Automobiles Delaunay-Belleville was a French luxury automobile manufacturer at Saint-Denis, north of Paris. At the beginning of the 20th century they were among the most prestigious cars produced in the world, the most desirable French marque. Julien Belleville had been a maker of marine boilers from around 1850. Louis Delaunay married Belleville's daughter, he succeeded his father-in-law in charge of the company. S. A. Des Automobiles Delaunay-Belleville was formed in 1903 by Marius Barbarou. Barbarou's family owned the boiler making company St. Denis in Belleville, with boiler design influences inspired by the company. Barbarou 28, had experience working for Clément, Lorraine-Dietrich and Benz and was responsible for design and styling, including the trademark round grille shell; the first car was exhibited at the 1904 Paris Salon, it received enormous acclaim. The company started with three models, all fours: a live axled 16 hp and a 24 hp and 40 hp model, both chain-driven; these were the first automobiles to have pressure-lubricated camshafts.
The bodies were attached with just four bolts, the brakes were water-cooled, from a 2 imp gal reservoir. Delaunay-Belleville were a prestige marque, one of the world's leaders, from the outset, by 1906, Emperor Nicholas II. Had purchased a 40. Other royal owners included King Alphonso XIII of Spain; the first French car maker to offer a six-cylinder engine, Delaunay-Belleville's 70 hp became available only in 1909, only in small numbers, remaining in limited production until 1912. This model came to be known as the Type SMT, or Sa Majesté le Tsar, because Nicholas purchased one of the last 70s built, he ordered another in 1909. Like most prestige marques, the cars were sold as bare bodies were coachbuilt for them. Between 1906 and 1914, British imports were bodied by Shinnie Brothers, a Burlington subsidiary, in Aberdeen shipped to London for sale. Postwar, Continental bodies gained popularity, at least in Britain, as Belgium's D'Ieteren Fréres became most associated with the company: their landaulette, on a 26 hp chassis, was priced in Britain at ₤900, between Napier and Rolls-Royce.
After Barbarou resigned, Delaunay-Belleville quality began to slip. In 1919, the company offered a 10 hp four-cylinder, undoubtedly the most expensive voiturette on the market, as well as a 15.9 hp four, the P4B, in 1922. French anarchist gangster Jules Bonnot used a Delaunay-Belleville for his first hold-up. New four-cylinder overhead valve 14/40 and 16/60 models appeared in 1926, the prewar 20 hp and 10 hp six-cylinder models continued to be produced until 1927; the last gasps were the 3,180 cc 21 hp six of 1928 and the 3,619 cc 21/75 OHV six of 1930. In 1931, Continental engines, imported from the U. S. were offered. By the late 1920s, Delaunay-Belleville had lost its prestige, converted to truck and military vehicle production. In 1936 the separate car company was merged with the Delaunay Belleville parent. Production of the Delaunay-Belleville RI-6 continued through the late 1930s and was revived after the Second World War; this was a six-cylinder-engined car resembling the Mercedes-Benz 230, featuring independent suspension all-round.
However, the business was in decline: anyone buying a RI-6 in the 1940s would have done so in the knowledge after-sales service might disappear soon. Six cars were completed in 1947 and this sank to four during the first part of 1948; the company continued to advertise new cars for sale until 1950, but the factory was sold to Robert de Rovin in 1948 and thereafter used to make cyclecars. Delage Delahaye Wise, David Burgess. "Delahaye: Famous on Road and Race Track", in Ward, executive editor. World of Automobiles, Volume 5, pp. 525–526. London: Orbis, 1974. La Delaunay-Belleville, un fleuron de l'automobile, Pierre-Henri, Philippe et François Richer, Les Editions Page de Garde, Elbeuf. Media related to Delaunay-Belleville at Wikimedia Commons vea.qc.ca
The Encyclopædia Britannica published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia. It was written by more than 4,000 contributors; the 2010 version of the 15th edition, which spans 32 volumes and 32,640 pages, was the last printed edition. The Britannica is the English-language encyclopaedia/encyclopedia, in print for the longest time: it lasted 244 years, it was first published between 1768 and 1771 as three volumes. The encyclopaedia grew in size: the second edition was 10 volumes, by its fourth edition it had expanded to 20 volumes, its rising stature as a scholarly work helped recruit eminent contributors, the 9th and 11th editions are landmark encyclopaedias for scholarship and literary style. Beginning with the 11th edition and following its acquisition by an American firm, the Britannica shortened and simplified articles to broaden its appeal to the North American market. In 1933, the Britannica became the first encyclopaedia to adopt "continuous revision", in which the encyclopaedia is continually reprinted, with every article updated on a schedule.
In March 2012, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. announced it would no longer publish printed editions, would focus instead on Encyclopædia Britannica Online. The 15th edition had a three-part structure: a 12-volume Micropædia of short articles, a 17-volume Macropædia of long articles, a single Propædia volume to give a hierarchical outline of knowledge; the Micropædia was meant as a guide to the Macropædia. Over 70 years, the size of the Britannica has remained steady, with about 40 million words on half a million topics. Though published in the United States since 1901, the Britannica has for the most part maintained British English spelling. Since 1985, the Britannica has had four parts: the Micropædia, the Macropædia, the Propædia, a two-volume index; the Britannica's articles are found in the Micro- and Macropædia, which encompass 12 and 17 volumes each volume having one thousand pages. The 2007 Macropædia has 699 in-depth articles, ranging in length from 2 to 310 pages and having references and named contributors.
In contrast, the 2007 Micropædia has 65,000 articles, the vast majority of which contain fewer than 750 words, no references, no named contributors. The Micropædia articles are intended for quick fact-checking and to help in finding more thorough information in the Macropædia; the Macropædia articles are meant both as authoritative, well-written articles on their subjects and as storehouses of information not covered elsewhere. The longest article is on the United States, resulted from the merger of the articles on the individual states; the 2013 edition of Britannica contained forty thousand articles. Information can be found in the Britannica by following the cross-references in the Micropædia and Macropædia. Hence, readers are recommended to consult instead the alphabetical index or the Propædia, which organizes the Britannica's contents by topic; the core of the Propædia is its "Outline of Knowledge", which aims to provide a logical framework for all human knowledge. Accordingly, the Outline is consulted by the Britannica's editors to decide which articles should be included in the Micro- and Macropædia.
The Outline is intended to be a study guide, to put subjects in their proper perspective, to suggest a series of Britannica articles for the student wishing to learn a topic in depth. However, libraries have found that it is scarcely used, reviewers have recommended that it be dropped from the encyclopaedia; the Propædia has color transparencies of human anatomy and several appendices listing the staff members and contributors to all three parts of the Britannica. Taken together, the Micropædia and Macropædia comprise 40 million words and 24,000 images; the two-volume index has 2,350 pages, listing the 228,274 topics covered in the Britannica, together with 474,675 subentries under those topics. The Britannica prefers British spelling over American. However, there are exceptions such as defense rather than defence. Common alternative spellings are provided with cross-references such as "Color: see Colour." Since 1936, the articles of the Britannica have been revised on a regular schedule, with at least 10% of them considered for revision each year.
According to one Britannica website, 46% of its articles were revised over the past three years. The alphabetization of articles in the Micropædia and Macropædia follows strict rules. Diacritical marks and non-English letters are ignored, while numerical entries such as "1812, War of" are alphabetized as if the number had been written out. Articles with identical names are ordered first by persons by places by things. Rulers with identical names are organized first alphabetically by country and by chronology. Places that share names are
Exposition Universelle (1900)
The Exposition Universelle of 1900, better known in English as the 1900 Paris Exposition, was a world's fair held in Paris, from 14 April to 12 November 1900, to celebrate the achievements of the past century and to accelerate development into the next. The style, universally present in the Exposition was Art Nouveau; the fair, visited by nearly 50 million, displayed many machines and architecture that are now nearly universally known, including the Grande Roue de Paris Ferris wheel, Russian nesting dolls, diesel engines, talking films and the telegraphone. The staging of the first Exposition Universelle was motivated by a desire to re-establish pride and faith in the nation after a period of war; the succession of expositions followed the same theme: the regeneration of nationality after war. Eight years before the launch of the 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle, the Republic of France announced the exhibition to be one that welcomed and celebrated the coming of a new century. Countries from around the world were invited by France to showcase their achievements and lifestyles.
It presented the opportunity for foreigners to realize the similarities between nations as well as their unique differences. New cultures were experienced and an overall better understanding of the values each country had to offer was gained; the learning atmosphere aided in attempts to increase cultural tolerance, deemed necessary after a period of war. The early announcement and the massively positive response disenchanted the interest, circling around the first German International Exposition. Support for the exhibition was widespread, it is suspected that the Exposition Universelle did not do as well financially as expected because the general public did not have the funds to participate in the fair. The 1900 Paris Exposition was so expensive to organize and run that the cost per visitor ended up being about six hundred francs more than the price of admission; the exhibition lost a grand total of 82,000 francs after six months in operation. Many Parisians had invested money in shares sold to raise money for the event and therefore lost their investment.
With a much larger expected turnout the exhibit sites had gone up in value. Continuing to pay rent for the sites became hard for concessionaires as they were receiving fewer customers than anticipated; the concessionaires went on strike, which resulted in the closure of a large part of the exposition. To resolve the matter, the concessionaires were given a fractional refund of the rent; the financial consequences of the 1900 Exposition Universelle were devastating for many Parisians and led to the decision to end the streak of international fairs with the 1900 loss. The 1900 Paris Exposition was where talking films and escalators were first publicized, where Campbell's Soup was awarded a gold medal. At the exposition Rudolf Diesel exhibited his diesel engine. Brief films of excerpts from opera and ballet were the first films exhibited publicly with projection of both image and recorded sound; the exposition featured many panoramic paintings and extensions of the panorama technique, such as the Cinéorama and Trans-Siberian Railway Panorama.
The centrepiece of the Palais de l'Optique was the 1.25-metre-diameter "Great Exposition Refractor". This telescope was the largest refracting telescope at that time; the optical tube assembly was 60 meters long and 1.5 meters in diameter, was fixed in place due to its mass. Light from the sky was sent into the tube by a movable 2-meter mirror; the Exposition included "The Exhibit of American Negroes", during which photos by Frances Benjamin Johnston, a friend of Booker T. Washington, of his black students of the Hampton Institute were presented. Organized by Booker Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois, this exhibition aimed at showing African Americans' positive contributions to American society. Many of the buildings constructed for the Exposition Universelle were demolished after the conclusion of the exposition. Many of the buildings were built on a framework of wood, covered with staff, formed into columns, walls, etc. After the fair was over, the buildings were demolished and all items and materials that could be salvaged and sold were "recycled".
The Finnish Pavilion at the Exposition was designed by the architectural firm of Gesellius and Saarinen. A special committee, led by Gustave Eiffel, awarded a gold medal to Lavr Proskuryakov's project for the Yenisei Bridge in Krasnoyarsk. Russian sparkling wine defeated all the French entries to claim the internationally coveted "Grand Prix de Champagne"; the exposition was the showcasing of another Russian entry, the famous matryoshka doll. The Art Nouveau style began to develop in the 1880s and became fashionable in Europe and the United States during the 1890s; the art form takes inspiration from the natural world, drawing references from botanical studies and deep sea organisms. Fluid twisting, curving lines and a "whiplash" effect are the trademarks of the natural art form; the art form took shape in works ranging from painting to sculpture and most notably architecture, appearing throughout the 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle. Structures such as the Porte Monumentale entrance, the Pavillon Bleu and the Grand and Petit Palais were lar
Order of Charles III
The Royal and Distinguished Spanish Order of Charles III Royal and Much Distinguished Order of Charles III was established by the King of Spain Carlos III by means of the Royal Decree of 19 September 1771, with the motto Virtuti et mérito. Its objective is to reward people for their actions in benefit to the Crown. Since its creation, it has been the most distinguished civil award that can be granted in Spain, despite its categorisation as a military order; the Order was formally converted to a civil order in 1847. The order's current regulations were approved by Royal Decree 1051 of 2002; the regulation sets the objective of the order as a means of "rewarding the citizens who, with their effort and work, have brought a distinguished and extraordinary service to the Nation". The Grand Master of the order is the monarch of Spain King Felipe VI. Although the royal decree of creation was in September 1771, Carlos III did not make public the orders that would regulate the distinction until 24 October.
The reason for this lies in the origin of the Order. The future king and prince of Asturias, Carlos IV, had been married for five years with no offspring, reason for which when his first child was born his grandfather, Carlos III, wanted to leave evidence of his gratitude to God — to whom he declared having prayed to while waiting for the continuation of the dynasty — and to the Virgin Mary in his advocacy of the Immaculate Conception and of whom he declared himself the profoundly devote king. Like so, on the given date, when the king's daughter-in-law assisted the first religious affair with the child in her arms, the king wanted to publish the laws of concession, naming himself "Great Master of the Order" and giving his heirs, as long as they held the title "King of Spain", the same treatment and position. Although the child and various brothers died soon after, Carlos III maintained his agreement, the number of Crosses given was reduced at the monarch's regret; the orders of creation demanded two requirements: to be "worthy and affectionate of His Highness".
Two classes were created: the "Great Crosses" and the "Pensioners", the monarch being discretional with his authorization, although it was limited to sixty of the former and two-hundred of the latter. In 1783 the classes were expanded to three with that of "Supernumerary Knights", whose level of importance was between the previous two. At this moment the duties and requirements of the titles were specified: they needed to have "pure and noble blood" up to their great-grandparents, as was regulated by the Old Book of Territorial Laws of Castilla and the other valid laws; those received by the Order took an oath for loyalty towards the king, his family, the protection of the goods of the Royal House, recognizing him as Great Master and die in faith catholic, accepting as indisputable the Mystery of the Immaculate Conception, attending and receiving communion at mass at least once a year. Pope Clement XIV, on 21 February 1772 recognized the Order through papal bull and bestowed upon it the religious benefits, to the Order as well as its members, giving the Great Master all the capacity to decree in religious matters regarding the members Christian pardon and apostolic blessing.
The benefits of the members of the Order were of a different nature increasing with Pius VI. The insignias of the Order have varied through time, but have invariably maintained some original features: blue silk band with white design, an eight-point cross with the image of the Immaculate Conception, the legend of the "Viruti et Merito" and the figure of the founding king; the government of the Order became more and more complex, although in truth it was the monarch and the treasurer who granted authorization and retributions. The king was careful to incorporate into the Order theologians of the Crown that investigated the mysteries of the Virgin Mary, in some cases the clergymen being greater in number than the knights and nobles of which it was made up; the meetings were held in the Church of San Gil in Madrid twice a year, one coinciding with the Immaculate Conception and the other with the Day of the Saints. With Carlos IV of Spain some reforms were made to the dress and the distribution of colours in the distinctions.
The war of Spanish independence caused the two institutions to attribute the faculty of the government of the Order, giving both distinctions: the King José I and the Supreme Central Assembly on behalf of Fernando VII. In the end, these were abolished by the Napoleonic king; the colours of the band of the Order were adopted by some members of the First Assembly of Government to signify their adhesion to King Fernando VII and would come to represent the movement for independence. The Grand Cross of the Order of Charles III is reserved for those who, having completed relevant service to Spain, having been Presidents of the Congress of Deputies, the Senate, the Constitutional Court of the Supreme Judicial Council, the Supreme Court, Ministers or other senior officials of the state; the maximum number of Grand Crosses are limited to one hundred, not counting those accorded to Ministers. Knights Collar and Knights Grand Cross of the Order are entitled to be addressed with the style The Most Excellent in front of their name.
Other members are entitled to the style of The Most Illustrious. The orders are conferred in the following grades: Collar – restricted to 25 Spanish citizens. Grand Cross – restricted to 100 Spanish citizens. Commander by Number - restricted to 200
Saint-Denis is a commune in the northern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 9.4 km from the centre of Paris. Saint-Denis is a subprefecture of the department of Seine-Saint-Denis, being the seat of the arrondissement of Saint-Denis. Saint-Denis is home to the royal necropolis of the Basilica of Saint-Denis and was the location of the associated abbey, it is home to France's national football and rugby stadium, the Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup. Saint-Denis is a industrial suburb changing its economic base. Inhabitants of Saint-Denis are called Dionysiens; until the 3rd century, Saint-Denis was a small settlement called Catolacus or Catulliacum meaning "estate of Catullius", a Gallo-Roman landowner. About 250 AD, the first bishop of Paris, Saint Denis, was martyred on Montmartre hill and buried in Catolacus. Shortly after 250 his grave became a shrine and a pilgrimage centre, with the building of the Abbey of Saint Denis, the settlement was renamed Saint-Denis. In 1793, during the French Revolution, Saint-Denis was renamed Franciade in a gesture of rejection of religion.
In 1803, under the Consulate of Napoléon Bonaparte, the city reverted to its former name of Saint-Denis. During its history, Saint-Denis has been associated with the French royal house. Starting from Dagobert I every French king was buried in the Basilica. However, Saint-Denis is older than that. In the 2nd century, there was a Gallo-Roman village named Catolacus on the location that Saint-Denis occupies today. Saint Denis, the first bishop of Paris and patron saint of France, was martyred in about 250 and buried in the cemetery of Catolacus. Denis' tomb became a place of worship. Around 475, Sainte Geneviève had a small chapel erected on Denis' tomb, which by had become a popular destination for pilgrims, it was this chapel that Dagobert I had turned into a royal monastery. Dagobert granted many privileges to the monastery: independence from the bishop of Paris, the right to hold a market, most he was buried in Saint-Denis. During the Middle Ages, because of the privileges granted by Dagobert, Saint-Denis grew to become important.
Merchants from all over Europe came to visit its market. In 1140, Abbot Suger, counselor to the King, granted further privileges to the citizens of Saint-Denis, he started the work of enlarging the Basilica of Saint Denis that still exists today cited as the first example of high early Gothic Architecture. The new church was consecrated in 1144. Saint-Denis suffered in the Hundred Years' War. During the French Wars of Religion, the Battle of Saint-Denis was fought between Catholics and Protestants on 10 November 1567; the Protestants were defeated. In 1590, the city surrendered to Henry IV, who converted to Catholicism in 1593 in the abbey of Saint-Denis. King Louis XIV started several industries in Saint-Denis: weaving and spinning mills and dyehouses, his successor, Louis XV, whose daughter was a nun in the Carmelite convent, took a lively interest in the city: he added a chapel to the convent and renovated the buildings of the royal abbey. During the French Revolution, not only was the city renamed "Franciade" from 1793 to 1803, but the royal necropolis was looted and destroyed.
The remains were thrown together. The last king to be interred in Saint-Denis was Louis XVIII. After France became a republic and an empire, Saint-Denis lost its association with royalty. On 1 January 1860, the city of Paris was enlarged by annexing neighbouring communes. On that occasion, the commune of La Chapelle-Saint-Denis was disbanded and divided between the city of Paris, Saint-Denis, Saint-Ouen, Aubervilliers. Saint-Denis received the north-western part of La Chapelle-Saint-Denis. During the 19th century, Saint-Denis became industrialised. Transport was much improved: in 1824 the Canal Saint-Denis was constructed, linking the Canal de l'Ourcq in the northeast of Paris to the River Seine at the level of L'Île-Saint-Denis, in 1843 the first railway reached Saint-Denis. By the end of the century, there were 80 factories in Saint-Denis; the presence of so many industries gave rise to an important socialist movement. In 1892, Saint-Denis elected its first socialist administration, by the 1920s, the city had acquired the nickname of la ville rouge, the red city.
Until Jacques Doriot in 1934, all mayors of Saint-Denis were members of the Communist Party. During the Second World War, after the defeat of France, Saint-Denis was occupied by the Germans on 13 June 1940. There were several acts of sabotage and strikes, most notably on 14 April 1942 at the Hotchkiss factory. After an insurgency which started on 18 August 1944, Saint-Denis was liberated by General Leclerc on 27 August 1944. After the war, the economic crisis of the 1970s and 1980s hit the city, dependent on its heavy industry. During the 1990s, the city started to grow again; the 1998 FIFA World Cup provided an enormous impulse. The stadium is used by rugby teams for friendly matches; the Coupe de France, Coupe de la Ligue and Top 14 final match
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Cannes is a city located on the French Riviera. It is a commune located in the Alpes-Maritimes department, host city of the annual Cannes Film Festival and Cannes Lions International Festival of Creativity; the city is known for its association with the rich and famous, its luxury hotels and restaurants, for several conferences. On 3 November 2011 it played host to the G20 organisation of industrialised nations. By the 2nd century BC, the Ligurian Oxybii established a settlement here known as Aegitna. Historians are unsure; the area was a fishing village used as a port of call between the Lérins Islands. In 69 AD, it became the scene of violent conflict between the troops of Vitellius. In the 10th century, the town was known as Canua; the name may derive from "canna," a reed. Canua was the site of a small Ligurian port, a Roman outpost on Le Suquet hill, suggested by Roman tombs discovered here. Le Suquet housed an 11th-century tower which overlooked swamps. Most of the ancient activity protection, was on the Lérins Islands and the history of Cannes is tied to the history of the islands.
An attack by the Saracens in 891, who remained until the end of the 10th century, devastated the country around Canua. The insecurity of the Lérins islands forced the monks to settle at the Suquet. Construction of a castle in 1035 fortified the city by known as Cannes, at the end of the 11th century construction was started on two towers on the Lérins islands. One took a century to build. Around 1530, Cannes detached from the monks who had controlled the city for hundreds of years and became independent. During the 18th century, both the Spanish and British tried to gain control of the Lérins Islands but were chased away by the French; the islands were controlled by many, such as Jean-Honoré Alziary, the Bishop of Fréjus. They had many different purposes: at the end of the 19th century, one served as hospital for soldiers wounded in the Crimean War. Henry Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux bought land at the Croix des Gardes and constructed the villa Eleonore-Louise, his work to improve living conditions attracted the English aristocracy, who built winter residences.
At the end of the 19th century, several railways were completed, which prompted the arrival of streetcars. In Cannes, projects such as the Boulevard Carnot and the rue d'Antibes were carried out. After the closure of the Casino des Fleurs, a luxury establishment was built for the rich winter clientele, the Casino Municipal next to the pier Albert-Edouard; this casino was demolished and replaced by the new Palace in 1979. In the 20th century, new luxury hotels such as the Carlton, Martinez, JW Marriott Cannes were built; the city was modernised with a sports centre, a post office, schools. There were fewer German tourists after the First World War but more Americans. Winter tourism gave way to summer tourism and the summer casino at the Palm Beach was constructed; the city council had the idea of starting an international film festival shortly before World War II. The first opened on 20 September 1946. Cannes has a Mediterranean climate and the city enjoys 11 hours of sunshine per day during summer, while in winter the weather is mild.
Both seasons see a low rainfall and most rain occurs during October and November, when 110 mm falls. Cannes summers are long and warm, with summer daytime temperatures hitting 30 °C, while average temperatures are about 25 °C. Temperatures remain high from June to the busiest time of the year. Mean temperatures drop below 10 °C for only three months of the year; the spring and autumn are warm, although more suited to those who prefer cooler weather. The area around Cannes has developed into a high-tech cluster; the technopolis of Sophia Antipolis lies in the hills beyond Cannes. The Film Festival is a major event for the industry which takes place every year during the month of May. In addition, Cannes hosts other major annual events such as the MIPIM, MIPTV, MIDEM, Cannes Lions, the NRJ Music Awards. There is an annual television festival in the last week in September; the economic environment is based on tourism, business fairs and aviation. Cannes has 6,500 companies, of which 3,000 are traders and service providers.
In 2006, 421 new companies were registered. Cannes hosts the Cannes Mandelieu Space Center, headquarters of Thales Alenia Space, the first European satellite manufacturer; the Promenade de la Croisette is the waterfront avenue with palm trees. La Croisette is known for picturesque beaches, cafés and boutiques. Le Suquet, the old town, provides a good view of La Croisette; the fortified tower and Chapel of St Anne house the Musée de la Castre. A distinctive building in Cannes is the Russian Orthodox church; the Musée d'Art et d'Histoire de Provence houses artifacts from prehistoric to present, in an 18th-century mansion. The Musée de la Castre has objects from Peruvian relics and Mayan pottery. Other venues include the Musée de la Marine, Musée de la Mer, Musée de la Photographie and Musée International de la Parfumerie. Cannes of the 19th century can still be seen in its grand villas, built to reflect the wealth and standing of their owners and inspired by anything from medieval castles to Roman villas.
They are not open to the public. Lord Brougham's Italianate Villa Eléonore Louise was built between 1835 and 1839. Known as the Quartier des Anglais, this