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Louis-Gustave Binger

Louis-Gustave Binger was a French officer and explorer who claimed the Côte d'Ivoire for France. Binger was born at Strasbourg in the Bas-Rhin departement. In 1887 he traveled from Senegal up to the Niger River, arriving at Grand Bassam in 1889. During this expedition he discovered, he described this journey in his work Du Niger au golfe de Guinée par le pays de Kong et le Mossi. In 1892 he returned to the Guinea Coast to superintend the forming of the boundaries between the British and French colonies. In 1893 Binger was appointed governor of the Côte d'Ivoire, where he remained until 1898, he returned to France that year, to an administrative post in Paris at the French Colonial Ministry. In 1899 the Royal Geographical Society awarded him their Founder's Gold Medal for his exploratory work. Louis Gustave Binger died at L'Isle-Adam, Île-de-France and was buried in the Cimetière du Montparnasse in Paris; the city of Bingerville in the Ivory Coast is named after him. French African Committee

Shamsuddin Bulbul

Raees Shamsuddin Bulbul was a poet, prose writer and journalist. He was born at Dadu District, Sindh, his real name was changed to Shamsuddin on the advice of his Murshid. "Bulbul" was his pen name. Shamsuddin was educated in Persian, he was a superintendent in the engineering department for a short time. He moved to Karachi where he met Hassan Ali Effendi who appointed him as an editor in Muawin ul Islam newspaper, he died on 13 September 1919. During this period, his philosophical essays were published, he provided services for the “Sindh Muhammadan Association”. He made people realize that Muslims must unite and, through his poetry, he taught Muslims to take the right path. After the death of Hassan Ali Effendi, Shamsuddin became sub editor of Daily Khair Khuwa, Daily Musafir and Daily Aftaab, it is said. He was one of those, he founded Madarast ul Islam in Mehar in 1906. His poetic collection was published by Sindhi Adabi Board in 1969. For the betterment of education in remote areas of Sindh, Bulbul's family runs the Shamsudin Bulbul Foundation in Jamshoro, Sindh.

He died on 13 September 1919

Aqueduct near Rome

Aqueduct near Rome is an 1832 oil painting by Thomas Cole. It measures 44.5 in × 67.3 in and is the largest painting that Cole completed during his first visit to Italy in 1831-32. The painting was commissioned by another American tourist, Charles Lyman of Waltham, where his family owned the Lyman Estate, it depicts the ruins of Aqua Claudia, completed in the 1st century AD near Rome. The painting was completed in Cole's studio in Florence, based on sketches make while he was visiting Rome. Many preparatory sketches are held by the Detroit Institute of Arts; the original painting was acquired in 1987 by Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri. To the left of the painting is a medieval watchtower built by the Annibaldi family in the 13th century, the Tor Fiscale now in the Tor Fiscale Park, Rome. A line of arches leads away to the right, across the Roman Campagna, towards the Sabine Hills and Alban Hills in the background; the 50 miles long aqueduct has fallen into disrepair over the centuries since it was built by the ancient Romans.

A skull in the left foreground alongside fallen architecture is a memento mori, mediating on time and impermanence. In the middle distance is a herder with a dog and his flock of goats, one of which stands in the right foreground; the painting was exhibited at the National Academy of Design in New York City in 1833, it was engraved by James Smillie. The composition was successful, the work was described by Nathaniel Parker Willis as "one of the finest landscapes painted"; the style and subject matter prefigure Cole's Course of Empire series of 1836. On his return to Rome in 1841-42, Cole was commissioned to paint a second smaller version, 82.6 cm × 122 cm, completed in 1843 and now held by the Wadsworth Atheneum, along with a second painting, Evening in Arcadia, of similar dimensions in Wadsworth Atheneum. Both were bequests to the gallery by Clara Hinton Gould in 1948; the 1843 version of the painting depicts a different time of day, with the goat herder in a different position, omits the Tor Fiscale and the left portion of his 1832 painting.

William L. Coleman, "Spotlight Essay: Thomas Cole, Aqueduct near Rome, 1832", Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum, Spotlight Series, February 2016 Aqueduct near Rome, 1832, Thomas Cole, Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum Paintings by Cole, 1843, Wadsworth Athenaeum Museum of Art Thomas Cole's Journey: Atlantic Crossings, Elizabeth Mankin Kornhauser, Tim Barringer, p.47, 91, 179-185