1226. He claimed the title King of England from 1216 to 1217, Louis VIII was born in Paris, the son of King Philip II of France and Isabelle of Hainaut, from whom he inherited the County of Artois. While Louis VIII only briefly reigned as king of France, he was a leader in his years as crown prince. During the First Barons War of 1215-17 against King John of England, after his victory at the Battle of Roche-au-Moine in 1214, he invaded southern England and was proclaimed King of England by rebellious barons in London on the 2 June 1216. He was never crowned and renounced his claim after being excommunicated and repelled, in 1217, Louis started the conquest of Guyenne, leaving only a small region around Bordeaux to Henry III of England. Louiss short reign was marked by an intervention using royal forces into the Albigensian Crusade in southern France that decisively moved the conflict towards a conclusion and he died in 1226 and was succeeded by his son Louis IX.
In summer 1195, a marriage between Louis and Eleanor of Brittany, niece of Richard I of England, was suggested for an alliance between Philip II and Richard, but it failed and this led to a sudden deterioration in relations between Richard and Philip. On 23 May 1200, at the age of 12, Louis was married to Blanche of Castile, daughter of King Alfonso VIII of Castile and Eleanor of England, the marriage could only be concluded after prolonged negotiations between King Philip II of France and Blanches uncle John. In 1214, King John of England began his campaign to reclaim the Duchy of Normandy from Philip II. John was optimistic, as he had built up alliances with Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV, Count Renaud of Boulogne. Johns plan was to split Philips forces by pushing north-east from Poitou towards Paris, while Otto and Ferdinand, supported by the Earl of Salisbury, marched south-west from Flanders. Whereas Philip II took personal command of the front against the emperor and his allies. The first part of the campaign went well for the English, with John outmanoeuvring the forces under the command of Prince Louis, John besieged the castle of Roche-au-Moine, a key stronghold, forcing Louis to give battle against Johns larger army.
The local Angevin nobles refused to advance with the king, left at something of a disadvantage, shortly afterwards, Philip won the hard-fought Battle of Bouvines in the north against Otto and Johns other allies, bringing an end to Johns hopes of retaking Normandy. In 1215, the English barons rebelled against the unpopular King John in the First Barons War, the barons offered the throne to Prince Louis, who landed unopposed on the Isle of Thanet in eastern Kent, England, at the head of an army on 21 May 1216. There was little resistance when the prince entered London, and Louis was proclaimed king at Old St Pauls Cathedral with great pomp and celebration in the presence of all of London. Even though he was not crowned, many nobles, as well as King Alexander II of Scotland on behalf of his English possessions, on 14 June 1216, Louis captured Winchester and soon controlled over half of the English kingdom. But just when it seemed that England was his, King Johns death in October 1216 caused many of the barons to desert Louis in favour of Johns nine-year-old son
John III, Duke of Brabant
John III was Duke of Brabant and Limburg. He was the son of John II, Duke of Brabant, in 1311, as his fathers gesture of rapprochement with France, John married Marie dÉvreux, the daughter of count Louis dÉvreux and Margaret of Artois. They had six children, Duchess of Brabant, married first to William IV, Count of Holland and second to Wenceslaus of Luxemburg. Married Marie of France Henri Lord of Limburg and Mechelen in 1347, godfrey Lord of Aarschot in 1346. The early fourteenth century, a boom time for Brabant, marks the rise of the Duchys towns. By 1356 his daughter and son-in-law were forced to accept the famous Joyous Entry as a condition for their recognition, so powerful had the States of Brabant become. In 1332, a crisis with the king of France arose over Johns hospitality to Robert, count of Flanders, in response to French pressure John reminded Philip that he did not hold Brabant from him but from God alone. The support of France strengthened Johns hand with his feudal suzerein, though he was technically the Emperors feudal vassal, John had been able to ignore Emperor Louis IVs summons to join him in his intended invasion of Lombardy.
The separation of Brabant from the Empire was completed by the Burgundian dukes of Brabant in the fifteenth century, the princes of the Low Countries settled their differences and formed a coalition against Brabant with a defensive alliance in June 1333. War was briefly brought to the Duchy of Brabant in the summer of 1334, but resolved by a peace brokered by Philip at Amiens. When Edward III of England decided to press his claim to the crown of France in 1337, John, to Edwards diplomatic offensive to draw Brabant away from France, John lent a sympathetic ear. Disrupting the staple connection between the towns of Flanders and the sources of English wool should divert it to the towns of Brabant, notably the recently established wool exchange. The same month of July 1337 John promised Edward 1200 of his men-at-arms in the event of an English campaign in France, in August Edward pledged not to negotiate with the king without prior consultation with the duke. The alliance, kept secret at Johns insistence, came into the open when Edward landed with his troops at Antwerp July 1338.
John received the subsidy and agreed in June to betroth Johns second daughter, Margaret, to Edward. Margaret was now to marry Louis of Male, who had inherited the title of count of Flanders, but whose power against the Flemish communes was virtually nil. A point of dispute with the count of Flanders had been the Lordship of Mechelen, despite the diplomacy of Edward, John remained true to his French commitments until his death in December 1355. In 1350, Jews were persecuted in Brabant, in 1355, when his two surviving sons died one right after the other, John was forced to declare his daughter Joan his heiress, which would provoke a succession crisis after his death
Philip III of France
It can refer to Philippe III de Croÿ and Philippe III, Duke of Orléans. Philip III, called the Bold, was King of France from 1270 to 1285, Philip proved indecisive, soft in nature, and timid. The strong personalities of his parents apparently crushed him, and policies of his father dominated him, people called him the Bold on the basis of his abilities in combat and on horseback and not on the basis of his political or personal character. He was pious but not cultivated and he followed the suggestions of others, first of Pierre de La Broce and of his uncle King Charles I of Naples and Albania. His father, Louis IX, died in Tunis during the Eighth Crusade, who was accompanying him, came back to France to claim his throne and was anointed at Reims in 1271. Philip made numerous territorial acquisitions during his reign, the most notable being the County of Toulouse which was annexed to the Crown lands of France in 1271. Following the Sicilian Vespers, a rebellion triggered by Peter III of Aragon against Philips uncle Charles I of Naples, Philip was forced to retreat and died from dysentry in Perpignan in 1285.
He was succeeded by his son Philip the Fair, Philip was born in Poissy to King Saint Louis IX of France and Margaret of Provence, queen consort of France. As a younger son, Philip was not expected to rule a kingdom, at the death of his elder brother Louis in 1260, he became the heir to the throne. He was 15 years old and has less skill than his brother, being of a character, submissive and versatile. Pope Urban IV released Philip from his oath on June 6,1263, from 1268 Pierre de La Brosse became mentor. Saint Louis provided him his own advice, writing in particular Enseignements and he received a very faith-oriented education. Guillaume dErcuis was his chaplain before being the tutor of his son, as Count of Orléans, he accompanied his father to the Eighth Crusade in Tunis,1270. After taking Carthage, the army was struck by an epidemic of dysentery and his brother John Tristan, Count of Valois died first, on August 3, and on August 25 the king died. To prevent putrefaction of the remains of the sovereign, they recoursed to Mos Teutonicus, Philip, 25 years old, was proclaimed king in Tunis.
With neither great personality or will, very pious, but a good rider and he was unable to command the troops at the death of his father. He left his uncle Charles I of Naples to negotiate with Muhammad I al-Mustansir, Hafsid Sultan of Tunis and he got the payment of tribute from the caliph of Tunis in exchange for the departure of the crusaders. A treaty was concluded October 28,1270 between the kings of France and Navarre and the barons on one hand and the caliph of Tunis on the other
Crown lands of France
The crown lands, crown estate, royal domain or domaine royal of France refers to the lands and rights directly possessed by the kings of France. In the tenth and eleventh centuries, the first Capetians—while being the kings of France—were among the least powerful of the feudal lords of France in terms of territory possessed. Patiently, through the use of law, annexation, skillful marriages with heiresses of large fiefs, and even by purchase. However, the system of appanage alienated large territories from the royal domain. During the Wars of Religion, the alienation of lands and fiefs from the domain was frequently criticized. These lands were largely the inheritance of the Robertians, the ancestors of the Capetians. 988, Montreuil-sur-Mer, the first port held by the Capetians, is acquired though the marriage of the crown prince Robert with Rozala,1016, acquisition of the Duchy of Burgundy. The king was the nephew of Duke Henry of Burgundy, who died without heirs, other additions to the royal domain include, Montlhéry and Châteaufort, Corbeil, Meung-sur-Loire, Châteaurenard and Saint-Brisson.
1137, marriage of Louis with Eleanor of Aquitaine, Duchess of Aquitaine and Gascony, by this marriage, Louis hopes to attach most of South-West France to the royal domain. 1137, Louis gives Dreux to his brother Robert,1151, separation of Louis VII and of Eleanor of Aquitaine, who in 1152 weds Henry Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, Count of Maine and Duke of Normandy, who becomes in 1154, King of England. Eleanors lands come to Henry in her dowry,1160, gives Norman Vexin to his daughter Margaret as a dowry. Margaret is forced to surrender her dowry,1185, by the Treaty of Boves, gains Amiens and Montdidier, Choisy-au-Bac, and Thourotte and rights to the inheritance of Vermandois and Valois. 1187, seizes Tournai from the bishop, confiscates Meulan and other castles. 1191, at the death of Philip of Alsace, Count of Flanders, the County of Artois and its dependencies and these areas would not become integrated into the royal domain until 1223 when Louis becomes king. 1191, the County of Vermandois is acquired by the king, after the death of Elisabeth of Vermandois, confirmed in 1213, by Eléonore of Vermandois sister of Elisabeth.
1200, the Norman Vexin is annexed 1200 the County of Évreux and Issoudun are annexed,1204, confiscation of the Duchy of Normandy, the Touraine, Saintonge and, temporarily, of the Poitou from John of England. 1208, La Ferté-Macé confiscated from Guillaume IV of Ferté-Macé1220,1223, Philip Hurepel, half-brother of the king, received in appanage the Counties of Boulogne, and of Clermont, as well as the fiefs of Domfront and Aumale. Poitou, Angoumois, Périgord and a part of the Bordelais were confiscated from the king of England,1241, the king confirms the appanage grant of Poitou for his brother Alfonso, Count of Poitou
Charles, Count of Valois
Charles of Valois was the third son of Philip III of France and Isabella of Aragon. He was a member of the House of Capet and founded the House of Valois, in 1284, he was created Count of Valois by his father and, in 1290, received the title of Count of Anjou from his marriage to Margaret of Anjou. Moderately intelligent, disproportionately ambitious and quite greedy, Charles of Valois collected principalities and he had as appanage the counties of Valois, Alençon and Perche. But he was son, brother-in-law, son-in-law, and uncle of kings or of queens, moreover, after his death, Charles thus dreamed of more and sought all his life for a crown he never obtained. In 1285, the pope recognized him as King of Aragon, as son of his mother, in opposition to King Peter III, Charles married Marguerite of Sicily, daughter of the Neapolitan king, in order to re-enforce his position in Sicily, supported by the Pope. He would never dare to use the seal which was made on this occasion. His principal quality was to be a military leader.
He commanded effectively in Flanders in 1297, the king quickly deduced that his brother could conduct an expedition in Italy against Frederick II of Sicily. The affair was ended by the peace of Caltabellotta, Charles dreamed at the same time of the imperial crown and married in 1301 Catherine de Courtenay, who was a titular empress. But it needed the connivance of the Pope, which he obtained by his expedition to Italy, Charles was back in shape to seek a new crown when the German king Albert of Habsburg was murdered in 1308. Charless brother, who did not wish to take the risk himself of a check and probably thought that a French puppet on the throne would be a good thing for France. The candidacy was defeated with the election of Henry VII as German king, Charles continued to dream of the eastern crown of the Courtenays. Thus it was he who directed in 1311 the royal embassy to the conferences of Tournai with the Flemish, he quarreled there with his brothers chamberlain Enguerrand de Marigny, Charles did not pardon the affront and would continue the vendetta against Marigny after the kings death.
He was doggedly opposed to the torture of Jacques de Molay, grand master of the Templars, when that son died after a few days, Philip took the throne as Philip V. In 1324, he commanded with success the army of his nephew Charles IV to take Guyenne and he contributed, by the capture of several cities, to accelerate the peace, which was concluded between the king of France and his niece, queen-consort of England. Charles was buried in the church of the Couvent des Jacobins in Paris - his effigy is now in the Basilica of St Denis. His first marriage, in 1290, was to Margaret, Countess of Anjou and they had the following children, Isabelle of Valois. Philip VI, first King of the Valois Dynasty, married William I, Count of Hainaut, and had issue
Beatrice of Savoy
Beatrice of Savoy was the daughter of Thomas I of Savoy and Margaret of Geneva. She was Countess consort of Provence by her marriage to Ramon Berenguer IV and her paternal grandparents were Humbert III, Count of Savoy, and Beatrice of Viennois. Her maternal grandparents were William I, Count of Geneva and Beatrice de Faucigny, Beatrice of Savoys mother, Margaret was betrothed to Philip II of France. While Margaret was travelling to France for her wedding, she was captured by Beatrices father and he took her back to Savoy and married her himself. Thomas excuse was that Philip II was already married, which was true, Beatrice was the tenth of fourteen children born to her parents. Beatrice betrothed on 5 June 1219 to Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence and she was a shrewd and politically astute woman, whose beauty was likened to that of a second Niobe by Matthew Paris. Ramon and Beatrice of Savoy had four daughters, who all lived to adulthood and their only son, Raymond died in early infancy.
Another brother, escorted Beatrice and Sanchia to the English court in Gascony, there they joined Henry and their baby, Beatrice of England. Henry was very happy at this occasion and gave gifts to the various relatives. In November 1243, Beatrice and Sanchia travelled to England for the wedding and this wedding did much to strengthen the bond between Richard and Henry III. In January 1244, Beatrice negotiated a loan for her husband from Henry of four thousand marks, when Ramon Berenguer died on 19 August 1245, he left Provence to his youngest daughter, and his widow was granted the usufruct of the county of Provence for her lifetime. Beatrices daughter and namesake became one of the most attractive heiresses in medieval Europe, the Pope was a target for Fredericks military incursions in France. In Cluny during December 1245, a discussion, between Pope Innocent IV, Louis IX of France, his mother Blanche of Castile, and his brother Charles of Anjou. It was decided that in return for Louis IX supporting the Pope militarily and daughter were satisfied with this selection.
But Provence was to never go to France outright through Charles and it was agreed that if Charles and Beatrice had children, the county would go to them, if there was no issue, the county would go to Sanchia of Provence. If Sanchia died without an heir, Provence would go to the King of Aragon, Henry protested the selection, arguing that he had not yet received the full dowry for Eleanor nor his brother for Sanchia. He still had the castles in Provence against the loan he had made to the former count, when Charles took over the administration of Provence in 1246, he did not respect Beatrices rights within the county. She sought the aid of Barral of Baux and the Pope in protecting her rights within the area, the citizens of Marseille and Arles joined this resistance to Capetian control
Marie of Brabant, Queen of France
Marie of Brabant was Queen consort of France by marriage to Philip III of France. Born in Leuven, she was a daughter of Henry III, Duke of Brabant, Marie married the widowed Philip III of France on 21 August 1274. His first wife, Isabella of Aragon, had given birth to three surviving sons, Louis and Charles. Philip was under the influence of his mother, Margaret of Provence and his minion, surgeon. Not being French, Marie stood out at the French court, in 1276, Maries stepson Louis died under suspicious circumstances. Marie was suspected of ordering him to be poisoned, La Brosse, who was suspected, was imprisoned and executed for the murder. Margaret suspected Marie of ordering the death of Louis, and Philip did seem to agree more with his mother than his wife. After the death of Philip III in 1285, Marie lost some of her political influence and her stepson, Philip IV was crowned king of France on 6 January 1286 in Reims. Together with Joan I of Navarre and Blanche of Artois, she negotiated peace in 1294 between England and France with Edmund Crouchback, the brother of Edward I of England.
Marie lived through Philip IVs reign and she outlived her children and she died in 1321, aged 66, in the monastery at Les Mureaux, near Meulan, where she had withdrawn to in 1316. Marie was not buried in the necropolis of Basilica of Saint-Denis. Destroyed in a fire in 1580, the church was rebuilt in the following years, Edward I and the Forging of Britain. Jules Marie Édouard Viard, trans. and ed. Paris, Librairie Ancienne Honoré Champion,1930