Pope Martin V
Pope Martin V, born Otto Colonna, was Pope from 11 November 1417 to his death in 1431. His election ended the Western Schism, he was born at Genazzano, the son of Agapito Colonna and Caterina Conti, between January 26 and February 20, 1369. He belonged to one of the oldest and most distinguished families of Rome, his brother Giordano became Prince of Salerno and Duke of Venosa, while his sister Paola was Lady of Piombino between 1441 and 1445. Oddone studied law at the University of Pavia, he became apostolic protonotary under Pope Urban VI, was created Cardinal-Deacon of San Giorgio in Velabro by Pope Innocent VII in 1405. In 1409 he took part in the Council of Pisa, was one of the supporters of Antipope Alexander V, he confirmed his allegiance to Alexander's successor, John XXIII, by whom his family obtained several privileges, while Oddone obtained for himself the vicariate of Todi, Orvieto and Umbria. He was excommunicated for this in 1411 by Pope Gregory XII. Oddone was with John XXIII's entourage at the Council of Constance and followed him in his escape at Schaffhausen on 21 March 1415.
He returned to Constance and took part in the process leading to the deposition of John XXIII. After deposing Antipope John XXIII in 1415, the Council of Constance was long divided by the conflicting claims of Pope Gregory XII and Antipope Benedict XIII. Martin was elected pope, at the age of 48, at the Council of Constance on St. Martin's Day, 11 November 1417. Participants in the conclave included 30 delegates of the council, he was ordained a priest on November 13, 1417, consecrated bishop the next day. Martin left Constance at the close of the council, but travelled through Italy and lingered at Florence, his authority in Rome was represented by his brother Giordano, who had fought under Muzio Attendolo against the condottiero Braccio da Montone. The Pope at the time ruled only Rome and its environs: Braccio held Umbria, Bologna as an independent commune, while much of Romagna and the Marche was held by local "vicars", who were in fact petty hereditary lords. In particular, Martin confirmed Giorgio Ordelaffi in Forlì, Ludovico Alidosi in Imola, Malatesta IV Malatesta in Rimini, Guidantonio da Montefeltro in Spoleto, who would marry the pope's niece Caterina Colonna.
In exchange for the recognition of Joan II of Naples, Martin obtained the restitution of Benevento, several fiefs in the Kingdom of Naples for his relatives and, most important of all, an agreement that Muzio Attendolo hired by the Neapolitans, should leave Rome. After a long stay in Florence while these matters were arranged, Martin was able to enter Rome in September 1420, he at once set to work establishing order and restoring the dilapidated churches, palaces and other public structures. For this reconstruction he engaged some famous masters of the Tuscan school and helped instigate the Roman Renaissance. Faced with competing plans for general reform offered by various nations, Martin V submitted a counter-scheme and entered into negotiations for separate concordats, for the most part vague and illusory, with the Holy Roman Empire, England and Spain. By 1415 Bohemia was in the subject of much discussion at the Council of Constance. Adherents of Jan Hus adopted the practice of Communion under both kinds.
The Council sent earnest letters to the civil and ecclesiastical authorities in Bohemia, insisting they deal with the heresy. Bohemian and Moravian nobles responded that the sentence on Hus was unjust and insulting to their country, promised to protect priests against episcopal prosecutions for heresy. Prague was placed under interdict for sheltering the excommunicate Johann of Jesenic. Beghards arrived attracted by Bohemia's reputation for religious liberty. In 1419 King Wenceslaus, who had resisted what he considered interference in his kingdom, commanded that all ejected Catholic beneficiaries should be reinstated in their offices and revenues. Prague prepared for armed resistance. Johann of Jesenic led a procession to the town hall, where under the leadership of Ziska of Troznow, a noble of southern Bohemia, the building was stormed and people found inside were thrown out of the windows on to the spears and swords of the processionists, hacked to pieces. In Kuttenberg, hundreds of captured Hussites were thrown by the miners into the shafts of disused silver mines.
King Wenceslaus swore death to all the rebels, but died of a stroke in August, 1419. The next months were marked by deeds of violence. Wenceslaus was succeeded by his brother Sigismund, German Emperor and King of Hungary, who prepared to restore order. On 1 March 1420, Pope Martin V issued a Bull inviting all Christians to unite in a crusade against the Wycliffites and other heretics. According to Burton, Pope Martin authorized a crusade against Africa in 1418 in relation to the slave trade. Martin declared two Crusades in 1420; the first was against heretics in Bohemia. The second was in response to the rising pressure from the Ottoman Empire. In 1419–1420 Martin had diplomatic contacts with the Byzantine emperor Manuel II, invoking a council in Constantinople as a move to reduce the pressure from the Ottoman Turks. On 12 July 1420 the Pope conceded to attach an indulgence to anyone who would contribute to a crusade against the latter, which would be led by Sigismund, King of the Romans; the main concern of Martin's pontificate from 1423 was the resumed war against Braccio da Montone.
The following year, the combined Papal-Neapolitan army, led by Giacomo Caldora and Francesco Sforza, defeated him at the Battle of L
Council of Florence
The Seventeenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church was convoked as the Council of Basel by Pope Martin V shortly before his death in February 1431 and took place in the context of the Hussite wars in Bohemia and the rise of the Ottoman Empire. At stake was the greater conflict between the Conciliar movement and the principle of papal supremacy; the Council entered a second phase after Emperor Sigismund's death in 1437. Pope Eugene IV convoked a rival Council of Ferrara on 8 January 1438 and succeeded in drawing the Byzantine ambassadors to Italy; the Council of Basel first suspended him, declared him a heretic, in November 1439 elected an antipope, Felix V. The rival Council of Florence concluded in 1445 after negotiating unions with the various eastern churches; this bridging of the Great Schism was a political coup for the papacy. In 1447, Sigismund's successor Frederick III commanded the city of Basel to expel the Council of Basel; the initial location at Basel reflected the desire among parties seeking reform to meet outside the territories of the Papacy, the Holy Roman Empire or the kings of Aragon and France, whose influences the council hoped to avoid.
Ambrogio Traversari attended the Council of Basel as legate of Pope Eugene IV. Under pressure for ecclesiastical reform, Pope Martin V sanctioned a decree of the Council of Constance obliging the papacy to summon general councils periodically. At the expiration of the first term fixed by this decree, Pope Martin V complied by calling a council at Pavia. Due to an epidemic the location transferred at once to Siena and disbanded, in circumstances still imperfectly known, just as it had begun to discuss the subject of reform; the next council fell due at the expiration of seven years in 1431. Martin himself, died before the opening of the synod; the Council was seated on 14 December 1431, at a period when the conciliar movement was strong and the authority of the papacy weak. The Council at Basel opened with only a few bishops and abbots attending, but it grew and to make its numbers greater gave the lower orders a majority over the bishops, it adopted an anti-papal attitude, proclaimed the superiority of the Council over the Pope and prescribed an oath to be taken by every Pope on his election.
On 18 December Martin's successor, Pope Eugene IV, tried to dissolve it and open a new council on Italian soil at Bologna, but he was overruled. Sigismund, King of Hungary and titular King of Bohemia, had been defeated at the Battle of Domažlice in the fifth crusade against the Hussites in August 1431. Under his sponsorship, the Council negotiated a peace with Calixtine faction of the Hussites in January 1433. Pope Eugene acknowledged the council in May and crowned Sigismund Holy Roman Emperor on 31 May 1433; the divided Hussites were defeated in May 1434. In June 1434, the pope began a ten-year exile in Florence; when the Council was moved from Basel to Ferrara in 1438, some remained at Basel, claiming to be the Council. They elected Duke of Savoy, as Antipope. Driven out of Basel in 1448, they moved to Lausanne, where Felix V, the pope they had elected and the only claimant to the papal throne who took the oath that they had prescribed, resigned; the next year, they decreed the closure of what.
The new council was transferred to Florence in 1439 because of the danger of plague at Ferrara and because Florence had agreed, against future payment, to finance the Council. The Council had meanwhile negotiated reunification with several Eastern Churches, reaching agreements on such matters as the Western insertion of the phrase "Filioque" to the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed, the definition and number of the sacraments, the doctrine of Purgatory. Another key issue was papal primacy, which involved the universal and supreme jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome over the whole Church, including the national Churches of the East and nonreligious matters such as the promise of military assistance against the Ottomans; the final decree of union was a signed document called the Laetentur Caeli, "Let the Heavens Rejoice". Some bishops feeling political pressure from the Byzantine Emperor, accepted the decrees of the Council and reluctantly signed. Others did so by sincere conviction, such as Isidore of Kiev, who subsequently suffered for it.
Only one Eastern Bishop, Mark of Ephesus, refused to accept the union and became the leader of opposition back in Byzantium. The Russians, upon learning of the union, angrily rejected it and ousted any prelate, remotely sympathetic to it, declaring the Russian Orthodox Church as autocephalus. Despite the religious union, Western military assistance to Byzantium was insufficient, the fall of Constantinople occurred in May 1453; the Council declared the Basel group heretics and excommunicated them, the superiority of the Pope over the Councils was affirmed in the bull Etsi non dubitemus of 20 April 1441. The democratic character of the assembly at Basel was a result of both its composition and its organization. Doctors of theology and representatives of chapters and clerks of inferior orders outnumbered the prelates in it, the influence of the superior clergy had less weight because instead of being separated into "nations", as at Constance, the fathers div
For his grand-nephew a cardinal, see Giuliano Cesarini, iuniore. Julian Cesarini the Elder was one of the group of brilliant cardinals created by Pope Martin V on the conclusion of the Western Schism, his intellect and diplomacy made him a powerful agent first of the Council of Basel and after he broke with the Conciliar movement at Basel, of Papal superiority against the Conciliar movement. The French bishop Bossuet described Cesarini as the strongest bulwark that the Catholics could oppose to the Greeks in the Council of Florence. One of five brothers of a well-established Roman family of the minor nobility, he was educated at Perugia, where he lectured on Roman law and had Domenico Capranica among his pupils. When the schism was ended by the general recognition of Martin V as pope, Giuliano returned to Rome, where he attached himself to Cardinal Branda da Castiglione; the suggestions for wide reform that informed the Conciliar Movement were rife, Cesarini devoted his career to the principles of the outward unity of the Church and its reformation from within.
In 1419 he accompanied Cardinal Branda da Castiglione, who thought of him, on his difficult mission to Germany and Bohemia, where the Hussites were in open rebellion. He served as a papal envoy to England. In 1426 Martin V created Cesarini a cardinal and sent him to Germany to preach a crusade against the Hussites. After the crusade failed, Cesarini went to Basel to preside over the council. Cesarini was made President of the Council of Basel, in which capacity he resisted the efforts of Eugenius IV to dissolve the council, though he withdrew, believing the majority of delegates present were more anxious to humiliate the pope than to accomplish reforms, for his first loyalty was to the idea of church unity; when Eugenius convoked the rival Council of Ferrara, Cesarini was made head of the commission appointed to confer with the Greeks. In 1439, owing to a plague, the council was transferred from Ferrara to Florence, where Cesarini continued to play a prominent part in the negotiations with the Greeks.
These negotiations ended in a short-lived ecclesiastical reunion of West. After the council was dissolved, Cesarini was sent as papal legate to Hungary by Pope Eugenius IV to solve a political crisis that arose after the death of King Albert of Hungary in 1439; the widow, Queen Elisabeth of Luxembourg, was left alone with her newborn son, crowned as Ladislaus V of Hungary. However, the Turkish wars represented a serious danger to the Kingdom, the noblemen summoned the young King Władysław of Poland and crowned him as Hungarian King, making him promise that he would defend the state against the Ottomans. On December 13, 1442, Cesarini made the two parts reach an agreement in the city of Győr, where the rights of the baby Ladislas were recognized in the presence of the new King, without endangering the power of the other. After this, Cesarini became the confidant of King Władysław, in 1443 went to Vienna as his ambassador to the court of Frederick III. Soon he became one of the principal planners of a new crusade against the Ottomans, who had begun to invade Europe.
In June 1444, the Hungarian King signed a peace treaty with the Turkish sultan Murad II that would last for 10 years, but seeing this as a mistake and considering the moment and the circumstances appropriate for a new war, Cesarini insisted that the Hungarian King Władysław should break the treaty. This occurred in September of the same year, it was an unfortunate step and resulted in the disastrous defeat of the Papal army at Varna, November 10, 1444, when Cardinal Giuliano Cesarini was slain in the fight. In a letter to the Duke of Milan, his friend Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini tells of reports that, having escaped the fray, though wounded and bleeding, Cesarini was set upon by a band of Hungarians who, in the confusion of defeat and killed him. "Wounded in the battle, fainting in his flight through loss of blood, he was slain near a marsh by the impious hands of the Hungarians, not at the instigation of the nobility, but through the rage of the populace. The Roman curia, was slow to accept that the cardinal was dead.
His two well-known letters to Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini about the pope's relations to the Council of Basel are printed among the works of Pius II Piccolomini, in his letters, describes Cesarini as unfortunate in war, but he says the cardinal went straight to heaven upon being martyred by the Turks. Christianson, Cesarini, the conciliar cardinal: the Basel years, 1431–1438, St Ottilien: EOS-Verlag, ISBN 978-3-88096-074-9. Catholic Encyclopedia: Giuliano Cesarini
College of Cardinals
The College of Cardinals styled the Sacred College of Cardinals, is the body of all cardinals of the Catholic Church. Its membership is 222, as of 14 March 2019. Cardinals are appointed by the Pope for life. Changes in life expectancy account for the increases in the size of the College. Since the emergence of the College of Cardinals in the Early Middle Ages, the size of the body has been limited by popes, ecumenical councils, the College itself; the total number of cardinals from 1099 to 1986 has been about 2,900, nearly half of whom were created after 1655. See also: External cardinal § HistoryThe word cardinal is derived from the Latin cardo, meaning "hinge"; the office of cardinal as it is known today evolved during the first millennium from the clergy of Rome. "The first time that the term cardinal appears in the Liber Pontificalis is in the biography of Pope Stephen III when in the Roman Synod of 769, it was decided that the Roman pontiff should be elected from among the deacons and cardinal priests."In 845 the Council of Meaux "required Bishops to establish Cardinal titles or parishes in their towns and outlining districts".
At the same time, the popes began referring to the cardinal priests of Rome to serves as legates and delegates within Rome at ceremonies, councils, etc. as well as abroad on diplomatic missions and councils. Those who were assigned to the latter roles were given the titles of Legatus a latere and Missus Specialis. During the pontificate of Stephen V, the three classes of the College that are present today began to form. Stephen decreed that all cardinal-bishops were bound to sing Mass on rotation at the high altar at St. Peter's Basilica, one per Sunday; the first class to form was that of the cardinal-deacons, direct theological descendants of the original seven ordained in Acts 6, followed by the cardinal-priests, the cardinal-bishops. The College played an integral part in various reforms within the Church as well, as early as the pontificate of Pope Leo IX. In the 12th century, the Third Lateran Council declared that only Cardinals could assume the papacy, a requirement that has since lapsed.
In 1130, under Urban II, all the classes were permitted to take part in papal elections. From the 13th to 15th centuries, the size of the College of Cardinals never exceeded thirty, although there were more than thirty parishes and diaconal districts which could have a titular holder. In the ensuing century, increasing the size of the College became a method for the pope to raise funds for construction or war, cultivate European alliances, dilute the strength of the College as a spiritual and political counterweight to papal supremacy; the conclave capitulation of the papal conclave, 1352 limited the size of the College to twenty, decreed that no new cardinals could be created until the size of the College had dropped to 16. By the end of the 14th century, the practice of Italian cardinals had ceased. Between the 14th century and 17th century, there was much struggle for the College between the cardinals of the day and the reigning popes; the most effective way for a pope to increase his power was to increase the number of cardinals, promoting those who had nominated him.
Those cardinals in power saw these actions as an attempt to weaken their influence. The Council of Basel limited the size of the College to twenty-four, as did the capitulation of the papal conclave, 1464; the capitulations of the 1484 and 1513 conclaves contained the same restriction. The capitulation of the papal conclave, 1492 is known to have contained some restriction on the creation of new cardinals; the Fifth Council of the Lateran, despite its lengthy regulation of the lives of cardinals, did not speak to the size of the College. In 1517, Pope Leo X added another thirty-one cardinals, bringing the total to sixty-five so that he could have a supportive majority in the College of Cardinals. Paul IV brought the total to seventy, his immediate successor, Pope Pius IV, raised the limit to seventy-six. Although Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor sought a limit of 26 and complained about the size and quality of the College to his legates to the Council of Trent, some French attendees advocated a limit of 24, that Council did not prescribe a limit to the size of the College.
By the papacy of Sixtus V, the number was set at seventy on 3 December 1586, divided among fourteen cardinal-deacons, fifty cardinal-priests, six cardinal-bishops. Popes respected that limit until Pope John XXIII increased the number of cardinals several times to a high of 88 in January 1961 and Pope Paul VI continued this expansion, reaching 134 at his third consistory in April 1969; the size of the College lost its significance when Paul decided to allow only cardinals under the age of 80 to vote in a conclave from 1971 onward. In 1975, Paul set the maximum number of those under 80, the cardinal electors, at 120, his next consistory in 1976 brought the number of cardinal electors to its full complement of 120. All three of Paul's successors have at times exceeded the 120 maximum. Pope John Paul II reiterated the 120 maximum in 1996, yet his appointments to the College resulted in more than 120 cardinal electors on 4 of his
Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the country's most populated comune, it is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber; the Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been defined as capital of two states. Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe; the city's early population originated from a mix of Latins and Sabines.
The city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, is regarded by some as the first metropolis. It was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the "Caput Mundi". After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome fell under the political control of the Papacy, in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance all the popes since Nicholas V pursued over four hundred years a coherent architectural and urban programme aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world. In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city.
In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. In 2016, Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy, its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The famous Vatican Museums are among the world's most visited museums while the Colosseum was the most popular tourist attraction in world with 7.4 million visitors in 2018. Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is the seat of several specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development; the city hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p. A. and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL.
Its business district, called EUR, is the base of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, financial services. Rome is an important fashion and design centre thanks to renowned international brands centered in the city. Rome's Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies. According to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king, Romulus. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was derived from Rome itself; as early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain: from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the same root as the Greek verb ῥέω and the Latin verb ruo, which both mean "flow". There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from 14,000 years ago, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.
Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the bronze age and the beginning of the Iron age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village. However, none of them had yet an urban quality. Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine; this aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. These in turn boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy; these developments, which according to archaeological ev
Council of Pisa
The Council of Pisa was a controversial ecumenical council of the Catholic Church held in 1409. It attempted to end the Western Schism by deposing Benedict XIII and Gregory XII for schism and manifest heresy; the College of Cardinals, composed of members of both the Avignon Obedience and the Roman Obedience, who were recognized by each other and by the Council elected a third papal claimant, Alexander V, who lived only a few months. He was succeeded by John XXIII. During in the Conclave of November 1406, Cardinal Angelo Correr had promised, along with all the other cardinals who signed the Electoral Capitulations, that if elected Pope, he would not create new cardinals except to keep the college of the Roman Obedience on a par with the Avignon Obedience; when he was elected Pope Gregory XII, he ratified those capitulations. But in May 1408, without need, he insisted on creating four new cardinals, two of whom were his nephews; the current cardinals objected loudly, citing the Electoral Capitulations, they refused to attend the Consistory to elevate the four new cardinals.
On May 11 one of the cardinals, Jean Gilles, left Lucca, where Pope Gregory was staying at the time, withdrew to Pisa. The Pope's nephew Paolo Correr was sent with troops to fetch him back by force; the papal action was so shocking that seven more cardinals deserted the same evening, another who had just arrived in Lucca followed along without delay. On 29 June 1408, thirteen cardinals met in the port city of Livorno, where they prepared a manifesto which looked toward the holding of a general council to bring the schism to an end. Four more cardinals joined in the agreement in writing on 30 August, another on 14 September, another on 5 October, yet another on 11 October. On 2 and 5 July 1408, the cardinals at Livorno addressed an encyclical letter to the princes and prelates of the Christian world, summoning them to a general council at Pisa, to begin on 25 March 1409. To oppose this project, Benedict XIII convoked the Council of Perpignan, but instead he fled from Lucca with his one remaining loyal cardinal in November 1408, ended up the guest of the Malatesta family in Rimini.
He never made it to Aquileia. The Universities of Paris and Cologne, many prelates, the most distinguished doctors, like d'Ailly and Gerson approved the action of the revolted cardinals, sent delegations to the Council; the princes on the other hand were divided, but most of them no longer relied on the good will of the rival popes and were determined to act without them, despite them, and, if needs were, against them. The cardinals of the reigning pontiffs being dissatisfied, both with the pusillanimity and nepotism of Gregory XII and the obstinacy and bad will of Benedict XIII, resolved to make use of a more efficacious means, namely a general council; the French king, Charles V, had recommended this, at the beginning of the schism, to the cardinals assembled at Anagni, who had anathematized Urban VI as an Intruder on the papal throne, elected Pope Clement VII instead, without dissent. King Charles, on his deathbed, again expressed the same wish, though he and France solidly supported Clement over Urban.
The idea of a general council had been upheld by several regional councils, by the cities of Ghent and Florence, by the University of Oxford and University of Paris, by some most prominent doctors of the time, for example: Henry of Langenstein. Encouraged by such men, by the known dispositions of King Charles VI and of the University of Paris, four members of the Sacred College of Avignon went to Leghorn where they arranged an interview with those of Rome, where they were soon joined by others; the two bodies thus united were resolved to seek the reunion of the Church in spite of everything, thenceforth to adhere to neither of the competitors. The cardinals considered it their indisputable right to convene a general council to put an end to the schism; the principle behind this was "salus populi suprema lex esto", i.e. that the safety of and unity of the church superseded any legal considerations. The behaviour of the two papal claimants seemed to justify the council, it was felt that the schism would not end while these two obstinate men were at the head of the opposing parties.
There was no undisputed pope who could summon a general council, therefore the Holy See must be considered vacant. There was a mandate to elect an undisputed pope. Famous universities upheld the cardinals' conclusion. However, it was argued that, if Gregory and Benedict were doubtful, so were the cardinals whom they had created. If the source of their authority was uncertain, so was their competence to convoke the universal church and to elect a pope. On 25 March, the Feast of the Annunciation, four patriarchs, 22 cardinals and 80 bishops assembled in the Cathedral of Pisa under the presidency of Cardinal Gui de Malesset, Bishop of Palestrina, the senior cardinal bishop in both Obediences, he had been named a cardinal by Pope Gregory XI on 20 December 1375, before the Schism had begun. Among the clergy were the representatives of 100 absent bishops, 87 abbots with the proxies of those who could not come to Pisa, 41 priors and gener
Kingdom of France
The Kingdom of France was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe. It was one of the most powerful states in Europe and a great power since the Late Middle Ages and the Hundred Years' War, it was an early colonial power, with possessions around the world. France originated as West Francia, the western half of the Carolingian Empire, with the Treaty of Verdun. A branch of the Carolingian dynasty continued to rule until 987, when Hugh Capet was elected king and founded the Capetian dynasty; the territory remained known as Francia and its ruler as rex Francorum well into the High Middle Ages. The first king calling himself Roi de France was Philip II, in 1190. France continued to be ruled by the Capetians and their cadet lines—the Valois and Bourbon—until the monarchy was overthrown in 1792 during the French Revolution. France in the Middle Ages was a feudal monarchy. In Brittany and Catalonia the authority of the French king was felt. Lorraine and Provence were states of the Holy Roman Empire and not yet a part of France.
West Frankish kings were elected by the secular and ecclesiastic magnates, but the regular coronation of the eldest son of the reigning king during his father's lifetime established the principle of male primogeniture, which became codified in the Salic law. During the Late Middle Ages, the Kings of England laid claim to the French throne, resulting in a series of conflicts known as the Hundred Years' War. Subsequently, France sought to extend its influence into Italy, but was defeated by Spain in the ensuing Italian Wars. France in the early modern era was centralised. Religiously France became divided between the Catholic majority and a Protestant minority, the Huguenots, which led to a series of civil wars, the Wars of Religion. France laid claim to large stretches of North America, known collectively as New France. Wars with Great Britain led to the loss of much of this territory by 1763. French intervention in the American Revolutionary War helped secure the independence of the new United States of America but was costly and achieved little for France.
The Kingdom of France adopted a written constitution in 1791, but the Kingdom was abolished a year and replaced with the First French Republic. The monarchy was restored by the other great powers in 1814 and lasted until the French Revolution of 1848. During the years of the elderly Charlemagne's rule, the Vikings made advances along the northern and western perimeters of the Kingdom of the Franks. After Charlemagne's death in 814 his heirs were incapable of maintaining political unity and the empire began to crumble; the Treaty of Verdun of 843 divided the Carolingian Empire into three parts, with Charles the Bald ruling over West Francia, the nucleus of what would develop into the kingdom of France. Charles the Bald was crowned King of Lotharingia after the death of Lothair II in 869, but in the Treaty of Meerssen was forced to cede much of Lotharingia to his brothers, retaining the Rhone and Meuse basins but leaving the Rhineland with Aachen and Trier in East Francia. Viking advances were allowed to increase, their dreaded longships were sailing up the Loire and Seine rivers and other inland waterways, wreaking havoc and spreading terror.
During the reign of Charles the Simple, Normans under Rollo from Norway, were settled in an area on either side of the River Seine, downstream from Paris, to become Normandy. The Carolingians were to share the fate of their predecessors: after an intermittent power struggle between the two dynasties, the accession in 987 of Hugh Capet, Duke of France and Count of Paris, established the Capetian dynasty on the throne. With its offshoots, the houses of Valois and Bourbon, it was to rule France for more than 800 years; the old order left the new dynasty in immediate control of little beyond the middle Seine and adjacent territories, while powerful territorial lords such as the 10th- and 11th-century counts of Blois accumulated large domains of their own through marriage and through private arrangements with lesser nobles for protection and support. The area around the lower Seine became a source of particular concern when Duke William took possession of the kingdom of England by the Norman Conquest of 1066, making himself and his heirs the King's equal outside France.
Henry II inherited the Duchy of Normandy and the County of Anjou, married France's newly divorced ex-queen, Eleanor of Aquitaine, who ruled much of southwest France, in 1152. After defeating a revolt led by Eleanor and three of their four sons, Henry had Eleanor imprisoned, made the Duke of Brittany his vassal, in effect ruled the western half of France as a greater power than the French throne. However, disputes among Henry's descendants over the division of his French territories, coupled with John of England's lengthy quarrel with Philip II, allowed Philip II to recover influence over most of this territory. After the French victory at the Battle of Bouvines in 1214, the English monarchs maintained power only in southwestern Duchy of Guyenne; the death of Charles IV of France in 1328 without male heirs ended the main Capetian line. Under Salic law the crown could not pass through a woman (Philip IV's daughter