Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
Louis IX of Hesse-Darmstadt was the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1768 -1790. He was a son of Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt and he was born in Darmstadt on 15 December 1719. On 12 August 1741, Louis married Caroline of Zweibrücken, daughter of Christian III, on 6 April 1790 Louis died in Pirmasens
Louis IX, Duke of Bavaria
Louis IX, was Duke of Bavaria-Landshut from 1450. He was a son of Henry XVI the Rich and Margaret of Austria, Louis succeeded his father in 1450. He was the second of the three famous rich dukes, who reigned Bavaria-Landshut in the 15th century and their residence was Trausnitz Castle in Landshut, a fortification which attained enormous dimensions. Since Louis invaded the imperial cities of Dinkelsbühl and Donauwörth in 1458 he disputed with Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor. In 1462 Louis defeated his enemy Albert III, Margrave of Brandenburg, Louis expelled all Jews who rejected baptism from his duchy. In 1472 Louis founded the Ludwig-Maximilians-University in Ingolstadt, which was moved to Landshut in 1800 and finally to Munich. In 1475 he organized the Landshut Wedding of his son George with the princess Hedwig Jagiellon, on 21 March 1452 Louis was married with Princess Amalia of Saxony, daughter of Frederick II, Elector of Saxony
Louis IX of France
Louis IX, commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 until his death. Louis was crowned in Reims at the age of 12, following the death of his father Louis VIII the Lion, although his mother, Blanche of Castile, ruled the kingdom until he reached maturity. During Louiss childhood, Blanche dealt with the opposition of rebellious vassals, as an adult, Louis IX faced recurring conflicts with some of the most powerful nobles, such as Hugh X of Lusignan and Peter of Dreux. Simultaneously, Henry III of England tried to restore his continental possessions and his reign saw the annexation of several provinces, notably Normandy and Provence. Louis IX was a reformer and developed French royal justice, in which the king is the judge to whom anyone is able to appeal to seek the amendment of a judgment. He banned trials by ordeal, tried to prevent the private wars that were plaguing the country, to enforce the correct application of this new legal system, Louis IX created provosts and bailiffs.
According to his vow made after an illness, and confirmed after a miraculous cure. He was succeeded by his son Philip III, Louiss actions were inspired by Christian values and Catholic devotion. He decided to punish blasphemy, interest-bearing loans and prostitution and he expanded the scope of the Inquisition and ordered the burning of Talmuds. He is the only canonized king of France, and there are many places named after him. Much of what is known of Louiss life comes from Jean de Joinvilles famous Life of Saint Louis, two other important biographies were written by the kings confessor, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, and his chaplain, William of Chartres. The fourth important source of information is William of Saint-Parthus biography, while several individuals wrote biographies in the decades following the kings death, only Jean of Joinville, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, and William of Chartres wrote from personal knowledge of the king. Louis was born on 25 April 1214 at Poissy, near Paris, the son of Prince Louis the Lion and Princess Blanche, and baptised in La Collégiale Notre-Dame church.
His grandfather on his fathers side was Philip II, king of France, while his grandfather on his mothers side was Alfonso VIII, tutors of Blanches choosing taught him most of what a king must know—Latin, public speaking, military arts, and government. He was 9 years old when his grandfather Philip II died, a member of the House of Capet, Louis was twelve years old when his father died on 8 November 1226. He was crowned king within the month at Reims cathedral, because of Louiss youth, his mother ruled France as regent during his minority. Louis mother trained him to be a leader and a good Christian. She used to say, I love you, my son, as much as a mother can love her child