Second Polish Republic
The Second Polish Republic known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland in the period between the First and Second World Wars. Known as the Republic of Poland, sometimes Commonwealth of Poland, the Polish state was re-established in 1918, in the aftermath of World War I. When, after several regional conflicts, the borders of the state were fixed in 1922, Poland's neighbours were Czechoslovakia, the Free City of Danzig, Latvia and the Soviet Union, it had side of the city of Gdynia. Between March and August 1939, Poland shared a border with the then-Hungarian governorate of Subcarpathia; the Second Republic ceased to exist in 1939, when Poland was invaded by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union and the Slovak Republic, marking the beginning of the European theatre of World War II. In 1938, the Second Republic was the sixth largest country in Europe. According to the 1921 census, the number of inhabitants was 27.2 million. By 1939, just before the outbreak of World War II, this had grown to an estimated 35.1 million.
A third of population came from minority groups: 13.9% Ruthenians. At the same time, a significant number of ethnic Poles lived outside the country's borders; the political conditions of the Second Republic were influenced by the aftermath of World War I and conflicts with neighbouring states and the emergence of Nazi Germany. The Second Republic maintained moderate economic development; the cultural hubs of interwar Poland – Warsaw, Kraków, Poznań, Wilno and Lwów – became major European cities and the sites of internationally acclaimed universities and other institutions of higher education. After more than a century of Partitions between the Austrian, the Prussian, the Russian imperial powers, Poland re-emerged as a sovereign state at the end of the First World War in Europe in 1917-1918; the victorious Allies of World War I confirmed the rebirth of Poland in the Treaty of Versailles of June 1919. It was one of the great stories of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Poland solidified its independence in a series of border wars fought by the newly formed Polish Army from 1918 to 1921.
The extent of the eastern half of the interwar territory of Poland was settled diplomatically in 1922 and internationally recognized by the League of Nations. In the course of World War I, Germany gained overall dominance on the Eastern Front as the Imperial Russian Army fell back. German and Austro-Hungarian armies seized the Russian-ruled part of. In a failed attempt to resolve the Polish question as as possible, Berlin set up a German puppet state on 5 November 1916, with a governing Provisional Council of State and a Regency Council; the Council administered the country under German auspices, pending the election of a king. A month before Germany surrendered on 11 November 1918 and the war ended, the Regency Council had dissolved the Council of State, announced its intention to restore Polish independence. With the notable exception of the Marxist-oriented Social Democratic Party of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania, most Polish political parties supported this move. On 23 October the Regency Council appointed a new government under Józef Świeżyński and began conscription into the Polish Army.
In 1918–1919, over 100 workers' councils sprang up on Polish territories. On 6 November socialists proclaimed the Republic of Tarnobrzeg at Tarnobrzeg in Austrian Galicia; the same day the Socialist, Ignacy Daszyński, set up a Provisional People's Government of the Republic of Poland in Lublin. On Sunday, 10 November at 7 a.m. Józef Piłsudski, newly freed from 16 months in a German prison in Magdeburg, returned by train to Warsaw. Piłsudski, together with Colonel Kazimierz Sosnkowski, was greeted at Warsaw's railway station by Regent Zdzisław Lubomirski and by Colonel Adam Koc. Next day, due to his popularity and support from most political parties, the Regency Council appointed Piłsudski as Commander in Chief of the Polish Armed Forces. On 14 November, the Council dissolved itself and transferred all its authority to Piłsudski as Chief of State. After consultation with Piłsudski, Daszyński's government dissolved itself and a new government formed under Jędrzej Moraczewski. In 1918 Italy became the first country in Europe to recognise Poland's renewed sovereignty.
Centers of government that formed at that time in Galicia included the National Council of the Principality of Cieszyn, the Republic of Zakopane and the Polish Liquidation Committee. Soon afterward, the Polish–Ukrainian War broke out in Lwów between forces of the Military Committee of Ukrainians and the Polish irregular units made up of students known as the Lwów Eaglets, who were supported by the Polish Army. Meanwhile, in western Poland, another war of national liberation began under the banner of the Greater Poland uprising. In January 1919 Czechoslovakian forces attacked Polish units in the area of Zaolzie. Soon afterwards the Polish–Lithuanian War began, in August 1919 Polish-speaking residents of Upper Silesia initiated a series of three Silesian Uprisings; the most critical military conflict o
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Stanley Kubrick was an American film director and producer. He is cited as one of the greatest and most influential filmmakers in cinematic history, his films, which are adaptations of novels or short stories, cover a wide range of genres, are noted for their realism, dark humor, unique cinematography, extensive set designs, evocative use of music. Kubrick was raised in the Bronx, New York City, attended William Howard Taft High School from 1941 to 1945, he only received average grades, but displayed a keen interest in literature and film from a young age, taught himself all aspects of film production and directing after graduating from high school. After working as a photographer for Look magazine in the late 1940s and early 1950s, he began making short films on a shoestring budget, made his first major Hollywood film, The Killing, for United Artists in 1956; this was followed by two collaborations with Kirk Douglas, the war picture Paths of Glory and the historical epic Spartacus. His reputation as a filmmaker in Hollywood grew, he was approached by Marlon Brando to film what would become One-Eyed Jacks, though Brando decided to direct it himself.
Creative differences arising from his work with Douglas and the film studios, a dislike of the Hollywood industry, a growing concern about crime in America prompted Kubrick to move to the United Kingdom in 1961, where he spent most of the remainder of his life and career. His home at Childwickbury Manor in Hertfordshire, which he shared with his wife Christiane, became his workplace, where he did his writing, research and management of production details; this allowed him to have complete artistic control over his films, but with the rare advantage of having financial support from major Hollywood studios. His first British productions were two films with Peter Lolita and Dr. Strangelove. A demanding perfectionist, Kubrick assumed control over most aspects of the filmmaking process, from direction and writing to editing, took painstaking care with researching his films and staging scenes, working in close coordination with his actors and other collaborators, he asked for several dozen retakes of the same scene in a movie, which resulted in many conflicts with his casts.
Despite the resulting notoriety among actors, many of Kubrick's films broke new ground in cinematography. The scientific realism and innovative special effects of 2001: A Space Odyssey were without precedent in the history of cinema, the film earned him his only personal Oscar, for Best Visual Effects. Steven Spielberg has referred to the film as his generation's "big bang", it is regarded as one of the greatest films made. For the 18th-century period film Barry Lyndon, Kubrick obtained lenses developed by Zeiss for NASA, to film scenes under natural candlelight. With The Shining, he became one of the first directors to make use of a Steadicam for stabilized and fluid tracking shots. While many of Kubrick's films were controversial and received mixed reviews upon release—particularly A Clockwork Orange, which Kubrick pulled from circulation in the UK following a mass media frenzy—most were nominated for Oscars, Golden Globes, or BAFTA Awards, underwent critical reevaluations, his last film, Eyes Wide Shut, was completed shortly before his death in 1999 at the age of 70.
Kubrick was born in the Lying-In Hospital at 307 Second Avenue in Manhattan, New York City, to a Jewish family. He was the first of two children of Jacob Leonard Kubrick, known as Jack or Jacques, his wife Sadie Gertrude Kubrick, known as Gert, his sister, Barbara Mary Kubrick, was born in May 1934. Jack Kubrick, whose parents and paternal grandparents were of Polish-Jewish, Austrian-Jewish, Romanian-Jewish origin, was a doctor, graduating from the New York Homeopathic Medical College in 1927, the same year he married Kubrick's mother, the child of Austrian-Jewish immigrants. Kubrick's great-grandfather, Hersh Kubrick, arrived at Ellis Island via Liverpool by ship on December 27, 1899, at the age of 47, leaving behind his wife and two grown children, one of whom was Stanley's grandfather Elias, to start a new life with a younger woman. Elias Kubrick followed in 1902. At Stanley's birth, the Kubricks lived in an apartment at 2160 Clinton Avenue in the Bronx, his parents had been married in a Jewish ceremony, but Kubrick did not have a religious upbringing, would profess an atheistic view of the universe.
By the district standards of the West Bronx, the family was wealthy, his father earning a good income as a physician. Soon after his sister's birth, Kubrick began schooling in Public School 3 in the Bronx, moved to Public School 90 in June 1938, his IQ was discovered to be above average, but his attendance was poor, he missed 56 days in his first term alone, as many as he attended. He displayed an interest in literature from a young age, began reading Greek and Roman myths and the fables of the Grimm brothers which "instilled in him a lifelong affinity with Europe", he spent most Saturdays during the summer watching the New York Yankees, would photograph two boys watching the game in an assignment for Look magazine to emulate his own childhood excitement with baseball. When Kubrick was 12, his father Jack taught; the game remained a lifelong interest of Kubrick's. Kubrick, who became a member of the United States Chess Federation, explained that chess helped him develop "patience and discipline" in making decisions.
At the age of 13, Kubrick's father bought
Venice for Lovers
Venice for Lovers is a collection of essays and travel impressions about the city of Venice in Italy, written by Louis Begley and wife Anka Muhlstein. Every year for all the 30 years they have been married, the couple spends long, enjoyable months in Venice, they write and live there and over the decades La Serenissima has become their second home. The owners of their favourite restaurants have become their friends and they share the lives of the locals, far off the beaten tourist tracks, as Muhlstein describes in her contribution to this book. Louis Begley tells the story of how he fell in love in Venice, he is not the only one who did, as his literary essay on the city's place in world literature demonstrates: Henry James, Marcel Proust and Thomas Mann are only the most illustrious predecessors. Written in German and French, the authors revised the English edition, adding extra material; the book is a private view of a place, which will forever inspire dreams of love and passion. The last section of the book is written singlehanded by Louis Begley and is entitled Venice: Reflections of a Novelist and opens thus: Venice: It is a great pleasure to write the word, but I am not sure there is not a certain impudence in pretending to add anything to it.
Venice has been painted and described many thousands of times, of all the cities of the world it is the easiest to visit without going there. Open the first book and you will find a rhapsody about it. There is notoriously nothing more to be said on the subject; the voice is not mine. As a novelist, I have disregarded his counsel as well, I am about to disregard it again now.... I have been visiting Venice since 1954. In the 1980s, visits to Venice became an unquestioned annual event, one that my wife and I have come to regard as a fixed part of our lives; the rush of pleasure is just as intense when we first see from the water taxi we boarded at the airport the outline of the city glimmering in the morning haze. Our painter son who has lived in Rome for many years, whose knowledge of Venetian calli and rii and sottoporteghi, of the contents of the sacristies of out-of-the-way churches, is as surprising as my wife's, has continued to spend harmonious days with us, organized around lunches and dinners, which we eat late to safeguard the working hours during which we are not to be disturbed.
I had the great good luck to get to know the work of Marcel Proust and Thomas Mann long before I first went to Venice: Mann beginning in 1949, when I read Death in Venice, "Mario and the Magician", "Disorder and Early Sorrow," and Proust's in the spring of 1951, when during one semester I made my way through all of À la recherche du temps perdu. It was in the early 1950s, although I cannot pinpoint the year, that I began to read Henry James, at first some of the stories and The Turn of the Screw and Washington Square, but while I was still at college, the longer works. I had read The Wings of the Dove by the summer of 1954. I have a life-long unshakeable habit of peering at people and places through works of fiction I admire, as though they were so many different pairs of glasses, each of which in its own way adjusts my vision. Accordingly, I have no reason to doubt my memory of having looked at Venice from the start as Venice of James and Proust and Mann. List of architecture monuments of Venice List of painters and architects of Venice Su e zo per i ponti Veneti and Venetic language Venetian glass Venetian language Venice Biennale Venice Film Festival Several European cities have been compared to Venice: The Breton city Nantes has been called The Venice of the West, while the nickname The Venice of the North has been variously applied to Amsterdam, Bornholm, Haapsalu, Saint Petersburg and Stockholm.
Official Site of the City of Venice Activities in Venice
Suhrkamp Verlag is a German publishing house, established in 1950 and acknowledged as one of the leading European publishers of fine literature. Its roots go back to the "arianized" part of the S. Fischer Verlag. In January 2010 the headquarters of the company moved from Frankfurt to Berlin. Suhrkamp declared bankruptcy following a longstanding legal conflict between its owners. In 2015, economist Jonathan Landgrebe was announced as director; the firm was established by Peter Suhrkamp, who had led the renowned S. Fischer Verlag since 1936; as the censorship of the Nazi Regime endangered the existence of the S. Fischer Verlag with its many dissident authors, Gottfried Bermann Fischer in 1935 reached an agreement with the Propaganda Ministry under which the publication of the not accepted authors would leave Germany while others, the "aryanized" part, would be published under Peter Suhrkamp as managing director and, inter alia, the name "Suhrkamp" — including Nazi-oriented authors. Suhrkamp was arrested by the Gestapo in 1944, but survived concentration camp imprisonment.
Following a suggestion by Hermann Hesse, he left the Fischer publishing house, establishing his own in 1950. A majority of the writers associated with Fischer followed him. Among the first authors he published were Hesse, Rudolf Alexander Schröder, Hermann Kasack, T. S. Eliot, George Bernard Shaw and Bertolt Brecht. Siegfried Unseld joined the firm in 1952, became part owner in 1957, publisher on Suhrkamp's death in 1959, he led Suhrkamp Verlag until his own death in 2002. Under Unseld's leadership, the publisher established itself within three major fields: 20th century German literature, foreign language literature and humanities. Suhrkamp books gained acclaim for their innovative design and typography due to the work of Willy Fleckhaus. During Unseld's reign, Suhrkamp published some of the leading modern German language authors in addition to those mentioned. After Unseld's death, the firm was shaken by inner strife. Today, it is led by Jonathan Landgrebe. However, some of its leading authors, such as Martin Walser, have left the publishing house.
Suhrkamp Verlag has 140 employees and an annual turnover of 30 million €. Until January 2010, the company headquarters were situated in Germany. Jurek Becker, Jürgen Becker, Thomas Bernhard, Peter Bichsel, Bertolt Brecht, Volker Braun, Paul Celan, Tankred Dorst, Günter Eich, Hans Magnus Enzensberger, Max Frisch, Durs Grünbein, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Peter Handke, Wolfgang Hildesheimer, Uwe Johnson, Thomas Kling, Wolfgang Koeppen, Karl Krolow, Andreas Maier, Friederike Mayröcker, Robert Menasse, Adolf Muschg, Paul Nizon, Hans Erich Nossack, Ernst Penzoldt, Doron Rabinovici, Nelly Sachs, Arno Schmidt, Robert Walser, Ernst Weiß and Peter Weiss. Amongst non-German writing authors are Samuel Beckett, Octavio Paz, James Joyce, Marcel Proust, José Maria de Eça de Queiroz, Clarín, Mercè Rodoreda, Jorge Semprún, Lídia Jorge, Agustina Bessa-Luís, Juan Ramón Jiménez, Amos Oz, Julia Kissina, Sylvia Plath, Eduardo Mendoza, Clarice Lispector. Latin American literature has become a special focus point for Suhrkamp Verlag, its catalogue includes names such as Pablo Neruda, Isabel Allende, Mario Vargas Llosa, Manuel Puig, João Ubaldo Ribeiro, Adolfo Bioy Casares, Guillermo Cabrera Infante, Alejo Carpentier, Julio Cortázar, Osman Lins, José Lezama Lima, Juan Carlos Onetti and Octavio Paz, Tuvia Tenenbom.
The book series Bibliothek Suhrkamp encompasses leading modern authors, including Ingeborg Bachmann, T. S. Eliot, Carlo Emilio Gadda, Federico García Lorca, André Gide, Ernest Hemingway, Yasushi Inoue, James Joyce, Franz Kafka, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Thomas Mann, Yukio Mishima, Cesare Pavese, Ezra Pound, Marcel Proust, Rainer Maria Rilke, Jean-Paul Sartre, Georg Trakl, Giuseppe Ungaretti, Paul Valéry and Marina Tsvetaeva; the humanities are represented by writers such as Theodor W. Adorno, Walter Benjamin, Ernst Bloch, Hans Blumenberg, Norbert Elias, Paul Feyerabend, Jürgen Habermas, Hans Jonas, Niklas Luhmann, Tilmann Moser und Gershom Scholem, Siegfried Kracauer, Helmuth Plessner, Burghart Schmidt, Georg Simmel, Viktor von Weizsäcker, Joseph Weizenbaum and Ludwig Wittgenstein. A number of Suhrkamp's publications in this field are considered standard academic reading. Official website
John III Sobieski
John III Sobieski was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1674 until his death, one of the most notable monarchs of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Sobieski's military skill, demonstrated in combating the invasions of the Ottoman Empire, contributed to his prowess as King of Poland. Sobieski's 22-year reign marked a period of the Commonwealth's stabilization, much needed after the turmoil of the Deluge and the Khmelnytsky Uprising. Popular among his subjects, he was an able military commander, most famous for his victory over the Turks at the 1683 Battle of Vienna. After his victories over them, the Ottomans called him the "Lion of Lechistan". Official title: Joannes III, Dei Gratia rex Poloniae, magnus dux Lithuaniae, Prussiae, Samogitiae, Smolenscie, Volhyniae, Severiae, etc. Official title: Jan III, z łaski bożej, król Polski, wielki książę litewski, pruski, mazowiecki, żmudzki, kijowski, wołyński, podlaski i czernichowski, etc. English translation: John III, by the grace of God King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Prussia, Samogitia, Smolensk, Volhynia, Podlasie and Chernihiv, etc.
John Sobieski was born on 17 August 1629, in Olesko, now Ukraine part of the Ruthenian Voivodeship in the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth to a renowned noble family de Sobieszyn Sobieski of Janina coat of arms. His father, Jakub Sobieski, was the Voivode of Castellan of Kraków. John Sobieski spent his childhood in Żółkiew. After graduating from the Nowodworski College in Kraków in 1643, young John Sobieski graduated from the philosophical faculty of the Jagiellonian University in 1646. After finishing his studies and his brother Marek Sobieski left for western Europe, where he spent more than two years travelling, they visited Leipzig, Paris, London and The Hague. During that time, he met influential contemporary figures such as Louis II de Bourbon, Charles II of England and William II, Prince of Orange, learned French and Italian, in addition to Latin. Both brothers returned to the Commonwealth in 1648. Upon receiving the news of the death of king Władysław IV Vasa and the hostilities of the Khmelnytsky Uprising, they volunteered for the army.
They both fought in the siege of Zamość. They commanded their own banners of cavalry. Soon, the fortunes of war separated the brothers. In 1649, Jakub fought in the Battle of Zboriv. In 1652, Marek died in Tatar captivity after his capture at the Battle of Batih. John was fought with distinction in the Battle of Berestechko. A promising commander, John was sent by King John II Casimir as one of the envoys in the diplomatic mission of Mikołaj Bieganowski to the Ottoman Empire. There, Sobieski learned the Tatar language and the Turkish language and studied Turkish military traditions and tactics, it is he participated as part of the allied Polish-Tatar forces in the 1655 Battle of Okhmativ. After the start of the Swedish invasion of Poland known as "The Deluge", John Sobieski was among the Greater Polish regiments led by Krzysztof Opaliński, Palatine of Poznań which capitulated at Ujście, swore allegiance to King Charles X Gustav of Sweden. However, around late March 1656, he abandoned their side, returning to the side of Polish king John II Casimir Vasa, enlisting under the command of hetmans Stefan Czarniecki and Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski.
By 26 May 1656 he received the position of the chorąży koronny. During the three-day-long battle of Warsaw of 1656, Sobieski commanded a 2,000-man strong regiment of Tatar cavalry, he took part in a number of engagements over the next two years, including the Siege of Toruń in 1658. In 1659 he was elected a deputy to the Sejm, was one of the Polish negotiators of the Treaty of Hadiach with the Cossacks. In 1660 he took part in the last offensive against the Swedes in Prussia, was rewarded with the office of starost of Stryj. Soon afterward he took part in the war against the Russians, participating in the Battle of Slobodyshche and Battle of Lyubar, that year he again was one of the negotiators of a new treaty with the Cossacks. Through personal connections, he became a strong supporter of the French faction in the Polish royal court, represented by Queen Marie Louise Gonzaga, his pro-French allegiance was reinforced in 1665, when he married Marie Casimire Louise de la Grange d'Arquien and was promoted to the rank of Grand Marshal of the Crown.
In 1662 he was again elected a deputy to the Sejm, took part in the work on reforming the military. He was a member of the Sejm in 1664 and 1665. In between he participated in the Russian campaign of 1663. Sobieski remained loyal to the King during the Lubomirski Rebellion of 1665–66, though it was a difficult decision for him, he participated in the Sejm of 1665, after some delays, accepted the prestigious office of the Marshal of the Crown on 18 May that year. Around late April or early May 1666 he received another high office of the Commonwealth, that of the Field Crown Hetman. Soon afterward, he was defeated at the Battle of Mątwy, signed the Agreement of Łęgonice on the 21 July, which ended the Lubomirski Rebellion. In October 1667 he achieved another victory over the Cossacks of Petro Doroshenko and their Crimean Tatar
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula River in east-central Poland and its population is estimated at 1.770 million residents within a greater metropolitan area of 3.1 million residents, which makes Warsaw the 8th most-populous capital city in the European Union. The city limits cover 516.9 square kilometres, while the metropolitan area covers 6,100.43 square kilometres. Warsaw is an alpha global city, a major international tourist destination, a significant cultural and economic hub, its historical Old Town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Once described as the'Paris of the North', Warsaw was believed to be one of the most beautiful cities in the world until World War II. Bombed at the start of the German invasion in 1939, the city withstood a siege for which it was awarded Poland's highest military decoration for heroism, the Virtuti Militari. Deportations of the Jewish population to concentration camps led to the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in 1943 and the destruction of the Ghetto after a month of combat.
A general Warsaw Uprising between August and October 1944 led to greater devastation and systematic razing by the Germans in advance of the Vistula–Oder Offensive. Warsaw gained the new title of Phoenix City because of its extensive history and complete reconstruction after World War II, which had left over 85% of its buildings in ruins. Warsaw is one of Europe's most dynamic metropolitan cities. In 2012 the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Warsaw as the 32nd most liveable city in the world. In 2017 the city came 4th in the "Business-friendly" category and 8th in "Human capital and life style", it was ranked as one of the most liveable cities in Central and Eastern Europe. The city is a significant centre of research and development, Business process outsourcing, Information technology outsourcing, as well as of the Polish media industry; the Warsaw Stock Exchange is most important in Central and Eastern Europe. Frontex, the European Union agency for external border security as well as ODIHR, one of the principal institutions of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe have their headquarters in Warsaw.
Together with Frankfurt and Paris, Warsaw is one of the cities with the highest number of skyscrapers in the European Union. The city is the seat of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw National Philharmonic Orchestra, University of Warsaw, the Warsaw Polytechnic, the National Museum, the Great Theatre—National Opera, the largest of its kind in the world, the Zachęta National Gallery of Art; the picturesque Old Town of Warsaw, which represents examples of nearly every European architectural style and historical period, was listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1980. Other main architectural attractions include the Castle Square with the Royal Castle and the iconic King Sigismund's Column, the Wilanów Palace, the Łazienki Palace, St. John's Cathedral, Main Market Square, palaces and mansions all displaying a richness of colour and detail. Warsaw is positioning itself as Central and Eastern Europe’s chic cultural capital with thriving art and club scenes and serious restaurants, with around a quarter of the city's area occupied by parks.
Warsaw's name in the Polish language is Warszawa. Other previous spellings of the name may have included Werszewa. According to some sources, the origin of the name is unknown. In Pre-Slavic toponomastic layer of Northern Mazovia: corrections and addenda, it is stated that the toponymy of northern Mazovia tends to have unclear etymology. Warszawa was the name of a fishing village. According to one theory Warszawa means "belonging to Warsz", Warsz being a shortened form of the masculine name of Slavic origin Warcisław; however the ending -awa is unusual for a big city. Folk etymology attributes the city name to a fisherman and his wife, Sawa. According to legend, Sawa was a mermaid living in the Vistula River. In actuality, Warsz was a 12th/13th-century nobleman who owned a village located at the modern-day site of the Mariensztat neighbourhood. See the Vršovci family which had escaped to Poland; the official city name in full is miasto stołeczne Warszawa. A native or resident of Warsaw is known as a Varsovian – in Polish warszawiak, warszawianka and warszawianie.
Other names for Warsaw include Varsovia and Varsóvia, Varsavia, Warschau, װאַרשע /Varshe, Varšuva, Varsó and Varšava The first fortified settlements on the site of today's Warsaw were located in Bródno and Jazdów. After Jazdów was raided by nearby clans and dukes, a new similar settlement was established on the site of a small fishing village called Warszowa; the Prince of Płock, Bolesław II of Masovia, established this settlement, the modern-day Warsaw, in about 1300. In the beginning of the 14th century it became one of the seats of the Dukes of Masovia, becoming the official capital of the Masovian Duchy in 1413. 14th-century Warsaw's economy rested on crafts and trade. Upon the extinction of the local ducal line, the duchy was reincorporated into the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland in 1526. In 1529, Warsaw for the first time became the seat of th