Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Antoine-Jean Gros, known as Baron Gros, was both a French history and neoclassical painter. Born in Paris, Gros began to learn to draw at the age of six from his father, Jean-Antoine Gros, who was a miniature painter, and showed himself as a gifted artist. The death of his father, whose circumstances had been embarrassed by the French Revolution, threw Gros, in 1791 and he now devoted himself wholly to his profession, and competed in 1792 for the grand prix. He supported himself at Genoa by the means, producing a great quantity of miniatures and fixes. He visited Florence, but returned to Genoa where he made the acquaintance of Joséphine de Beauharnais and he followed her to Milan, where he was well received by her husband, Napoleon Bonaparte. On 15 November 1796, Gros was present with the army near Arcola when Bonaparte planted the French tricolor on the bridge, Gros seized on this incident, and showed by his treatment of it that he had found his vocation. In 1799, having escaped from the city of Genoa, Gros made his way to Paris.
Les Pestiférés de Jaffa was followed by The Battle of Aboukir,1806, at the Salon of 1804, Gros debuted his painting Bonaparte Visiting the Plague Victims of Jaffa. The painting launched his career as a successful painter and it depicts Bonaparte in Jaffa visiting soldiers infected with the bubonic plague. He is portrayed reaching out to one of the sick, unfazed by the illness, while Bonaparte did actually visit the pesthouse, later, as his army prepared to withdraw from Syria, he ordered the poisoning of about fifty of his plague-infected men. The painting was commissioned as damage control when word spread of his actions, the painting is in the Neo-Classical style, though it shows elements such as the lighting and a taste for the exotic that are precursors to the upcoming Romantic ideals. In 1810, his Madrid and Napoleon at the Pyramids show that his star had deserted him, again citing Britannica, Exasperated by criticism and the consciousness of failure, Gros sought refuge in the gros pleasures of life.
On 25 June 1835, he was drowned on the shores of the Seine at Meudon. From a paper which he had placed in his hat, it known that tired of life. Gros was decorated and named Baron of the Empire by Napoleon, after the Salon of 1808, the number of Gross pupils was very great, and was considerably augmented when, in 1815, David quit Paris and gave over his own classes to him. He became a member of the Institute, professor at the École des Beaux Arts, Gros had been an inspiration to Eugene Delacroix, especially with his work in lithography. The two both worked in the time period, and both did portraits of Napoleon. Though at one point, Gros had referred to Delacroixs Chios, G. Dargenty produced a book titled Les Artistes Celebres Le Baron Gros GILBERT WOOD & Co
Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times, all of this is open to the public, and much of it has been digitized and is available on their website. The main goal of the bureau is to collect, via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries. The library owns approximately 450,000 titles, of which ca.150,000 are auction catalogs, there are ca.3,000 magazines, of which 600 are currently running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works. The RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, the original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in Los Angeles, California. Their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, which is now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek.
Though not all of the holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online. The website itself is available in both a Dutch and an English user interface, in the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, for example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number, to reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, https, //rkd. nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artworks record number. For example, the record number for The Night Watch is 3063. The Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called The Night Watch is a militia painting, the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is mostly filled with biblical references.
To see all images that depict Miriams dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus
The term public domain has two senses of meaning. Anything published is out in the domain in the sense that it is available to the public. Once published and information in books is in the public domain, in the sense of intellectual property, works in the public domain are those whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, or are inapplicable. Examples for works not covered by copyright which are therefore in the domain, are the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes. Examples for works actively dedicated into public domain by their authors are reference implementations of algorithms, NIHs ImageJ. The term is not normally applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, as rights are country-based and vary, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another. Some rights depend on registrations on a basis, and the absence of registration in a particular country, if required. Although the term public domain did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined many things that cannot be privately owned as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis.
The term res nullius was defined as not yet appropriated. The term res communes was defined as things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air, sunlight. The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, when the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by British and French jurists in the eighteenth century, instead of public domain they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law. The phrase fall in the domain can be traced to mid-nineteenth century France to describe the end of copyright term. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain. Because copyright law is different from country to country, Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being different sizes at different times in different countries.
According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the public domain and equates the public domain to public property. However, the usage of the public domain can be more granular. Such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair use rights, the materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival
Joinville-le-Pont is a commune in the southeastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 9.4 km from the center of Paris, the commune was created in 1791 under the name La Branche-du-Pont-de-Saint-Maur by detaching its territory from the commune of Saint-Maur-des-Fossés. The commune was renamed Joinville-le-Pont on 29 August 1831, under Louis-Philippe of France, the Redoute de Gravelle was built in the commune. In 1929, the commune of Joinville-le-Pont lost more than a third of its territory when the city of Paris annexed the Bois de Vincennes, Joinville-le-Pont is served by Joinville-le-Pont station on Paris RER line A. P. E. P. Which runs from preschool to senior high school/sixth-form college, communes of the Val-de-Marne department INSEE Mayors of Essonne Association Home page
Michael Bryan (art historian)
Michael Bryan was an English art historian, art dealer and connoisseur. He was involved in the purchase and resale of the great French Orleans Collection of art, selling it on to a British syndicate, Bryan was born in Newcastle upon Tyne and educated at the Royal Grammar School under Dr. Moyce. In June 1784, he married Juliana Talbot, the sister of Charles Talbot, the 15th Earl of Shrewsbury, Bryan moved back to London in 1790 establishing himself as an authority and dealer in Fine Art. In 1793 or 1794, he went to the continent in search of fine pictures. Among other places he visited Holland, and remained there until an order arrived from the French government to stop all English citizens resident there and he was, amongst many others, detained at Rotterdam. It was here that he met Jean-Joseph de Laborde who, in 1798, Bryan, in effect, became a middleman for the purchase, and contacted the Duke of Bridgewater, who authorised him to open negotiations. The collection was displayed in Bryans private art gallery in Pall Mall, London, in 1801 Bryan obtained, through the Duke of Bridgewater, the kings permission to visit Paris in order to purchase art from the cabinet of Monsieur Robit to bring back to England.
Among other fine pictures, he returned with two by the baroque Spanish artist Murillo - The infant Christ as the Good Shepherd, in 1804 Bryan retired from the art world, and settled at his brothers home in Yorkshire, where he remained until 1811. In 1812 Bryan again visited London, and commenced writing his magnum opus - the Biographical and Critical Dictionary of Painters and Engravers in 2 volumes, the first part appeared in May 1813, and concluded in 1816. He owned a gallery in Londons Savile Row, which became a gathering place for artists. In 1818 he became involved with some speculative art purchases which proved a failure, on 14 February 1821, Bryan suffered a severe paralytic stroke, dying at Portman Square, London on 21 March of the same year. Bryans dictionary of painters and engravers ( London, New York and Bombay Edition of 1903 -1905, Volume 11903 Volume 2 Volume 3 Volume 4 Volume 51905 Bryan, Bryans dictionary of painters and engravers revised and enlarged by George C
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Philip II of France
Philip II, known as Philip Augustus, was King of France from 1180 to 1223, a member of the House of Capet. Philips predecessors had been known as kings of the Franks, but from 1190 onward, Philip became the first French monarch to style himself king of France. The son of King Louis VII and his wife, Adèle of Champagne, he was originally nicknamed Dieudonné God-given because he was the first son of Louis VII. Philip was given the nickname Augustus by the chronicler Rigord for having extended the Crown lands of France so remarkably, the military actions surrounding the Albigensian Crusade helped prepare the expansion of France southward. Philip did not participate directly in these actions, but he allowed his vassals, Philip transformed France from a small feudal state into the most prosperous and powerful country in Europe. He checked the power of the nobles and helped the towns to free themselves from seigniorial authority and he built a great wall around Paris, re-organized the French government and brought financial stability to his country.
Philip was born in Gonesse on 21 August 1165 and he spent much of the following night attempting to find his way out, but to no avail. Exhausted by cold and fatigue, he was discovered by a peasant carrying a charcoal burner. His father went on pilgrimage to the Shrine of Thomas Becket to pray for Philips recovery and was told that his son had indeed recovered, however, on his way back to Paris, he suffered a stroke. In declining health, Louis VII had his 14-year-old son crowned and anointed as king at Rheims on 1 November 1179 by the Archbishop Guillaume aux Blanches Mains. He was married on 28 April 1180 to Isabelle of Hainaut, the daughter of Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut, and Margaret I, Countess of Flanders, who brought the County of Artois as her dowry. From the time of his coronation, all power was transferred to Philip. Eventually, Louis died on 18 September 1180, while the royal demesne had increased under Philip I and Louis VI, it had diminished slightly under Louis VII. In April 1182, partially to enrich the French crown, Philip expelled all Jews from the demesne, Philips eldest son Louis was born on 5 September 1187 and inherited the County of Artois in 1190, when his mother Isabelle died.
The main source of funding for Philips army was from the royal demesne, in times of conflict, he could immediately call up 250 knights,250 horse sergeants,100 mounted crossbowmen,133 crossbowmen on foot,2,000 foot sergeants, and 300 mercenaries. Towards the end of his reign, the king could muster some 3,000 knights,9,000 sergeants,6,000 urban militiamen, using his increased revenues, Philip was the first Capetian king to build a French navy actively. By 1215, his fleet could carry a total of 7,000 men, within two years, his fleet included 10 large ships and many smaller ones. In 1181, Philip began a war with Philip, Count of Flanders, over the Vermandois, which King Philip claimed as his wifes dowry, finally the Count of Flanders invaded France, ravaging the whole district between the Somme and the Oise before penetrating as far as Dammartin
Castelnaudary is a commune in the Aude department in the Occitanie region in south France. It is in the province of the Lauragais and famous for cassoulet of which it claims to be the world capital. Castelnaudary is a town, and the capital of the territory of Lauragais. The town is located 50 kilometres southeast of Toulouse, about midway along the route from that city to the Mediterranean and this route has been used since at least Roman times, and today carries road, motorway and canal links. Castelnaudary is the port of the Canal du Midi to which it owed a period of prosperity in the 17th century when agricultural. The Grand Bassin in the town is at 7 ha the largest open area of water in the canal, in Roman times the location of the town was a staging post on the Narbonne-Toulouse road, and called Sostomagus. Castelnaudary comes from the Occitan Castèlnòu dArri, the Latin Castellum Novum Arri, first official mention of a settlement at Castelnaudary. During the Albigensian Crusade, Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester is besieged in Castelnaudary by the Count of Toulouse, arrival of the Papal inquisition whose initial attempts to identify and persecute Cathars were unsuccessful due to the solidarity of the townsfolk.
During the 100 Years War, the town is sacked by the Black Prince who travelling from Bordeaux, ravaged the towns of Gascony. The town was pillaged and the inhabitants massacred, the towns walls were not rebuilt until 10 years later. The town becomes the capital of the comté of Lauragais under Louis XI of France, the capture of Henri II de Montmorency just outside the town leads to his execution at Toulouse on the orders of Cardinal Richelieu. Commissioning of the Canal du Midi, construction of LIle de la Cybèle. Marshal Soult withdraws to the town after the Battle of Toulouse before signing a surrender at Naurouze. LApothicairerie de lHôpital La Collégiale Saint-Michel Les Ecluses Saint-Roch Le Grand Bassin La Halle aux Grains LIle de la Cybèle, Le Moulin de Cugarel La Légion étrangère Le Présidial La Chapelle Notre-Dame de Pitié Castelnaudary was the birthplace of, Pierre de Castelnau d. The town is home to the La Grande Confrérie du Cassoulet de Castelnaudary, an annual festival celebrating cassoulet fête du Cassoulet is held in the last full week of August and the town centre is crowded with various versions of the traditional dish.
The cassoulet variant favoured in the town is based on the local haricot bean and it includes goose or duck confit and Toulouse sausage. Traditional peasant versions of the recipe can take two days or more to prepare, the traditional cooking vessel is an earthenware pot called a cassole for which the dish is named. Rick Stein featured the Castelnaudary cassoulet in an episode of Rick Steins French Odyssey, the Rough Guide to Languedoc and Roussillon
Palace of Versailles
The Palace of Versailles, Château de Versailles, or simply Versailles, is a royal château in Versailles in the Île-de-France region of France. Versailles is therefore not only as a building, but as a symbol of the system of absolute monarchy of the Ancien Régime. First built by Louis XIII in 1623, as a lodge of brick and stone. The first phase of the expansion was designed and supervised by the architect Louis Le Vau and it culminated in the addition of three new wings of stone, which surrounded Louis XIIIs original building on the north and west. After Le Vaus death in 1670, the work was taken over and completed by his assistant, charles Le Brun designed and supervised the elaborate interior decoration, and André Le Nôtre landscaped the extensive Gardens of Versailles. Le Brun and Le Nôtre collaborated on the fountains, and Le Brun supervised the design. During the second phase of expansion, two enormous wings north and south of the wings flanking the Cour Royale were added by the architect Jules Hardouin-Mansart.
He replaced Le Vaus large terrace, facing the garden on the west, with became the most famous room of the palace. The Royal Chapel of Versailles, located at the end of the north wing, was begun by Mansart in 1688. One of the most baffling aspects to the study of Versailles is the cost – how much Louis XIV, owing to the nature of the construction of Versailles and the evolution of the role of the palace, construction costs were essentially a private matter. Initially, Versailles was planned to be a residence for Louis XIV and was referred to as the kings house. Once Louis XIV embarked on his campaigns, expenses for Versailles became more of a matter for public record. To counter the costs of Versailles during the years of Louis XIVs personal reign. Accordingly, all materials that went into the construction and decoration of Versailles were manufactured in France, even the mirrors used in the decoration of the Hall of Mirrors were made in France. While Venice in the 17th century had the monopoly on the manufacture of mirrors, to meet the demands for decorating and furnishing Versailles, Colbert nationalised the tapestry factory owned by the Gobelin family, to become the Manufacture royale des Gobelins.
In 1667, the name of the enterprise was changed to the Manufacture royale des Meubles de la Couronne, the Comptes meticulously list the expenditures on the silver furniture – disbursements to artists, final payments, delivery – as well as descriptions and weight of items purchased. Entries for 1681 and 1682 concerning the silver used in the salon de Mercure serve as an example. 5 In anticipation, For the silver balustrade for the bedroom,90,000 livres II