Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body levels charges against a government official. It does not mean removal from office. Once an individual is impeached, he or she must face the possibility of conviction by a legislative vote, which judgment entails removal from office; because impeachment and conviction of officials involve an overturning of the normal constitutional procedures by which individuals achieve high office and because it requires a supermajority, they are reserved for those deemed to have committed serious abuses of their office. In the United States, for example, impeachment at the federal level is limited to those who may have committed "Treason, Bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors". Impeachment exists under constitutional law in many countries around the world, including Brazil, the Republic of Ireland, the Philippines, South Korea and the United States; the word "impeachment" derives from Old French empeechier from Latin word impedicare expressing the idea of becoming caught or entrapped, has analogues in the modern French verb empêcher and the modern English impede.
Medieval popular etymology associated it with derivations from the Latin impetere. Impeachment was first used in the British political system; the process was first used by the English "Good Parliament" against Baron Latimer in the second half of the 14th century. Following the British example, the constitutions of Virginia and other states thereafter adopted the impeachment mechanism, but they restricted the punishment to removal of the official from office; as well, in private organizations, a motion to impeach can be used to prefer charges. The Austrian Federal President can be impeached by the Federal Assembly before the Constitutional Court; the constitution provides for the recall of the president by a referendum. Neither of these courses has been taken; this is because while the President is vested with considerable powers on paper, they act as a ceremonial figurehead in practice, are thus hardly in a position to abuse their powers. The President of the Federative Republic of Brazil, state governors and municipal mayors may be impeached by the Chamber of Deputies and tried and removed by the Federal Senate.
Upon conviction, the officeholder has his political rights revoked for eight years—which has the effect of barring him from running for any office. Fernando Collor de Mello, the 32nd President of Brazil, resigned in 1992 amidst impeachment proceedings. Despite his resignation, the Senate nonetheless voted to convict him and bar him from holding any office for eight years, due to evidence of bribery and misappropriation. In 2016, the Chamber of Deputies initiated an impeachment case against President Dilma Rousseff on allegations of budgetary mismanagement. Following her conviction, she was replaced by Vice President Michel Temer, who had served as acting president while Rousseff's case was pending; the President of Bulgaria can be removed only for violation of the constitution. The process is started by a two-thirds majority vote of the Parliament to impeach the President, whereupon the Constitutional Court decides whether the President is guilty of the crime of which he is charged. If he is found guilty, he is removed from power.
No Bulgarian President has been impeached. The same procedure can be used to remove the Vice President of Bulgaria, which has never happened; the process of impeaching the President of Croatia can be initiated by a two-thirds majority vote in favor in the Sabor and is thereafter referred to the Constitutional Court, which must accept such a proposal with a two-thirds majority vote in favor in order for the president to be removed from office. This has, never occurred in the history of the Republic of Croatia. However, in case of a successful impeachment motion a president's constitutional term of five years would be terminated and an election called within 60 days of the vacancy occurring. During the period of vacancy the presidential powers and duties would be carried out by the Speaker of the Croatian Parliament in his/her capacity as Acting President of the Republic. Prior to 2013 the President of the Czech Republic could be impeached only for an act of high treason; the process has to start in the Senate of the Czech Republic which only has the right to impeach the president, this passes the case to the Constitutional Court of the Czech Republic which has to decide whether the President is guilty or not.
If the Court decides that the President is guilty the President loses his office and the ability to be elected President of the Czech Republic again. No Czech president has been impeached, members of the Senate sought to impeach President Vaclav Klaus in 2013; this case was dismissed by the court reasoning. In 2013 the constitution changed; the President can be impeached not only for high treason but for a serious infringement of the Constitution. The President of France can be impeached by the French Parliament for willfully violating the Constitution or the national laws; the process of impeachment is written in the 68th article of the French Constitution. A group
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Henry George was an American political economist and journalist. His writing was immensely popular in the 19th century, sparked several reform movements of the Progressive Era, his writings inspired the economic philosophy known as Georgism, based on the belief that people should own the value they produce themselves, but that the economic value derived from land should belong to all members of society. His most famous work and Poverty, sold millions of copies worldwide more than any other American book before that time; the treatise investigates the paradox of increasing inequality and poverty amid economic and technological progress, the cyclic nature of industrialized economies, the use of rent capture such as land value tax and other anti-monopoly reforms as a remedy for these and other social problems. The mid-twentieth century labor economist and journalist George Soule wrote that George was "By far the most famous American economic writer," and "author of a book which had a larger world-wide circulation than any other work on economics written."
George was born in Philadelphia to a lower-middle-class family, the second of ten children of Richard S. H. George and Catharine Pratt George, his father was a publisher of religious texts and a devout Episcopalian, sent George to the Episcopal Academy in Philadelphia. George left the academy without graduating. Instead he convinced his father to hire a tutor and supplemented this with avid reading and attending lectures at the Franklin institute, his formal education ended at age 14 and he went to sea as a foremast boy at age 15 in April 1855 on the Hindoo, bound for Melbourne and Calcutta. He ended up in the American West in 1858 and considered prospecting for gold but instead started work the same year in San Francisco as a type setter. In California, George fell in love with Annie Corsina Fox, an eighteen-year-old girl from Sydney, orphaned and was living with an uncle; the uncle, a prosperous, strong-minded man, was opposed to his niece's impoverished suitor. But the couple, defying him and married in late 1861, with Henry dressed in a borrowed suit and Annie bringing only a packet of books.
The marriage was a happy four children were born to them. On November 3, 1862 Annie gave birth to future United States Representative from New York, Henry George Jr.. Early on with the birth of future sculptor Richard F. George, the family was near starvation. George was raised as an Episcopalian, but he believed in "deistic humanitarianism". Fox was Irish Catholic, but Henry George Jr. wrote that the children were influenced by Henry George's deism and humanism. After deciding against gold mining in British Columbia, George was hired as a printer for the newly created San Francisco Times, was able to submit editorials for publication, including the popular What the Railroads Will Bring Us. which remained required reading in California schools for decades. George climbed the ranks of the Times becoming managing editor in the summer of 1867. George worked for several papers, including four years as editor of his own newspaper San Francisco Daily Evening Post and for a time running the Reporter, a Democratic anti-monopoly publication.
The George family struggled but George's increasing reputation and involvement in the newspaper industry lifted them from poverty. George's other two children were both daughters; the first was Jennie George to become Jennie George Atkinson. George's other daughter was Anna Angela George, who would become mother of both future dancer and choreographer, Agnes de Mille and future actress Peggy George, born Margaret George de Mille. George began as a Lincoln Republican, but became a Democrat, he was a strong critic of railroad and mining interests, corrupt politicians, land speculators, labor contractors. He first articulated his views in an 1868 article entitled "What the Railroad Will Bring Us." George argued that the boom in railroad construction would benefit only the lucky few who owned interests in the railroads and other related enterprises, while throwing the greater part of the population into abject poverty. This had led to him earning the enmity of the Central Pacific Railroad's executives, who helped defeat his bid for election to the California State Assembly.
One day in 1871 George went for a horseback ride and stopped to rest while overlooking San Francisco Bay. He wrote of the revelation that he had: I asked a passing teamster, for want of something better to say, what land was worth there, he pointed to some cows grazing so far off that they looked like mice, said, "I don't know but there is a man over there who will sell some land for a thousand dollars an acre." Like a flash it came over me. With the growth of population, land grows in value, the men who work it must pay more for the privilege. Furthermore, on a visit to New York City, he was struck by the apparent paradox that the poor in that long-established city were much worse off than the poor in less developed California; these observations supplied the theme and title for his 1879 book Progress and Poverty, a great success, selling over 3 million copies. In it George made the argument that a sizeable portion of the wealth created by social and technological advances in a free market economy is possessed by land owners and monopolists via economic rents, that this concentration of unearned wealth is the main cause of poverty.
George considered it a great injustice that private pr
A "Red Scare" is promotion of widespread fear by a society or state about a potential rise of communism, anarchism, or radical leftism. The term is most used to refer to two periods in the history of the United States with this name; the First Red Scare, which occurred after World War I, revolved around a perceived threat from the American labor movement, anarchist revolution and political radicalism. The Second Red Scare, which occurred after World War II, was preoccupied with the perception of national or foreign communists infiltrating or subverting U. S. society or the federal government. The first Red Scare began following the Bolshevik Russian Revolution of 1917 and the intensely patriotic years of World War I as anarchist and left-wing social agitation aggravated national and political tensions. Political scientist, former member of the Communist Party Murray B. Levin wrote that the Red Scare was "a nationwide anti-radical hysteria provoked by a mounting fear and anxiety that a Bolshevik revolution in America was imminent—a revolution that would change Church, marriage and the American way of Life".
Newspapers exacerbated those political fears into anti-foreign sentiment because varieties of radical anarchism were becoming popular as possible solutions to poverty by recent European immigrants. When the Industrial Workers of the World backed several labor strikes in 1916 and 1917, the press portrayed them as "radical threats to American society" inspired by "left-wing, foreign agents provocateurs"; those on the side of the IWW claim that the press "misrepresented legitimate labor strikes" as "crimes against society", "conspiracies against the government", "plots to establish communism". Opponents, on the other hand, saw these as an extension of the radical, anarchist foundations of the IWW, which contends that all workers should be united as a social class and that capitalism and the wage system should be abolished. In April 1919, authorities discovered a plot for mailing 36 bombs to prominent members of the U. S. political and economic establishment: J. P. Morgan Jr. John D. Rockefeller, Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, U.
S. Attorney General Alexander Mitchell Palmer, immigration officials. On June 2, 1919, in eight cities, eight bombs exploded. One target was the Washington, D. C. house of U. S. Attorney General Palmer, where the explosion killed the bomber, who evidence indicated was an Italian-American radical from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Afterwards, Palmer ordered the U. S. Justice Department to launch the Palmer Raids. Yet, in 1918, before the bombings, President Woodrow Wilson had pressured the Congress to legislate the anti-anarchist Sedition Act of 1918 to protect wartime morale by deporting putatively undesirable political people. Law professor David D. Cole reports that President Wilson's "federal government targeted alien radicals, deporting them... for their speech or associations, making little effort to distinguish terrorists from ideological dissidents."Initially, the press praised the raids. In the event, the Palmer Raids were criticized as unconstitutional by twelve publicly prominent lawyers, including Felix Frankfurter, who published A Report on the Illegal Practices of The United States Department of Justice, documenting systematic violations of the Fourth, Fifth and Eighth Amendments to the U.
S. Constitution via Palmer-authorized "illegal acts" and "wanton violence". Defensively, Palmer warned that a government-deposing left-wing revolution would begin on 1 May 1920 — May Day, the International Workers' Day; when it failed to happen, he was lost much credibility. Strengthening the legal criticism of Palmer was that fewer than 600 deportations were substantiated with evidence, out of the thousands of resident aliens arrested and deported. In July 1920, Palmer's once-promising Democratic Party bid for the U. S. presidency failed. Wall Street was bombed on September 2, 1920, near Federal Hall National Memorial and the JP Morgan Bank. Although both anarchists and communists were suspected as being responsible for the bombing no individuals were indicted for the bombing in which 38 died and 141 were injured. In 1919–20, several states enacted "criminal syndicalism" laws outlawing advocacy of violence in effecting and securing social change; the restrictions included free speech limitations.
Passage of these laws, in turn, provoked aggressive police investigation of the accused persons, their jailing, deportation for being suspected of being either communist or left-wing. Regardless of ideological gradation, the Red Scare did not distinguish between communism, socialism, or social democracy; the second Red Scare occurred after World War II, was popularly known as "McCarthyism" after its most famous supporter, Senator Joseph McCarthy. McCarthyism coincided with increased popular fear of communist espionage consequent to a Soviet Eastern Europe, the Berlin Blockade, the Chinese Civil War, the confessions of spying for the Soviet Union given by several high-ranking U. S. government officials, the Korean War. The events of the late 1940s, early 1950s - the trial of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg, the trial of Alger Hiss, the Iron Curtain around Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union's first nuclear weapon test in 1949 - surprised the American public, influencing popular opinion abo
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Homer Hoch was a United States Representative from Kansas. Born in Marion, Hoch graduated from Baker University, Kansas, in 1902, he attended George Washington Law School, Washington, D. C. and Washburn Law School, Kansas, from which he graduated in 1909. He served as clerk and chief of the Appointment Division in the United States Post Office Department, Washington, D. C. from 1903 to 1905. He was private secretary to the Governor of Kansas (Edward Wallis Hoch in 1907 and 1908, he engaged in the practice of law in Marion from 1909 to 1919 and was editor of the Marion County Record newspaper. He served as delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1928. Hoch was elected as a Republican to the six succeeding Congresses, he was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1932 to the Seventy-third Congress. He served as member and chairman of the State Corporation Commission of Kansas 1933-1939. Hoch was elected a member of the Kansas Supreme Court in 1938, he was reelected in 1944 and served until his death in Topeka, January 30, 1949.
He was interred in Highland Cemetery, Kansas. United States Congress. "Homer Hoch". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Media related to Homer Hoch at Wikimedia Commons This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov