Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Battle of Crécy
The Battle of Crécy spelled Cressy, was an English victory during the Edwardian phase part of the Chevauchée of Edward III of 1346 during the Hundred Years' War. It was the first of three famous English successes during the conflict, followed by Poitiers in 1356 and Agincourt in 1415; the battle was fought on 26 August 1346 in northern France. An army of English and allied mercenary troops led by Edward III of England and defeated a much larger army of French and Majorcan troops led by Philip VI of France. Emboldened by the lessons of tactical flexibility and utilisation of terrain learned from the earlier Saxons, Vikings and the recent battles with the Scots, the English army won an important victory; the battle heralded the rise of the longbow as the dominant weapon on the Western European battlefield, helped to continue the rise of the infantryman in medieval warfare. Crécy saw the use of the ribauldequin, an early cannon, by the English army; the heavy casualties taken by the French knightly class at the hands of peasants wielding ranged weapons was indicative of the decline of chivalry, the emergence of a more practical, pragmatic approach to conducting warfare.
The battle crippled the French army's ability to come to the aid of Calais, which fell to the English the following year. Calais would remain under English rule for over two centuries, falling in 1558. On the death of Charles IV of France in 1328, his nephew Edward III of England was his closest male relative, so claimed the throne through the right of his mother, Isabella of France. However, he was not a popular choice among the French aristocracy, not least due to Isabella's involvement in the downfall of his father and her potential influence over Edward, the French court decreed that due to France having reaffirmed male-only succession, as Isabella could not have inherited the throne neither could Edward; the French court decided that Charles' closest relative through the male-only line was his first cousin, Philip Count of Valois, crowned Philip VI of France. Reluctantly, Edward paid homage to Philip in his role as Duke of Aquitaine, a title he had inherited in 1329. Populated by Gascons with a culture and language separate from the French, the inhabitants of Aquitaine preferred a relationship with the English crown.
However, France continued to interfere in the affairs of the Gascons, in matters both of law and war. Philip confiscated the lands of Aquitaine in 1337, precipitating war between France. Edward declared himself King of France in 1340, set about unseating his rival from the French throne. An early naval victory at Sluys in 1340 annihilated the French naval forces, giving the English domination at sea. Edward invaded France with 12,000 men, cutting through the Low Countries plundering the countryside. After an aborted siege of Cambrai, Edward led his army on a destructive chevauchée through Picardy, destroying hundreds of villages, all the while shadowed by the French. Battle was given by neither side and Edward withdrew, bringing the campaign to an abrupt end. Edward returned to England to raise more funds for another campaign and to deal with his political difficulties with the Scots, who were making repeated raids over the border. On 11 July 1346, Edward set sail from Portsmouth with a fleet of 750 ships and an army of 15,000 men.
With the army were Edward's sixteen-year-old son, the Black Prince, a large contingent of Welsh soldiers, allied knights and mercenaries from the Holy Roman Empire. The army landed 20 miles from Cherbourg; the intention was to undertake a massive chevauchée across Normandy, plundering its wealth and weakening the prestige of the French crown. They razed Carentan, Saint-Lô and Torteval Edward turned his army against Caen, the ancestral capital of Normandy; the English army sacked Caen on 26 July. Moving off on 1 August, the army marched north to the River Seine intending to attack Paris; the English army crossed the Seine at Poissy. Philip moved off with his army, attempting to destroy the English force. Fording the Somme proved difficult: all bridges were either guarded or burned. Edward vainly attempted the crossings at Pont-Remy before moving north. Despite some close encounters, the pursuing French army was unable to engage the English. Edward was informed of a tiny ford on the Somme well defended, near the village of Saigneville, called Blanchetaque.
On 24 August and his army forced a crossing in the Battle of Blanchetaque with few casualties. Such was the French confidence that Edward would not ford the Somme that the area beyond had not been denuded, allowing Edward's army to plunder it and resupply. Edward used the respite to prepare a defensive position at Crécy-en-Ponthieu while waiting for Philip to bring up his army; the River Maye protected this position to the west, the town of Wadicourt to the east, as well as a natural slope, which put cavalry at a disadvantage. Edward deployed his army facing south on a sloping hillside at Crécy-en-Ponthieu; the left flank was anchored against Wadicourt, while the right was protected by Crécy itself and the River Maye beyond. This made it impossible for the French army to outflank them; the army was well-fed and rested, giving them an advantage over the French, who did not rest before the battle. The English army was led by Edward III; the exact size and comp
Soissons is a commune in the northern French department of Aisne, in the region of Hauts-de-France. Located on the Aisne River, about 100 kilometres northeast of Paris, it is one of the most ancient towns of France, is the ancient capital of the Suessiones. Soissons is the see of an ancient Roman Catholic diocese, whose establishment dates from about 300, it was the location of a number of church synods called "Council of Soissons". Soissons enters written history under its Celtic name, meaning "new hillfort". At Roman contact, it was a town of the Suessiones, mentioned by Julius Caesar. Caesar, after leaving the Axona, entered the territory of the Suessiones, making one day's long march, reached Noviodunum, surrounded by a high wall and a broad ditch; the place surrendered to Caesar. From 457 to 486, under Aegidius and his son Syagrius, Noviodunum was the capital of the Kingdom of Soissons, until it fell to the Frankish king Clovis I in 486 after the Battle of Soissons. Part of the Frankish territory of Neustria, the Soissons region, the Abbey of Saint-Médard, built in the 8th century, played an important political part during the rule of the Merovingian kings.
After the death of Clovis I in 511, Soissons was made the capital of one of the four kingdoms into which his states were divided. The kingdom of Soissons disappeared in 613 when the Frankish lands were amalgamated under Chlothar II; the 744 Council of Soissons met at the instigation of Pepin the Short and Saint Boniface, the Pope's missionary to pagan Germany, secured the condemnation of the Frankish bishop Adalbert and the Irish missionary Clement. During the Hundred Years' War, French forces committed a notorious massacre of English archers stationed at the town's garrison, in which many of the French townsfolk were themselves raped and killed; the massacre of French citizens by French soldiers shocked Europe. Between June 1728 and July 1729 it hosted the Congress of Soissons an attempt to resolve a long-standing series of disputes between the Kingdom of Great Britain and Spain which had spilled over into the Anglo-Spanish War of 1727–1729; the Congress was successful and led to the signing of a peace treaty between them.
During World War I, the city came under heavy bombardment. There was mutiny after the disastrous Chemin des Dames offensive at the Second Battle of the Aisne. A statue erected with images of French soldiers killed in action in 1917 is behind the St Peter's Church, next to the Soissons Courthouse. On 16 June 1972, 108 passengers were killed when two passenger trains hit the debris of a collapsed tunnel; the town was on the main path of totality for the solar eclipse of August 11, 1999. Today, Soissons is a commercial and manufacturing centre with the 12th century Soissons Cathedral and the ruins of St. Jean des Vignes Abbey as two of its most important historical buildings; the nearby Espace Pierres Folles contains a museum, geological trail, botanical garden. The Cathédrale Saint-Gervais-et-Saint-Protais de Soissons is constructed in the style of Gothic architecture; the building of the south transept was begun about 1177, the lowest courses of the choir in 1182. The choir with its original three-storey elevation and tall clerestory was completed in 1211.
This was earlier than Chartres. Work continued into the nave until the late 13th century; the former abbey of Notre Dame, former royal abbey, founded in the Merovingian era, famous for its rich treasure of relics, including the "shoe of the Virgin." The abbey was prestigious abbesses like Gisèle, sister of Charlemagne, or Catherine de Bourbon, aunt of Henry IV. The Saint-Médard Abbey was a Benedictine monastery of Soissons whose foundation went back to the sixth century. Today, only the crypt remains. Since 1833 the city hall has been housed in a chateau built by architect Jean-François Advyné between 1772 and 1775 at the request of the Intendant Pelletier Mortefontaine on the site of a previous one belonging to the counts of Soissons. Arsenal: contemporary art exhibitions. UK Monument The Gateway Anglais Bridge is a concrete casson built cantilevered from an abutment against-weight with an isostatic central beam of 20.50 m in length. The floor has a width of 3.50 m between railings. The original bridge was destroyed in 1914.
It was rebuilt by British soldiers, logically took the name of the English bridge. Again destroyed during World War II, the bridge was rebuilt in 1950 as a footbridge; the covered market, built in 1908 by architect Albert-Désiré Guilbert. The actress Aurore Clément was born in Soissons in 1945; the saints Crispin and Crispinian were martyred c. 286 at Soissons for preaching Christianity to the local Gauls. The 6th century Burgundian king Guntram was born in Soissons around 532. Battle of Soissons Communes of the Aisne department Franks List of Frankish kings Merovingians Suessiones Vase of Soissons Wolf of Soissons Sessions This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray. INSEE Official website Catholic Encyclopedia: Soissons A live view of the port of Soissons Discovering Soissons Soissons Powerlifting club Local Bus Routes
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
The French nobility was a privileged social class in France during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period to the revolution in 1790. The nobility was revived in 1805 with limited rights as a titled elite class from the First Empire to the fall of the July Monarchy in 1848, when all privileges were abolished for good. Hereditary titles, without privileges, continued to be granted until the Second Empire fell in 1870, they survive among their descendants as a social convention and as part of the legal name of the corresponding individuals. In the political system of pre-Revolutionary France, the nobility made up the Second Estate of the Estates General. Although membership in the noble class was inherited, it was not a closed order. New individuals were appointed to the nobility by the monarchy, or they could purchase rights and titles, or join by marriage. Sources differ about the actual number of nobles in France. For the year 1789, French historian François Bluche gives a figure of 140,000 nobles and states that about 5% of nobles could claim descent from feudal nobility before the 15th century.
With a total population of 28 million, this would represent 0.5%. Historian Gordon Wright gives a figure of 300,000 nobles, which agrees with the estimation of historian Jean de Viguerie, or a little over 1%. In terms of land holdings, at the time of the revolution, noble estates comprised about one-fifth of the land; the French nobility had specific financial rights and prerogatives. The first official list of these prerogatives was established late, under Louis XI after 1440, included the right to hunt, to wear a sword and, in principle, to possess a seigneurie. Nobles were granted an exemption from paying the taille, except for non-noble lands they might possess in some regions of France. Furthermore, certain ecclesiastic and military positions were reserved for nobles; these feudal privileges are termed droits de féodalité dominante. With the exception of a few isolated cases, serfdom had ceased to exist in France by the 15th century. In early modern France, nobles maintained a great number of seigneurial privileges over the free peasants that worked lands under their control.
They could, for example, levy an annual tax on lands leased or held by vassals. Nobles could charge banalités for the right to use the lord's mills, ovens, or wine presses. Alternatively, a noble could demand a portion of vassals' harvests in return for permission to farm land he owned. Nobles maintained certain judicial rights over their vassals, although with the rise of the modern state many of these privileges had passed to state control, leaving rural nobility with only local police functions and judicial control over violation of their seigneurial rights. In the 17th century this seigneurial system was established in France's North American possessions. However, the nobles had responsibilities. Nobles were required to honor and counsel their king, they were required to render military service. The rank of "noble" was forfeitable: certain activities could cause dérogeance, within certain limits and exceptions. Most commercial and manual activities, such as tilling land, were prohibited, although nobles could profit from their lands by operating mines and forges.
A nobleman could emancipate a male heir early, take on derogatory activities without losing the family's nobility. If nobility was lost through prohibited activities, it could be recovered as soon as the said activities were stopped, by obtaining letters of "relief". Certain regions such as Brittany applied loosely these rules allowing poor nobles to plough their own land; the nobility in France was never an closed class. Nobility and hereditary titles were distinct: while all hereditary titleholders were noble, most nobles were untitled, although many assumed titres de courtoisie. Nobility could be granted by the king or, until 1578, acquired by a family which had occupied a government or military post of high enough rank for three generations. Once acquired, nobility was hereditary in the legitimate male-line for all male descendants. Wealthy families found ready opportunities to pass into the nobility: although nobility itself could not be purchased, lands to which noble rights and/or title were attached could be and were bought by commoners who adopted use of the property's name or title and were henceforth assumed to be noble if they could find a way to be exempted from paying the taille to which only commoners were subject.
Moreover, non-nobles who owned noble fiefs were obliged to pay a special tax on the property to the noble liege-lord. Properly, only those who were noble could assume a hereditary title attached to a noble fief, thereby acquiring a title recognised but not conferred by the French crown; the children of a French nobleman, unlike those of a British peer, were not considered commoners but untitled nobles. Inheritance was recognized only in the male line, with a few exceptions in the independent provinces of Champagne and Brittany; the king could grant nobility to individuals, convert land into noble fiefs or, elevate noble fiefs into titled estates. The king could confer special privilege