Kingdom of Hanover
The Kingdom of Hanover was established in October 1814 by the Congress of Vienna, with the restoration of George III to his Hanoverian territories after the Napoleonic era. It succeeded the former Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, joined 38 other sovereign states in the German Confederation in June 1815; the kingdom was ruled by the House of Hanover, a cadet branch of the House of Welf, in personal union with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until 1837. Since its monarch resided in London, a viceroy handled the administration of the Kingdom of Hanover; the personal union with the United Kingdom ended in 1837 upon the accession of Queen Victoria because females could not inherit the Hanoverian throne, so her uncle became the ruler of Hanover. Hanover backed the losing side in the Austro-Prussian War and was conquered by Prussia in 1866, subsequently becoming a Prussian province. Along with the rest of Prussia, Hanover became part of the German Empire upon unification in January 1871.
Revived as the State of Hanover in 1946, the state was subsequently merged with some smaller states to form the current state of Lower Saxony in West Germany Germany. The territory of Hanover had earlier been a principality within the Holy Roman Empire before being elevated into an electorate in 1708, when Hanover was formed by union of the dynastic divisions of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, excepting the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. After his accession in 1714, George Louis of the House of Hanover ascended the throne of Great Britain as George I, Hanover was joined in a personal union with Great Britain. Descendants of Hanoverians who fought alongside the British in the War of 1812 remain in Canada. In 1803, Hanover was conquered by the Prussian armies in the Napoleonic Wars; the Treaties of Tilsit in 1807 joined it to territories from Prussia and created the Kingdom of Westphalia, ruled by Napoleon's youngest brother Jérôme Bonaparte. French control lasted until October 1813.
The Battle of Leipzig shortly thereafter spelled the definitive end of the Napoleonic client states, the electorate was restored to the House of Hanover. The terms of the Congress of Vienna in 1814 not only restored Hanover, but elevated it to an independent kingdom with its Prince-Elector, George III of Great Britain, as King of Hanover; the new kingdom was greatly expanded, becoming the fourth-largest state in the German Confederation and the second-largest in north Germany. Under George III's six-year reign, he never visited the Kingdom. Having succumbed to dementia prior to the elevation of Hanover, it is unlikely he understood that he had gained an additional kingship nor did he take any role in its governance. Functional administration of Hanover was handled by a viceroy, which during the years of George III's reign and the reigns of kings George IV and William IV from 1816 to 1837, was Adolph Frederick, George III's youngest surviving son; when Queen Victoria succeeded to the British throne in 1837, the 123-year personal union of Great Britain and Hanover ended.
Salic law operated in Hanover, excluding accession to the throne by a female while any male of the dynasty survived. During the Austro-Prussian War, Hanover attempted to maintain a neutral position, along with some other member states of the German Confederation. Hanover's vote in favor of the mobilisation of Confederation troops against Prussia on 14 June 1866 prompted Prussia to declare war; the outcome of the war led to the dissolution of Hanover as an independent kingdom and it was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia, becoming the Prussian Province of Hanover. Along with the rest of Prussia, it became part of the German Empire in 1871. After George V fled Hanover in 1866, he raised forces loyal to him in the Netherlands, called the Guelphic Legion, they were disbanded in 1870. George refused to accept the Prussian takeover of his realm and claimed he was still the legitimate king of Hanover, his only son, Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, inherited this claim upon George's death in 1878.
Ernest Augustus was first in line to the throne of the Duchy of Brunswick, whose rulers had been a junior branch of the House of Hanover. In 1884, that branch became extinct with the death of a distant cousin of Ernest Augustus. However, since Ernest Augustus refused to renounce his claim to annexed Hanover, the Bundesrat of the German Empire ruled that he would disturb the peace of the empire if he ascended the throne of Brunswick; as a result, Brunswick was ruled by a regency until 1913, when his son named Ernest Augustus, married the German Emperor's daughter, Princess Viktoria Luise and swore allegiance to the German Empire. The Duke renounced his claim to Brunswick in favor of his son, the Bundesrat allowed the younger Ernest Augustus to take possession of Brunswick as a kind of dowry compensation for Hanover; the German-Hanoverian Party, which at times supported secession from the Reich, demanded a separate status for the province in the Reichstag. The party existed. With Prussia in agony and on the verge of official dissolution, in 1946 Hanoverian politicians took advantage of the opportunity and advocated that the Control Commission for Germany - British Element revi
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Sandy Hook is a barrier spit in Middletown Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States. The barrier spit 6 miles in length and varying from 0.1 to 1.0 mile wide, is located at the north end of the Jersey Shore. It encloses the southern entrance of Lower New York Bay south of New York City, protecting it from the open waters of the Atlantic Ocean to the east; the Dutch called the area "Sant Hoek", with the English "Hook" deriving from the Dutch "Hoek", meaning "spit of land". Most of Sandy Hook is owned and managed by the National Park Service as the Sandy Hook Unit of Gateway National Recreation Area. Geologically, Sandy Hook is a large sand spit or barrier spit, the extension of a barrier peninsula along the coast of New Jersey, separated from the mainland by the estuary of the Shrewsbury River. On its western side, the peninsula encloses a triangular arm of Raritan Bay; the 2,044-acre peninsula was discovered by Henry Hudson, Sandy Hook has been a convenient anchorage for ships before proceeding into Upper New York Harbor.
Sandy Hook is part of Middletown Township with the rest of the Township. Because the peninsula is federal enclave and the federal government have a Concurrent jurisdiction; the community of Highlands overlooks the southern part of the hook. Sandy Hook is owned by the federal government. Most of it is managed by the National Park Service and U. S. National Park Service rangers as the Sandy Hook Unit of Gateway National Recreation Area; the eastern shoreline consists of public beaches: North Beach, Gunnison Beach, South Beach. The southern part of the spit consists of fishing areas; the peninsula's ocean-facing beaches are considered among the finest in New Jersey and are a popular destination for recreation in summer when seasonal ferries bring beachgoers from it's various docking points including NYC. Gunnison Beach is one of the largest clothing optional beaches on the East Coast. Sandy Hook Lighthouse is located within the fort grounds, as is the Marine Academy of Science and Technology, a magnet high school, part of the Monmouth County Vocational School District.
At the entrance to Fort Hancock is Guardian Park, a plaza dominated by two Nike missiles. Some of the buildings of Fort Hancock are closed to the public because their structural integrity in decay, to preserve it's profile for future visitors. A proposal was accepted to allow adaptive reuse of some of the buildings in Fort Hancock for private use; this partnership will help these historic structures to be maintained more effectively. There is a vocational school, located further north on the peninsula abbreviated as M. A. S. T; the Marine Academy of Science and Technology. The school was damaged by Hurricane Sandy late 2012, restored the subsequent year; the defunct U. S. Army post Fort Hancock at the north end of the peninsula is open to visitation by the National Park Service; the Sandy Hook Proving Ground was used by for many years—beginning after the Civil War until 1919, when the facility was moved to Aberdeen, Maryland—and was the site of a Nike missile defense installation. The Sandy Hook Nike station is one of a few stations that are still intact.
All of the fort's gun batteries are closed to the public due to their hazardous condition. The exceptions to this are Battery Gunnison. Battery Potter is open for tours on the weekends, as well as Battery Gunnison, being restored by volunteers and has two six-inch M1900 guns installed. Guided tours show visitors a Nike missile, the missile firing platforms, a radar station with 1960s-era computers. A Civil War-era 20-inch Rodman gun is in the park. North of Fort Hancock on the western part of the "hook" is an active station of the United States Coast Guard; this is one of the original Life Saving Stations built in 1848 at a site "on bay side, one-half mile south of point of Hook." The site was changed several times through the years due to a change in land or at the request of the War Department, which owned the land. This area is administered by the Department of Homeland Security and is closed to the general public; the beaches along the Atlantic shore of Sandy Hook—North Beach, Gunnison Beach and the Southern Beaches, A, B, C, D, E—feature parking lots, rest rooms and seasonal concession stands.
They do not permit pets on the beaches yearly after March 15th. Nude or nude sunbathers may be encountered at Gunnison Beach, again it is clothing optional. In contrast, the western shore includes vast acres of sand and trails and a paved path without life guards or rest rooms; these stretches are favored by cyclists and kite surfers, leashed dogs are permitted. While within Sandy Hook some laws and regulations are different. Day trippers need be aware of the jurisdictional differences. In Sandy Hook a misdemeanor could be a federal crime while outside the park it was a minor infraction. All of Sandy Hook's regulations can be reviewed inside of the Park's Compendium. Accommodations near Sandy Hook include bed and breakfasts such as the Sandy Hook Cottage and Seascape Manor, as well as Grand Lady by the Sea, Nauvoo at Sandy Hook, which are all located in Highlands. Dining options have changed drastically since Superstorm Sandy, which destroyed the island's only eating location, the Sea Gulls' Nest Deck Re
Prussia was a prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia on the southeast coast of the Baltic Sea. It was de facto dissolved by an emergency decree transferring powers of the Prussian government to German Chancellor Franz von Papen in 1932 and de jure by an Allied decree in 1947. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organised and effective army. Prussia, with its capital in Königsberg and from 1701 in Berlin, decisively shaped the history of Germany. In 1871, German states united to create the German Empire under Prussian leadership. In November 1918, the monarchies were abolished and the nobility lost its political power during the German Revolution of 1918–19; the Kingdom of Prussia was thus abolished in favour of a republic—the Free State of Prussia, a state of Germany from 1918 until 1933. From 1933, Prussia lost its independence as a result of the Prussian coup, when the Nazi regime was establishing its Gleichschaltung laws in pursuit of a unitary state.
With the end of the Nazi regime, in 1945, the division of Germany into allied-occupation zones and the separation of its territories east of the Oder–Neisse line, which were incorporated into Poland and the Soviet Union, the State of Prussia ceased to exist de facto. Prussia existed de jure until its formal abolition by the Allied Control Council Enactment No. 46 of 25 February 1947. The name Prussia derives from the Old Prussians. In 1308, the Teutonic Knights conquered the region of Pomerelia with Gdańsk, their monastic state was Germanised through immigration from central and western Germany, and, in the south, it was Polonised by settlers from Masovia. The Second Peace of Thorn split Prussia into the western Royal Prussia, a province of Poland, the eastern part, from 1525 called the Duchy of Prussia, a fief of the Crown of Poland up to 1657; the union of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia in 1618 led to the proclamation of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701. Prussia entered the ranks of the great powers shortly after becoming a kingdom, exercised most influence in the 18th and 19th centuries.
During the 18th century it had a major say in many international affairs under the reign of Frederick the Great. During the 19th century, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck united the German principalities into a "Lesser Germany", which excluded the Austrian Empire. At the Congress of Vienna, which redrew the map of Europe following Napoleon's defeat, Prussia acquired rich new territories, including the coal-rich Ruhr; the country grew in influence economically and politically, became the core of the North German Confederation in 1867, of the German Empire in 1871. The Kingdom of Prussia was now so large and so dominant in the new Germany that Junkers and other Prussian élites identified more and more as Germans and less as Prussians; the Kingdom ended in 1918 along with other German monarchies that collapsed as a result of the German Revolution. In the Weimar Republic, the Free State of Prussia lost nearly all of its legal and political importance following the 1932 coup led by Franz von Papen. Subsequently, it was dismantled into Nazi German Gaue in 1935.
Some Prussian ministries were kept and Hermann Göring remained in his role as Minister President of Prussia until the end of World War II. Former eastern territories of Germany that made up a significant part of Prussia lost the majority of their German population after 1945 as the People's Republic of Poland and the Soviet Union both absorbed these territories and had most of its German inhabitants expelled by 1950. Prussia, deemed a bearer of militarism and reaction by the Allies, was abolished by an Allied declaration in 1947; the international status of the former eastern territories of Germany was disputed until the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany in 1990, while its return to Germany remains a topic among far right politicians, the Federation of Expellees and various political revisionists. The term Prussian has been used outside Germany, to emphasise professionalism, aggressiveness and conservatism of the Junker class of landed aristocrats in the East who dominated first Prussia and the German Empire.
The main coat of arms of Prussia, as well as the flag of Prussia, depicted a black eagle on a white background. The black and white national colours were used by the Teutonic Knights and by the Hohenzollern dynasty; the Teutonic Order wore a white coat embroidered with a black cross with gold insert and black imperial eagle. The combination of the black and white colours with the white and red Hanseatic colours of the free cities Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck, as well as of Brandenburg, resulted in the black-white-red commercial flag of the North German Confederation, which became the flag of the German Empire in 1871. Suum cuique, the motto of the Order of the Black Eagle created by King Frederick I in 1701, was associated with the whole of Prussia; the Iron Cross, a military decoration created by King Frederick William III in 1813, was commonly associated with the country. The region populated by Baltic Old Prussians who were Christianised, became a favoured location for immigration by Germans, as well as Poles and Lithuanians along the border regions.
Before its abolition, the territory of the Kingdom of Prussia included the provinces of West Prussia.
Glenwood Cemetery (Washington, D.C.)
Glenwood Cemetery is a historic cemetery located at 2219 Lincoln Road NE in Washington, D. C, it is a secular cemetery owned and operated by The Glenwood Cemetery, Inc.. Many famous people are buried in Glenwood Cemetery, the cemetery is noted for its numerous elaborate Victorian and Art Nouveau funerary monuments; the cemetery was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2017. On June 5, 1852, the Council of the City of Washington in the District of Columbia passed a local ordinance that barred the creation of new cemeteries anywhere within Georgetown or the area bounded by Boundary Street, 15th Street, East Capitol Street, the Anacostia River, the Potomac River, Rock Creek. A number of new cemeteries were therefore established in the "rural" areas in and around Washington: Columbian Harmony Cemetery in D. C.. C.. C; the property which became Glenwood Cemetery was first owned by John Dixon, original patentee of the District of Columbia. In 1809, Dixon sold the land to Dr. Phineas Bradley.
Bradley renamed it Clover Hill, built a large home in the northeast corner of the land. Bradley entertained some of the city's most notable residents, including Senator Henry Clay. Bradley sold the property in 1845, it changed hands many times over the next nine years. By 1854, it was owned by Junius J. Boyle. In June 1852, Joseph B. Close, William S. Humphreys, Randolph S. Evans, George Clendenin purchased the 90-acre Clover Hill from Junius J. Boyle for $9,000 for the purpose of creating a secular cemetery. Humphreys laid out walks and roads. Clendenin was appointed superintendent of the cemetery in March 1853. Close had loaned Humphreys $27,000 to make his improvements, in April 1853 Humphreys gave Close a 50 percent interest in the premises; the remaining half interest was given to Close in June 1854. Close agreed. On July 27, 1854, Congress passed legislation granting a congressional charter to and establishing The Proprietors of Glenwood Cemetery; the cemetery association was governed by a board of 12 people: Four from the District of Columbia, plus Close, Humphreys and William Phelps.
The board was empowered to appoint three managers. The charter specified that no more than 100 acres could be held by the association, at least 30 acres must be used as a cemetery; the congressional charter provided that no streets could be built through the cemetery. Congress exempted all cemetery land from taxes. Glenwood Cemetery was dedicated on August 2, 1854. In 1859, Humphreys defaulted on his payments to Close. Close became the sole owner of Glenwood Cemetery, with Clendenin continuing to act as superintendent. Between 1854 and 1874, 2,000 burial plots were sold; when the District of Columbia assessed property taxes on the 60 acres of unimproved land, Close argued that the entire site was dedicated to cemetery use. The tax assessments were withdrawn. On February 28, 1877, Congress passed legislation changing the name of the association to "The Glenwood Cemetery"; the board of trustees was reduced to five. Three of the trustees were to be elected by individuals who had purchased burial plots, two by agreement among the 12 investors in the cemetery.
The new congressional charter required that 25 percent of the proceeds from the sale of lots should be paid to the original 12 investors, with the remainder being used to maintain the cemetery. Close refused to recognize the legality of the new congressional charter. Close now argued that the 60 acres of unimproved land was private, not property. Further complicating matters, Close was engaged in a bitter divorce proceeding, he had turned over to profits in Glenwood Cemetery. A D. C. district court ordered Close to turn over his interest in Glenwood Cemetery to the other investors, to be compensated for this investment, to continue to receive 25 percent of the profits from the cemetery. Close appealed the ruling. Close's wife appealed as well; the dispute went to the Supreme Court of the United States. In Close v. Glenwood Cemetery, 107 U. S. 466, the Supreme Court held that Close's wife had not filed her claim in a timely fashion and was not entitled to appeal. The Supreme Court affirmed the judgment of the district court.
The Glenwood Cemetery now passed into the hands of the remaining 11 investors. As Glenwood Cemetery began to fill, the unimproved grounds were developed; the layout for Glenwood Cemetery was designed by a civil engineer. De la Roche drew primary inspiration for Glenwood from Green-Wood Cemetery in New York, but Mount Auburn Cemetery in Boston and Laurel Hill Cemetery in Philadelphia, were important to the design. The cemetery hired de la Roche. De la Roche designed a series of winding roadways. A portion of the grounds remained undeveloped by the time. In November 1861, Abraham Lincoln visited Glenwood Cemetery to visit Colonel John Cochrane's First United States Chasseurs; the Lincoln connection to Glenwood Cemetery conti
Lincoln Avenue (Chicago)
Lincoln Avenue is a street of the north side of city of Chicago. It runs from Clark Street on the western border of Lincoln Park to the northwest, ending in Morton Grove, Illinois, it leaves the city limits of Chicago at Devon Avenue, through the village of Lincolnwood, curves through the village of Skokie and ends at Dempster Street in Morton Grove. In total distance it is about 13 miles long, although it is not continuous. Between Foster Avenue and Skokie Boulevard U. S. Route 41 runs on Lincoln Avenue. Most of Lincoln Avenue is zoned commercial, is lined by shops and other establishments, it is the site of the yearly Taste of Lincoln Avenue, held between Fullerton Avenue and Wrightwood Avenue. It is the site of the Maifest and German American Fest in Lincoln Square, it was an Indian trail running along a slight ridge in the soggy ground of pre-settlement Chicago. Prior to the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, the street was known as Little Fort Road, it led to the town of Little Fort, now known as Waukegan, Illinois.
In Morton Grove it was known as Miller's Mill Road. The entire route is in Cook County. Biograph Theater Davis Theater Krause Music Store Old Town School of Folk Music Pueblito Viejo