Lark is an American brand of cigarettes owned and manufactured by Philip Morris USA in the United States. Outside the U. S. it is produced by Philip Morris Ukraine. Liggett & Myers introduced in 1963 and notable for its charcoal filter and past advertising campaigns, Lark was launched in 1963 by Liggett & Myers with its trademark charcoal filter in an effort to halt a five-year downward drift in sales; the distinguishing feature of the brand, both in terms of physical characteristics and taste was the 3-piece "Keith" filter - the middle section of which contains small charcoal granules, which purportedly reduces the harshness of the cigarette's smoke. Liggett & Myers underwent several name changes over the years but kept the Lark brand in their product mix until 1999, when Liggett Vector Brands Inc. sold Lark, along with the L&M and Chesterfield brands for $300 million to Philip Morris Companies Inc. known as Altria. Since its introduction and despite several prominent advertising campaigns, among, one featuring people on the street being asked to "Show us your Lark pack", Lark has never held a large share of the U.
S. cigarette market. As of 2008, the brand had less than 1% of the U. S. market share, but was popular in Japan. U. S. Supreme Court Justice John Marshall Harlan II smoked Larks. Comedian George Carlin discussed the "Show us your lark" ad on the album AM & FM. From its introduction in 1963, the brand came in a maroon-colored package with white print, and for most of the brand’s life it has sported the slogan "Richly Rewarding, yet Uncommonly Smooth". Although Philip Morris continues to promote the brand in Japan, it receives little to no advertising in the United States; this would explain why its share of the U. S. market has declined over the years since experts agree that cigarette brands lose market share when they are no longer promoted. Past advertising campaigns, have been conspicuous. Much of the advertising that in print, centered on the charcoal filter and its effect on taste; the most extensively run and best remembered advertisement, was a television spot from the 1960s in which an off-screen narrator exhorted those on the street to "show us your Lark pack".
Meanwhile, throughout the piece the William Tell Overture blared while the words "have a Lark, have a Lark, have a Lark today" were sung to the overture’s melody. Everyone it seemed was only too happy to show them. Another notable advertisement campaign from the early 1970s featured a hot-air balloon with the Lark brand name and colours; the balloon was a symbol for the "smoothness" of Lark cigarettes. Lark was advertised in the 1980s with James Bond style appearances by Timothy Dalton and Roger Moore in Japanese TV commercials. Future Bond Pierce Brosnan advertised Larks in two commercials that aired only in Japan. In the late 1980s, Philip Morris spent $350.000 to have the Lark brand appear in the Licence to Kill film. On George Carlin's album FM & AM, Carlin insinuates that "Show us your Lark" is a hidden sexual innuendo. A parody of the commercial was created by comedian Stan Freberg for Jeno's Pizza Rolls. In it, tuxedo-clad partygoers are asked to show their packages of frozen Jeno's Pizza Rolls and they do.
A Lark executive complains about the use of the music followed by the appearance of the Lone Ranger and Tonto asking the Lark executive about the same thing. A similar parody was presented in a fake commercial for Saturday Night Live during its first season, where the announcer urged everyone to "show us your guns", in a similar manner as the Lark commercial, minus the singing; the parody first aired on SNL's first episode on October 11, 1975. Lark is sold in the United States, but was or still is sold in Brazil, Spain, Turkey, Taiwan, South Korea and Japan; because of its unique activated charcoal filter, from its inception Lark has been the subject of inquiry into whether it is safer or more harmful than cigarettes in general. According to Anne Landman with the American Lung Association of Colorado, "The technique used in the marketing of Lark through hospitals and the medical profession was similar to that used in the marketing of Kent in 1952." Ms. Landman's research, which began in 1998, further reveals that Liggett & Myer's marketing campaign several months before the release of the Surgeon General's 1964 Report on Smoking and Health was directed at creating the rumor that medical scientists endorsed Lark as the safest cigarette.
This marketing technique is credited for Lark's sales surpassing those of Kent in the Buffalo area and nearly doing so in the Houston area. The biggest controversy about the reputed safety of Lark cigarettes was created by the publication of It Is Safe to Smoke by scientist Lloyd Mallan. Mallan recounts the findings of numerous scientists who all conclude based on the research conducted that smoking can be rendered harmless or considerablely less harmful if the cigarette is equipped with a charcoal filter; the only other brand in the United States at the time with a charcoal filter was Tareyton, whose filter had a different structure from Lark and was deemed to be less effective. Hawthorne Publishing, took the book off the market in 1967
Nat Sherman is the brand name for a line of handmade cigars and "luxury cigarettes." The company, which began as a retail tobacconist, continues to operate a flagship retail shop now located on 42nd Street, off Fifth Avenue, in New York City. Corporate offices are now located at the foot of the George Washington Bridge in Fort Lee, New Jersey. Before he was involved in the tobacco industry, Nat Sherman made his fortune running a prominent speakeasy in New York City during the 1920s, when Prohibition made such a business lucrative, albeit risky; as the result of settlement of a gambling debt, his son speculated, Sherman wound up as half owner of Traub Brothers and Bear, makers of the Epoca cigar brand, which introduced the nightclub proprietor into the world of tobacco manufacturing. Sherman subsequently bought out his partner to become sole owner of the Epoca brand, made in Havana and Tampa, Florida. A prominent New York real estate developer named Abe Gubertz had cash-flow difficulties during the construction of a 38 story building located at 1400 Broadway, on Broadway in Manhattan.
Sherman provided the struggling developer with a loan, taking retail space located in the lobby as partial payment. The shop sold cigarettes and cigars in substantial quantities to those who worked in the building and proved a means of distributing its own cigars, including Epoca and Nat Sherman-branded product; the company was the exclusive importer and distributor of the Cuban-made Bolivar brand in the United States. In the 1950s, an adjoining retail space was obtained on the street, used as a candy store; the wall between the two establishments was broken down, paving the way for an expansion of the tobacco shop, which catered to an elite customer base, which included leaders in the fashion industry and politicians. Prominent members of organized crime "families" frequented the shop, regarded as "neutral ground."Nat Sherman's son Joel, company president and CEO into the 21st century recalled of the shop's most dangerous customers: These people drank the best liquor, drove the most expensive cars, had the most beautiful women, they smoked the best cigars.
You'd find people from opposing crime families meeting in the store. They'd buy each other cigars. In 1950, Sherman introduced the plastic-tipped cigar to the industry, called Sherman's #25; the cigar was produced in Tampa for Sherman by Carl Cuesta, an American manufacturer of cigars for Partagas. The company applied for a patent for its cigar tip, never granted. For 32 years the company bluffed away rivals by marking its packaging with the words "patent pending" and by threatening legal action. Sherman was a pioneer in the manufacture of cigarettes which made use of cigar tobacco, launching a product called Havana Ovals #149 early in the 1950s. According to company lore, the move to specialty small cigars and cigarettes was made at the request of an irate customer, unable to smoke a cigar on an airplane and who had requested a cigarette which tasted like a cigar. During the 1960s, the Sherman shop expanded its wares to include pipes. Over 1,000 pipes were offered for sale in a 40-foot long case hung along the wall of the store.
The company began to sell pipe tobacco under the "Nat Sherman" brand name. At the time of its expansion, the company's pipe department was the largest in New York City and the United States. In the 1960s, a move was made to expand both the wholesale operations of the company and its cigarette manufacturing arm; the company's previous manufacturing facility in Wilkes-Barre, was shuttered and a move made to a new and larger facility in Englewood, New Jersey. In the autumn of 1976, Nat Sherman opened a shop on New York's Fifth Avenue to bolster his tobacco brand's status. A new location was opened at 711 Fifth Avenue, near the Plaza Hotel, across from Company. After a period of differences with his father, Joel Sherman left the business for about a decade. Joel Sherman returned to the company in 1990, the year after his father's death, He became the company's president and CEO, terminated many of the existing management staff, set the company on the course of developing unique, high-end products.
The company lost its lease at 711 Fifth Avenue and moved to a new 7,000-square-foot location on 42nd Street, around the corner from the New York Public Library. A total of $1.5 million were spent on the development of the new store, which boasts an inventory of about 500,000 cigars and a second floor walk-in humidor and smoking room adorned with leather-backed chairs. Sherman's cigar line Metropolitan has been manufactured since the 1990s by MATASA in the Dominican Republic, its Gotham 1400 and Omerta products are manufactured and distributed by Santa Clara, Inc.. The company's cigarette manufacturing is conducted in its own facility in Greensboro, North Carolina. On January 17, 2017, Altria Group, Inc. announced that it acquired the privately-held Sherman Group Holdings, LLC and its subsidiaries. Sherman advertised during New York Giants radio broadcasts; every major play during the game, Giants commentator Bob Papa exclaimed "Get that man a Nat Sherman cigar!". Slang terminology for a PCP-laced tobacco cigarette is a "sherm" or "sherman", named for the brand.
The shop makes an appearance in the 1979 U. S. film Kramer vs. Kramer, where actor Dustin Hoffman walks past it in one scene. In the live version of the song Do You Feel Like We Do, Peter Frampton sings the line "Champagne for breakfast, got a Sherman in my hand."
Chateau Ste. Michelle
Chateau Ste. Michelle is Washington State's oldest winery, located in Woodinville, near Seattle, it produces Chardonnay, Cabernet and Riesling, has winemaking partnerships with two vintners: Col Solare is an alliance with Tuscany's Piero Antinori and Eroica Riesling is a partnership with the Mosel's Ernst Loosen. Chateau Ste. Michelle was selected as Wine Enthusiast magazine's 2004 American Winery of the Year, it is owned by Altria. Chateau Ste. Michelle is the oldest winery in Washington state, it was founded as the American Wine Company, a 1954 merger of the National Wine Company, founded in 1934, the Pomerelle Wine Company. The French-style chateau is located on 87 acres of land with mature trees that once belonged to lumber baron Frederick Stimson, who used it as a hunting retreat and rural working farm called the Hollywood Farm. Over the years, many Washington winemakers have gotten their start working for Chateau Ste. Michelle, these include Kay Simon of Chinook Wines which she co-founded with her husband Clay Mackey who worked as a vineyard manager for Chateau Ste.
Michelle. Chateau Ste. Michelle produces over 8,000,000 cases of Riesling wine per year; the winery owns several estate vineyards in Eastern Washington including the Canoe Ridge vineyard in the Horse Heaven Hills AVA, the Cold Creek vineyard and Indian Wells vineyards in the Columbia Valley AVA. On the grounds of the winery is an amphitheater where outdoor concerts are performed in the summer. Woodinville wine country History and information at vintners.net Farm Workers in Washington State History Project, including photographs, oral histories, digitized newspaper articles and documents from the union organizing drive and ensuing international boycott of Chateau St. Michelle during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Rosalinda Guillen and Joseph Moore Papers. - Court Case Documents, Chateau Ste. Michelle Winery Picket, Joseph Moore Speeding Ticket
Chesterfield is a brand of cigarettes owned and manufactured by Altria. It is named after Virginia. Chesterfield was a sponsor of the Surtees team during the 1976 Formula One season and 1977 Formula One season. A second car entered in was sponsored by Chesterfield in 1977, while their main car was controversially sponsored by Durex. Chesterfield sponsored the BMS Scuderia Italia team in the 1993 FIA Formula One World Championship, they only sponsored the team for one season due to the retirement of the team from F1 to focus on the World Touring Car Cup. Chesterfield was a sponsor of Max Biaggi's Aprilia RSV 250 from the 1994 to the 1996 Grand Prix motorcycle racing season in the 250cc World Championship; the livery of the bike was black with the mark on the side fairings. In the same years, Aprilia adopted the same livery in the series production of its RS road bikes; the success was so great that today Italians are used to say "La Chesterfield" to refer to the Aprilia RS models of those years.
Chesterfield was the main sponsor of the motorcycle team "BYRD" at the Paris-Dakar Rally from 1987 to 1994. The competition team "Yamaha Sonauto" was sponsored by the cigarette brand Gauloises. In addition, under the name "Chesterfield Scout" a collaboration with the enduro sport on a more private level. For example, at Yamaha in 1989, there was a "Chesterfield DT" with 125 cc, for the Yamaha XTZ 750 Super Ténéré gave it in its first model year in 1989, the color variant "Chesterfield". In the 1930s through the 1950s, Chesterfield sponsored popular radio programs. An early one was the radio series Music That Satisfies, broadcast in 1932-1933; the Chesterfield Hour featured big bands such as those of Paul Whiteman and Glenn Miller and Fred Waring. It was followed by Johnny Mercer's Chesterfield Music Shop and the Chesterfield Supper Club which featured Perry Como and Jo Stafford with Peggy Lee replacing Stafford on some episodes beginning in 1948. Johnny Mercer wrote the pop standard song "Dream" as the theme song for his Chesterfield radio program.
Liggett & Myers sponsored Dragnet, during the 1950s. The 1954 theatrical version of Dragnet had Chesterfield product placements, such as advertisements in scenes taking place at drug stores and news counters, or cigarette vending machines. Jack Webb as Sgt. Joe Friday was seen smoking Chesterfields in the movie and TV series; the Martin and Lewis Show, on NBC radio from 1949 to 1953, was sponsored or co-sponsored for most of its run by Chesterfield. In the 1950s, Gunsmoke on both radio and TV was sponsored by Chesterfields and L&Ms. In the 1940s and 1950s Ronald Reagan, Bob Hope, Bing Crosby, Perry Como, Arthur Godfrey were among Chesterfield's official spokesmen. Chesterfield is sold in: Argentina, Austria, Belgium and Herzegovina, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom. On February 8, 2018, Phillip Morris USA discontinued Chesterfield non-filter cigarettes in the United States.
In January 2019, Phillip Morris USA began testing some filtered varieties in North and South Carolina. The varieties include Reds and Green. Ian Fleming makes references to different smoking products in his famous James Bond novels; the Chesterfield brand of cigarette are portrayed as one of Bond's favorites as seen in the 1959 book Goldfinger. In this novel, James Bond demands of Goldfinger's servant, "Oddjob, I want a lot of food, quickly, and a bottle of bourbon and ice. A carton of Chesterfields, king-size..."In numerous Stephen King novels, his characters smoke Chesterfield cigarettes. In the popular 2010 HBO TV series Boardwalk Empire, Agent Knox is seen giving three packs of Chesterfield cigarettes to Clayton. Humphrey Bogart appeared in Chesterfield advertisements. A scene from the 1944 movie To Have and Have Not shows him with a pack of Chesterfields. Chesterfield was made famous notably through Jean-Luc Godard's 1960 film À bout de souffle in which the cigarette smoked by the actress Jean Seberg is a Chesterfield.
Vittorio Gassman bought two packs of Chesterfield cigarettes in the movie Il Sorpasso. In Jack Clayton's 1974 adaptation of The Great Gatsby, Gatsby splits the last Chesterfield in his pack with Nick Carraway while the two chat on Carraway's porch. Nick Carraway is a thinly-disguised F. Scott Fitzgerald in The Great Gatsby. Fitzgerald's favorite cigarette was Chesterfield's. Jake Blues smoked Chesterfield cigarettes in the 1980 film The Blues Brothers. Near the end of the scene at Bob's Country Bunker, Jake is seen flashing a flattened and nearly empty pack of Chesterfield cigarettes, pretending it is his musician's union ID card. In Jim Jarmusch's 1984 film Stranger Than Paradise the main characters smoke Chesterfields, at times discussing where they can purchase them. In the 1989 film Fratelli d'Italia, Jerry Calà draws a pack of Chesterfield Reds several times. In Quentin Tarantino's 1992 movie Reservoir Dogs, Mr. White offers Mr. Pink a Che
Philip Morris International
Philip Morris International Inc. is an American multinational cigarette and tobacco manufacturing company, with products sold in over 180 countries outside the United States. The most recognized and best selling product of the company is Marlboro; until a spin-off in March 2008, Philip Morris International was an operating company of Altria. Altria explained the spin-off, arguing PMI would have more "freedom" outside the constraints of US corporate ownership in terms of potential litigation and legislative restrictions to "pursue sales growth in emerging markets.", while Altria focuses on the United States. The shareholders in Altria at the time were given shares in PMI, listed on the London Stock Exchange and other markets; the company's headquarters are in New York City. It does not operate in the United States. With tobacco being addictive and the single greatest cause of preventable death globally, the company is controversial, it has been the subject of litigation and restrictive legislation from governments.
With the world-wide decrease in smoking in the 21st century, shares of Philip Morris were no longer considered the "safe haven" they once were. The company ranked No. 108 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. The company states its history is traced to a London tobacconist, Philip Morris, opening a single shop on London’s Bond Street in 1847 which sold tobacco and cigarettes. In 1881, Philip Morris' son, Leopard Morris, established "Philip Morris & Company and Grunebaum Ltd" with Joseph Grunebaum. In 1885, the company changed its name to "Philip Morris & Co. Ltd." In 1894, William Curtis Thomson and his family began to control the company, in 1902 the company was incorporated in New York. In 1919, the US business was acquired and incorporated as "Philip Morris & Co. Ltd. Inc." in Virginia. In 1954, Philip Morris became the first affiliate of Philip Co.. Ltd, Inc. outside the U. S. In 1972, the company's Marlboro became the world's top-selling cigarette brand.
In 1987, Philip Morris International was incorporated as an operating company of Philip Morris Companies Inc. In 2001, the operations center of the company was transferred from Rye Brook, New York, to Lausanne, Switzerland. On January 27, 2003, Philip Morris Companies Inc. formally changed its name to the Altria Group. In March 2008, Philip Morris International was spun off from Altria. In April 2014, Philip Morris International announced that it would close its Moorabbin plant in Australia by the end of 2014 after operating for 60 years, due to the gradual decline of sales in the last ten years and difficulties conforming to 2010 Australian government regulation about reducing fire risks. In 2015, the company sold 850 billion cigarettes. In August 2018 Reuters reported that Philip Morris "has been among foreign companies with exposure to Russia’s tobacco market; the company’s sales exposure to Russia is 7 percent, according to a note from Goldman Sachs." Philip Morris International has six multi-billion US$ brands including: Dji Sam Soe 234 was launched in 1913 and is a brand of Kretek cigarettes.
It is the best seller of Kretek cigarettes in Indonesia. L&M was launched by Liggett & Myers in 1953 with the tagline: "American cigarettes of the highest quality with the best filter." L&M variants include full flavor shorts, full flavor 100s, ultra lights, menthol shorts, menthol 100s, menthol light shorts, menthol light 100s, Turkish Blend shorts, Turkish Blend 100s, L&M Mild Kretek. Longbeach include in Australia and Indonesia in 1999. Longbeach variant include: Longbeach Longbeach Mild. Marlboro was launched in 1904. Marlboro is the premium brand. Marlboro variants include: Marlboro Special, Marlboro Menthol, Marlboro Lights, Marlboro Lights Menthol, Marlboro Mix-9 Filter Kretek, Marlboro Flavor Plus, Marlboro Black Menthol, Heatsticks, a heated tobacco product; the company's Marlboro brand ranked first among the most valuable tobacco brands of 2017 on BrandFinance's website, which uses the royalty relief method of brand valuation. ST Dupont Paris is the brand cigarette designed by Simon Tissot Dupont in 1902.
With the black packaging. ST Dupont Paris variants include: filter, lights and menthol lights. U Mild was launched in Indonesia in 22 May 1998 after Indonesian revolution. U Mild is a Mild Kretek cigarette sold in Indonesia. Information from company website. Harold Brown André Calantzopoulos Louis C. Camilleri – Chairman Massimo Ferragamo Werner Geissler Lisa Hook Jennifer Li Jun Makihara Kalpana Morparia Lucio A. Noto Frederik Paulsen Jr Robert B. Polet Stephen M. Wolf For the fiscal year 2017, Philip Morris reported earnings of US$6.021 billion, with an annual revenue of US$78.098 billion, an increase of 4.2% over the previous fiscal cycle. Its shares traded at over $105 per share, its market capitalization was valued at over US$138.4 billion in October 2018. Philip Morris International's research center is located in Neuchatel and houses Philip Morris International's product research and development program; as of April 2018, earnings reports showed the company had spent $4.5 billion on four products: two that heat rather than burn tobacco, two other nicotine products.
One of these heat-not-burn tobacco products is IQOS. It has funded the Foundation for a Smoke-Free World to purportedly fund scientific research for the global elimination of tobacco smoking, its claims to independence have been challenged and it has been criticised by the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, Action on Smoking and Health, Corporate Accountability International. The American Cancer Society stated, "This attempt by Philip Morris International to paint itself as a public he
Alexandria is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about 32 km along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country. Its low elevation on the Nile delta makes it vulnerable to rising sea levels. Alexandria is an important industrial center because of its natural oil pipelines from Suez. Alexandria is a popular tourist destination. Alexandria was founded around a small, ancient Egyptian town c. 332 BC by Alexander the Great, king of Macedon and leader of the Greek League of Corinth, during his conquest of the Achaemenid Empire. Alexandria became an important center of Hellenistic civilization and remained the capital of Ptolemaic Egypt and Roman and Byzantine Egypt for 1,000 years, until the Muslim conquest of Egypt in AD 641, when a new capital was founded at Fustat. Hellenistic Alexandria was best known for the Lighthouse of Alexandria, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Alexandria was at one time the second most powerful city of the ancient Mediterranean region, after Rome.
Ongoing maritime archaeology in the harbor of Alexandria, which began in 1994, is revealing details of Alexandria both before the arrival of Alexander, when a city named Rhacotis existed there, during the Ptolemaic dynasty. From the late 18th century, Alexandria became a major center of the international shipping industry and one of the most important trading centers in the world, both because it profited from the easy overland connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, the lucrative trade in Egyptian cotton. Alexandria is believed to have been founded by Alexander the Great in April 331 BC as Ἀλεξάνδρεια. Alexander's chief architect for the project was Dinocrates. Alexandria was intended to supersede Naucratis as a Hellenistic center in Egypt, to be the link between Greece and the rich Nile valley. Although it has long been believed only a small village there, recent radiocarbon dating of seashell fragments and lead contamination show significant human activity at the location for two millennia preceding Alexandria's founding.
Alexandria was the cultural center of the ancient world for some time. The city and its museum attracted many of the greatest scholars, including Greeks and Syrians; the city was plundered and lost its significance. In the early Christian Church, the city was the center of the Patriarchate of Alexandria, one of the major centers of early Christianity in the Eastern Roman Empire. In the modern world, the Coptic Orthodox Church and the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria both lay claim to this ancient heritage. Just east of Alexandria, there was in ancient times marshland and several islands; as early as the 7th century BC, there existed important port cities of Heracleion. The latter was rediscovered under water. An Egyptian city, Rhakotis existed on the shore and gave its name to Alexandria in the Egyptian language, it continued to exist as the Egyptian quarter of the city. A few months after the foundation, Alexander never returned to his city. After Alexander's departure, his viceroy, continued the expansion.
Following a struggle with the other successors of Alexander, his general Ptolemy Lagides succeeded in bringing Alexander's body to Alexandria, though it was lost after being separated from its burial site there. Although Cleomenes was in charge of overseeing Alexandria's continuous development, the Heptastadion and the mainland quarters seem to have been Ptolemaic work. Inheriting the trade of ruined Tyre and becoming the center of the new commerce between Europe and the Arabian and Indian East, the city grew in less than a generation to be larger than Carthage. In a century, Alexandria had become the largest city in the world and, for some centuries more, was second only to Rome, it became Egypt's main Greek city, with Greek people from diverse backgrounds. Alexandria was not only a center of Hellenism, but was home to the largest urban Jewish community in the world; the Septuagint, a Greek version of the Tanakh, was produced there. The early Ptolemies kept it in order and fostered the development of its museum into the leading Hellenistic center of learning, but were careful to maintain the distinction of its population's three largest ethnicities: Greek and Egyptian.
By the time of Augustus, the city walls encompassed an area of 5.34 km2, the total population in Roman times was around 500-600,000. According to Philo of Alexandria, in the year 38 of the Common era, disturbances erupted between Jews and Greek citizens of Alexandria during a visit paid by the Jewish king Agrippa I to Alexandria, principally over the respect paid by the Jewish nation to the Roman emperor, which escalated to open affronts and violence between the two ethnic groups and the desecration of Alexandrian synagogues; the violence was quelled after Caligula intervened and had the Roman governor, removed from the city. In AD 115, large parts of Alexandria were destroyed during the Kitos War, which gave Hadrian and his architect, Decriannus, an opportunity to rebuild it. In 215, the emperor Caracalla visited the city and, because of some insulting satires that the inhabitants had directed at him, abruptly commanded his troops to put to death all youths capable of bearing arms. On 21 July
L&M is an American brand of cigarettes owned and manufactured by Altria. The name comes from the tobacco company founded in 1873 called Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company, predecessor of today's Liggett Group in which L&M was produced. "L&M" was launched in 1885 by Myers as a plug chewing tobacco. In 1952 or 1953, the first L&M cigarettes were created and they were one of the earliest the earliest brand to have a filter, not a one-sided filter; when "L&M" was launched, their motto was "American cigarettes of the highest quality with the best filter". When their success in the American market was solidified, Liggett Group made a proposal to take the brand international. In 1999, the L&M trademark rights were acquired by the largest tobacco company in the United States, Philip Morris, are still produced by them today; the brand is popular in Latin America and northern Europe, the Arab World and the far east and south Asia. They were not common in the continental US until a new roll out made them available in October 2007.
According to the information of the independent agency of field investigation "Business Analytics", the second quarter of 2007, Phillip Morris brands took the first place in 25 Russian cities with a market share of 29.92%. During a press conference, it was reported that "L&M" takes third place in the world by sales volume; the "L&M" brand took second place among other cigarette brands produced by Phillip Morris International. Due to the labeling regulations in Europe banning the use of the word'lights', the names used to indicate the strength of the cigarettes had been changed, e.g. L&M Lights are now called L&M Blue Label; the same happened in 2010 in the U. S. when the Food and Drug Administration banned flavour descriptors—such as "mild," "light" and "ultra light"—even though the color designations were changed like in Europe. In December 1997, the ingredients that go into L&M cigarettes were displayed on the cartons. In addition to blended tobacco and water, the 26 ingredients that go into L&M cigarettes include molasses, phenylacetic acid and oil of patchouli.
L&M was the fourth largest cigarette brand in the world, with 92 billion cigarettes produced in 2007. In 2016, L&M had a volume of 97 billion produced cigarettes, it is the third best-selling international cigarette brand outside the United States and China. Over the years, Liggett & Myers made many poster and magazine advertisements to promote the brand, which included famous slogans such as "No cigarette went so far so fast!". Hollywood celebrities such as Barbara Stanwyck, Rosalind Russell and Fredric March starred in various print advertisement to promote the brand by claiming that L&M filters were "Just what the doctor ordered!". Various TV advertisements were created; the most known ones were the "Just What The Doctor Ordered", "Live Modern", "Stay Fresh, Stay Fresh With L&M", "Come On Over To The L&M Side" ads. L&M cigarettes are sold in the United States, Dominican Republic, Chile, Argentina, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Finland, Switzerland, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Poland, Czech Republic, Moldova, Slovenia, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Estonia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Algeria, Egypt, Afghanistan, United Arab Emirates, Malaysia, Taiwan and South Korea.
In the 1950s, L&M introduced an ad campaign called "Just What The Doctor Ordered!". This campaign came at the time L&M introduced the first filtered cigarette. In these L&M advertisements from the early 1950s, "just what the doctor ordered" had a double-meaning. Not only did it imply that L&M cigarettes were satisfying in that they offered both flavour and protection, but it implied that doctors approved of the brand, a testament to the brand's healthfulness. In a typical advertisement that appeared in a February issue of Life magazine, Hollywood star Fredric March made an assertion after having read the letter written by a "Dr Darkis", inset into the advertisement. Darkis explained in this letter that L&M filters used a "highly purified alpha cellulose", "entirely harmless" and "effectively filtered the smoke". Similar contemporaneous advertisements from Viceroy claimed that their filtered cigarettes were healthy because doctors recommended Viceroys to patients; these ads claimed health benefits for filters, though filters did little to reduce the hazards of smoking.
In fact, tobacco industry chemists were well aware that most filters removed no more tar and nicotine than would the same length of tobacco. However, a series of Reader's Digest articles worked to publicize these dubious health claims for filters in the 1950s. One such article, entitled "How Harmful are Cigarettes?", noted that artificial filters took out some nicotine since people were aware that nicotine was a killer. The article stated; this article spurred Viceroy to print advertisements a week which read: "Reader's Digest tells why filtered cigarette smoke is better for your health." These health claims sparked a boom in Viceroy cigarette sales as well as an onslaught of new filter cigarette brands flooding the market. Kent was introduced in 1952 with a filter made of treated asbestos on crepe paper. In 1953, L&M followed with a miracle tip and Philip Morris advertised its di-ethylene glycol filter cigarette as the cigarette that took the fear out of smoking. In the next two years, Marlboro was re-released as a filter cigarette which targeted men (it had been a cigarette