Pierre Puvis de Chavannes
Pierre Puvis de Chavannes was a French painter best known for his mural painting, who came to be known as'the painter for France'. He became the co-founder and president of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts, his work influenced many other artists, notably Robert Genin. Puvis de Chavannes was a prominent painter in the early Third Republic. Émile Zola described his work as "an art made of reason and will". Puvis de Chavannes was born Pierre-Cécile Puvis in a suburb of Lyon, France, he was the son of a mining engineer. Being descended from an old noble family of Burgundy, he added the ancestral'de Chavannes' to his name. Throughout his life, however, he spurned his Lyon origins, preferring to identify himself with the'strong' blood of the Burgundians, where his father originated. Puvis de Chavannes was educated at the Amiens College and at the Lycée Henri IV in Paris, he intended to follow his father's profession until a serious illness compelled him to convalesce at Mâcon with his brother and sister-in-law in 1844 and 1845, interrupting his studies.
A journey to Italy opened his mind to fresh ideas, on his return to Paris in 1846 he announced his intention to become a painter. He studied first under Eugène Delacroix, but only briefly, as Delacroix closed his studio shortly afterwards due to ill health, he studied subsequently under Henri Scheffer and Thomas Couture. His training was not classical as he found that he preferred to work alone, he took a large studio near the Gare de Lyon and attended anatomy classes at the Académie des Beaux Arts. It was not until a number of years when the government of France acquired one of his works, that he gained wide recognition. Puvis de Chavannes made his Salon debut in 1850 with Dead Christ, Negro Boy, The Reading Lesson, Portrait of a Man. In Montmartre, he had an affair with one of his models, Suzanne Valadon, who would become one of the leading artists of the day as well as the mother and mentor of Maurice Utrillo. From 1856, he was in a relationship with the Romanian princess, Marie Cantacuzène.
The couple were together for 40 years, were married before their deaths in 1898. Puvis de Chavannes' work is seen as symbolist in nature though he studied with some of the romanticists, he is credited with influencing an entire generation of painters and sculptors the works of the Modernists. One of his protégés was Georges de Feure. Puvis de Chavannes is best known for his mural painting, came to be known as'the painter for France.' His first commission was for his brother's chateau, Le Brouchy, a medieval-style structure near Cuiseaux in Saône-et-Loire. The principal decorations take the four seasons as their theme, his first public commissions came early in the 1860s, with work at the Musée de Picardie at Amiens. The first four works were Concordia, Bellum, Le Travail and Le Repos. Over the course of his career, Puvis received a substantial number of commissions for works to be carried out in public and private institutions throughout France, his early work at the Musée de Picardie had helped him to develop his classicizing style, the decorative aesthetic of his mural works.
Among his public works are the cycles completed at Amiens, at Marseille, at Lyon and at Poitiers. Of particular importance is the cycle at the Palais de Beaux Arts in Lyon, which includes three significant works, filling the wall space in the main staircase. From left to right, the works are Antique Vision, The Wood Dear to the Arts and the Muses, Christian Inspiration. Puvis' career was tied up with a complicated debate, ongoing since the beginning of the Third Republic, at the end of the violence of the Paris Commune; the question at stake was the identity of France and the meaning of'Frenchness'. Royalists felt that the revolution of 1789 had been an immense disaster and that France had been thrown off course, while the Republicans felt that the Revolution had allowed France to revert to its true course. Works that were to be displayed in public spaces, such as murals, had the important task of fulfilling the ideology of the commissioning party. Many scholars of Puvis's works have noted that his success as a'painter for France' was due to his ability to create works which were agreeable to the many ideologies in existence at this time.
His first Parisian commission was for a cycle at the church of Saint Genevieve, now the secular Pantheon, begun in 1874. His two subjects were L'Education de Sainte Geneviève and La Vie Pastoral de Sainte Geneviève; this commission was followed by works at the Sorbonne, namely the enormous hemicycle, The Sacred Grove or L'Ancienne Sorbonne amongst the muses in the Grand Amphitheater of the Sorbonne. His final commission in this trinity of Republican commissions was the crowning glory of Puvis's career, the works Summer and Winter, at the Hôtel de Ville in Paris. Many of these works are characterized by their nod to classical art, visible in the careful balanced compositions, the subject matter is a direct reference to visions of Hellenistic Greece in the case of Antique Vision. Puvis de Chavannes was president and co-founder in 1890 of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts founded in Paris, it became the dominant salon of art at the time and held exhibitions of contemporary art, selected only by a jury composed of the officers of the Société.
Those who translated best the spirit of the work of Pierre-Cécile Puvis de Chavannes' in their own creations were, in Germany, the painter Ludwig von Hofmann and in France, Auguste Rodin. His easel paintings may be found in many Am
Toulon is a city in southern France and a large military harbour on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base. Located in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region, Toulon is the capital of the Var department; the Commune of Toulon has a population of 165,514 people, making it the fifteenth-largest city in France. It is the centre of an urban area with the ninth largest in France. Toulon is the fourth-largest French city on the Mediterranean coast after Marseille and Montpellier. Toulon is an important centre for naval construction, wine making, the manufacture of aeronautical equipment, maps, tobacco, printing and electronic equipment; the military port of Toulon is the major naval centre on France's Mediterranean coast, home of the French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle and her battle group. The French Mediterranean Fleet is based in Toulon. Archaeological excavations, such as those at the Cosquer Cave near Marseille, show that the coast of Provence was inhabited since at least the Paleolithic era.
Greek colonists came from Phocaea, Asia Minor, in about the 7th century BC and established trading depots along the coast, including one, called Olbia, at Saint-Pierre de l'Almanarre south of Hyères, to the east of Toulon. The Ligurians settled in the area beginning in the 4th century BC. In the 2nd century BC, the residents of Massalia called upon the Romans to help them pacify the region; the Romans began to start their own colonies along the coast. A Roman settlement was founded at the present location of Toulon, with the name Telo Martius – Telo, either for the goddess of springs or from the Latin tol, the base of the hill – and Martius, for the god of war. Telo Martius became one of the two principal Roman dye manufacturing centres, producing the purple colour used in imperial robes, made from the local sea snail called murex, from the acorns of the oak trees. Toulon harbour became a shelter for trading ships, the name of the town changed from Telo to Tholon and Toulon. Toulon was Christianized in the 5th century, the first cathedral built.
Honoratus and Gratianus of Toulon, according to the Gallia Christiana, were the first bishops of Toulon, but Louis Duchesne gives Augustalis as the first historical bishop. He assisted at councils in 441 and 442 and signed in 449 and 450 the letters addressed to Pope Leo I from the province of Arles. A Saint Cyprian and biographer of St. Cæsarius of Arles, is mentioned as a Bishop of Toulon, his episcopate, begun in 524, had not come to an end in 541. In 1095, a new cathedral was built in the city by Count Gilbert of Provence; as barbarians invaded the region and Roman power crumbled, the town was attacked by pirates and the Saracens. In 1486 Provence became part of France. Soon afterwards, in 1494, Charles VIII of France, with the intention of making France a sea power on the Mediterranean, to support his military campaign in Italy, began constructing a military port at the harbor of Toulon, his Italian campaign failed, 1497, the rulers of Genoa, who controlled commerce on that part of the Mediterranean, blockaded the new port.
In 1524, as part of his longtime battle against Emperor Charles V and the Holy Roman Empire, King François I of France completed a powerful new fort, the Tour Royale, Toulon, at the entrance of the harbour. However, a few months the commander of the new fort sold it to the commander of an Army of the Holy Roman Empire, Toulon surrendered. In 1543, Francis I found a surprising new ally in his battle against the Holy Roman Empire, he invited the fleet of Ottoman Admiral Barbarossa to Toulon as part of the Franco-Ottoman alliance. The residents were forced to leave, the Ottoman sailors occupied the town for the winter. See Ottoman occupation of Toulon. In 1646, a fleet was gathered in Toulon for the major Battle of Orbetello known as the Battle of Isola del Giglio, commanded by France's first Grand Admiral, the young Grand Admiral Marquis of Brézé, Jean Armand de Maillé-Bréze of 36 galleons, 20 galleys, a large complement of minor vessels; this fleet carried aboard an army of 8,000 infantry and 800 cavalry and its baggage under Thomas of Savoy, shortly before a general in Spanish service.
King Louis XIV was determined to make France a major sea power. In 1660, his Minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert ordered Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban to build a new arsenal and to fortify the town. In 1707, during the War of the Spanish Succession, Toulon resisted a siege by the Imperial Army led by Duke Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia of Savoy and Prince Eugene. However, in 1720, the city was ravaged by the black plague. Thirteen thousand people, or half the population, died. In 1790, following the French Revolution, Toulon became the administrative centre of the département of the Var; the leaders of the city, were royalists, they welcomed the arrival of a British fleet. At the siege of Toulon, the British were expelled by a French force whose artillery was led by a young captain, Napoleon Bonaparte. To punish Toulon for its rebellion, the town lost its status as department capital and was renamed Port-de-la-Montagne. During the Napoleonic Wars, from 1803 until 1805 a British fleet led by Admiral Horatio Nelson blockaded Toulon.
In 1820, the statue which became known as the Venus de Milo was discovered on the Greek island of Milo and seen by a French naval officer, Emile Voutier. He persuaded t
Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts. In literature, the style originates with the 1857 publication of Charles Baudelaire's Les Fleurs du mal; the works of Edgar Allan Poe, which Baudelaire admired and translated into French, were a significant influence and the source of many stock tropes and images. The aesthetic was developed by Paul Verlaine during the 1860s and 1870s. In the 1880s, the aesthetic was articulated by a series of manifestos and attracted a generation of writers; the term "symbolist" was first applied by the critic Jean Moréas, who invented the term to distinguish the Symbolists from the related Decadents of literature and of art. Distinct from, but related to, the style of literature, symbolism in art is related to the gothic component of Romanticism and Impressionism; the term "symbolism" is derived from the word "symbol" which derives from the Latin symbolum, a symbol of faith, symbolus, a sign of recognition, in turn from classical Greek σύμβολον symbolon, an object cut in half constituting a sign of recognition when the carriers were able to reassemble the two halves.
In ancient Greece, the symbolon was a shard of pottery, inscribed and broken into two pieces which were given to the ambassadors from two allied city states as a record of the alliance. Symbolism was a reaction against naturalism and realism, anti-idealistic styles which were attempts to represent reality in its gritty particularity, to elevate the humble and the ordinary over the ideal. Symbolism was a reaction in favour of spirituality, the imagination, dreams; some writers, such as Joris-Karl Huysmans, began as naturalists before becoming symbolists. Certain of the characteristic subjects of the Decadents represent naturalist interest in sexuality and taboo topics, but in their case this was mixed with Byronic romanticism and the world-weariness characteristic of the fin de siècle period; the Symbolist poets have a more complex relationship with Parnassianism, a French literary style that preceded it. While being influenced by hermeticism, allowing freer versification, rejecting Parnassian clarity and objectivity, it retained Parnassianism's love of word play and concern for the musical qualities of verse.
The Symbolists continued to admire Théophile Gautier's motto of "art for art's sake", retained – and modified – Parnassianism's mood of ironic detachment. Many Symbolist poets, including Stéphane Mallarmé and Paul Verlaine, published early works in Le Parnasse contemporain, the poetry anthologies that gave Parnassianism its name, but Arthur Rimbaud publicly mocked prominent Parnassians and published scatological parodies of some of their main authors, including François Coppée – misattributed to Coppée himself – in L'Album zutique. One of Symbolism's most colourful promoters in Paris was art and literary critic Joséphin Péladan, who established the Salon de la Rose + Croix; the Salon hosted a series of six presentations of avant-garde art and music during the 1890s, to give a presentation space for artists embracing spiritualism and idealism in their work. A number of Symbolists were associated with the Salon. Symbolists believed that art should represent absolute truths that could only be described indirectly.
Thus, they wrote in a metaphorical and suggestive manner, endowing particular images or objects with symbolic meaning. Jean Moréas published the Symbolist Manifesto in Le Figaro on 18 September 1886; the Symbolist Manifesto names Charles Baudelaire, Stéphane Mallarmé, Paul Verlaine as the three leading poets of the movement. Moréas announced that symbolism was hostile to "plain meanings, false sentimentality and matter-of-fact description", that its goal instead was to "clothe the Ideal in a perceptible form" whose "goal was not in itself, but whose sole purpose was to express the Ideal." Ainsi, dans cet art, les tableaux de la nature, les actions des humains, tous les phénomènes concrets ne sauraient se manifester eux-mêmes. In a nutshell, as Mallarmé writes in a letter to his friend Cazalis,'to depict not the thing but the effect it produces'; the symbolist poets wished to liberate techniques of versification in order to allow greater room for "fluidity", as such were sympathetic with the trend toward free verse, as evident in the poems of Gustave Kahn and Ezra Pound.
Symbolist poems were attempts to evoke, rather than to describe. T. S. Eliot was influenced by the poets Jules Laforgue, Paul Valéry and Arthur Rimbaud who used the techniques of the Symbolist school, though it has been said that'Imagism' was the style to which both Pound and Eliot subscribed. Synesthesia was a prized experience. In Baudelaire's poem Correspondences mentions forêts de symboles – forests of symbols – Il est des parfums frais comme des chairs d'enfants,Doux comme les hautbois, verts comme les prairies,– Et d'autres, riches et triomphants,Ayant l'expansion des choses infinies,Comme l'ambre, le musc, le benjoin et l'encens,Qui chantent le
Jean-Hippolyte Flandrin was a 19th-century French painter. His celebrated 1836 work Jeune Homme Nu Assis au Bord de la Mer is in the Louvre. From an early age, Flandrin showed interest in a career as a painter. However, his parents pressured him to become a businessman, having little training, he was forced to instead become a miniature painter. Hippolyte was the second of three sons. Augusto, his older brother, spent most of his life as a professor at Lyon and died there. Paul, his younger brother, was a painter of religious imagery. Hippolyte and Paul spent some time at Lyon, saving to leave for Paris in 1829 and study under Louis Hersent, they settled in the studio of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, who became not only their instructor but their friend for life. At first, Hippolyte struggled as a poor artist. However, in 1832, he won the Prix de Rome for his painting Recognition of Theseus by his Father; this prestigious art scholarship meant. The Prix de Rome allowed him to study for five years in Rome.
While there, he created several paintings, increasing his celebrity both in Italy. His painting St. Clair Healing the Blind was created for the cathedral of Nantes, at the exhibition of 1855 years it brought him a medal of the first class. Jesus and the Little Children was given by the government to the town of Lisieux. Dante and Virgil visiting the Envious Men struck with Blindness and Euripides writing his Tragedies are now in the Museum of Fine Arts in Lyon. Upon his return to Paris in 1856, Flandrin received a commission from the chapel of St John in the church of St Séverin; as a result, his reputation became more impressive guaranteeing him continuous employment for the rest of his life. In addition to these works, Flandrin painted a great number of portraits, including Portrait of Napoleon III. However, he is much more known today for his monumental decorative paintings; the most notable of these are found in the following locations: in the sanctuary and nave of St Germain des Prés at Paris in the church of St Paul at Nîmes of St Vincent de Paul at Paris in the church of St-Martin-d'Ainay at Lyon In 1853, Flandrin was elected to the Académie des Beaux-Arts.
In 1863, his failing health, made worse by his hard work and extended exposure to the damp and draughts of churches, induced him to visit Italy again, where he died of smallpox in Rome on 21 March 1864. Portrait of Madame Oudiné 1840 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Flandrin, Jean Hippolyte". Encyclopædia Britannica. 10. Cambridge University Press. P. 480. Catholic Encyclopedia entry Delaborde, Lettres et pensies de H. Flandrin Beul, Notice historique sur H. F.. Jeune homme nu assis au bord de la mer
Bagneux is a commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 7.7 km from the center of Paris. Fontenay-aux-Roses Bagneux is served by Bagneux station on Paris RER line B; this station is located at the border between the commune of Bagneux and the commune of Cachan, on the Cachan side of the border. Primary schools include: 10 preschools 7 elementary schoolsThe commune has four junior high schools: Henri-Barbusse, Joliot-Curie, Romain-Rolland, École les Jacquets; the commune has Lycée professionnel Léonard-de-Vinci. Other public high schools in the area: Lycée technique Jean-Jaurès in Châtenay-Malabry Lycée Maurice-Genevoix in Montrouge Lycée Lakanal in Sceaux Lycée Marie-Curie in SceauxThere is a private junior and senior high school, Groupe scolaire Saint-Gabriel. Château du Comte Beugnot, La Fontaine-Gueffier, supposed to be built for Richelieu Gnomon Bagneux, Hauts-de-Seine is twinned with: Turin, Italy 1978 Neath Port Talbot, United Kingdom 1980 Grand-Bourg, Guadeloupe 1998 Vanadzor, Armenia 2006 Communes of the Hauts-de-Seine department INSEE Bagneux website
Lyon is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located in the country's east-central part at the confluence of the rivers Rhône and Saône, about 470 km south from Paris, 320 km north from Marseille and 56 km northeast from Saint-Étienne. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais. Lyon had a population of 513,275 in 2015, it is the capital of the region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes. The Lyon metropolitan area had a population of 2,265,375 in 2014, the second-largest urban area in France; the city is known for its cuisine and gastronomy, historical and architectural landmarks. Lyon was an important area for the production and weaving of silk. Lyon played a significant role in the history of cinema: it is where Auguste and Louis Lumière invented the cinematograph, it is known for its light festival, the Fête des Lumières, which begins every 8 December and lasts for four days, earning Lyon the title of Capital of Lights. Economically, Lyon is a major centre for banking, as well as for the chemical and biotech industries.
The city contains a significant software industry with a particular focus on video games, in recent years has fostered a growing local start-up sector. Lyon hosts the international headquarters of Interpol, the International Agency for Research on Cancer and Euronews, it was ranked 19th globally and second in France for innovation in 2014. It ranked second in 39th globally in Mercer's 2015 liveability rankings. According to the historian Dio Cassius, in 43 BC, the Roman Senate ordered the creation of a settlement for Roman refugees of war with the Allobroges; these refugees had been expelled from Vienne and were now encamped at the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers. The foundation was built on Fourvière hill and called Colonia Copia Felix Munatia, a name invoking prosperity and the blessing of the gods; the city became referred to as Lugdunum. The earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name as "Desired Mountain" is offered by the 9th-century Endlicher Glossary. In contrast, some modern scholars have proposed a Gaulish hill-fort named Lugdunon, after the Celtic god Lugus, dúnon.
The Romans recognised that Lugdunum's strategic location at the convergence of two navigable rivers made it a natural communications hub. The city became the starting point of the principal Roman roads in the area, it became the capital of the province, Gallia Lugdunensis. Two Emperors were born in this city: Claudius, whose speech is preserved in the Lyon Tablet in which he justifies the nomination of Gallic Senators, Caracalla. Early Christians in Lyon were martyred for their beliefs under the reigns of various Roman emperors, most notably Marcus Aurelius and Septimius Severus. Local saints from this period include Blandina and Epipodius, among others. In the second century AD, the great Christian bishop of Lyon was Irenaeus. To this day, the archbishop of Lyon is still referred to as "Primat des Gaules". Burgundians fleeing the destruction of Worms by the Huns in 437 were re-settled at Lugdunum. In 443 the Romans established the Kingdom of the Burgundians, Lugdunum became its capital in 461.
In 843, by the Treaty of Verdun, Lyon went to the Holy Roman Emperor Lothair I. It was made part of the Kingdom of Arles. Lyon did not come under French control until the 14th century. Fernand Braudel remarked, "Historians of Lyon are not sufficiently aware of the bi-polarity between Paris and Lyon, a constant structure in French development...from the late Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution". In the late 15th century, the fairs introduced by Italian merchants made Lyon the economic counting house of France; the Bourse, built in 1749, resembled a public bazaar where accounts were settled in the open air. When international banking moved to Genoa Amsterdam, Lyon remained the banking centre of France. During the Renaissance, the city's development was driven by the silk trade, which strengthened its ties to Italy. Italian influence on Lyon's architecture is still visible among historic buildings. In the 1400s and 1500s Lyon was a key centre of literary activity and book publishing, both of French writers and of Italians in exile.
In 1572, Lyon was a scene of mass violence by Catholics against Protestant Huguenots in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Two centuries Lyon was again convulsed by violence when, during the French Revolution, the citizenry rose up against the National Convention and supported the Girondins; the city was besieged by Revolutionary armies for over two months before surrendering in October 1793. Many buildings were destroyed around the Place Bellecour, while Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois and Joseph Fouché administered the execution of more than 2,000 people; the Convention ordered that its name be changed to "Liberated City" and a plaque was erected that proclaimed "Lyons made war on Liberty. A decade Napoleon ordered the reconstruction of all the buildings demolished during this period; the Convention was not the only target within Lyon during the 1789-1799 French Revolution. After the National Convention faded into history, the French Directory appeared and days after the September 4, 1797, Coup of 18 Fructidor, a Directory's commissioner was assassinated in Ly
Carpentras is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France. It stands on the banks of the Auzon; as capital of the Comtat Venaissin, it was the residence of the Avignon popes. Nowadays, Carpentras is a commercial center for Comtat Venaissin and is famous for the black truffle markets held from winter to early spring. Carpentras was a commercial site used by Greek merchants in ancient times, known to Romans at first as Carpentoracte Meminorum, mentioned by Pliny renamed Forum Neronis. For the history of the bishopric of Carpentras, see Ancient Diocese of Carpentras. At the beginning of the Avignon Papacy, Pope Clement V took up residence, along with the Roman Curia, in Carpentras in 1313, it was his successor Pope John XXII. Joseph-Dominique d'Inguimbert, Bishop of Carpentras from 1735 to 1754, established a great scholarly library which Jean-François Delmas, the chief librarian as of 2009, has called "the oldest of our municipal libraries".
Like most communities across France, Carpentras played a role in the 1789-1799 French Revolution during the rule of the French Directory. After the'Anti-Royalist' September 4, 1797 Coup of 18 Fructidor, on October 22, 1797, counter-revolutionaries take the city's government and hold it in protest for 24 hours. Into the 20th Century and the 21st Century, Carpentras has been an important centre of French Judaism, is home to the oldest synagogue in France, which still holds services. In May 1990, the Jewish cemetery was desecrated. In the Köppen climate classification, Carpentras has a Hot summer Mediterranean climate, with cold winters and hot summers; the rainiest seasons are autumn, where heavy downpours may happen. Carpentras is famous for the Truffle market that takes place every Friday morning during the winter months, its traditional confectionery is the berlingot, a small hard candy with thin white stripes made from the syrup left over from conservation of fruits. Carpentras was the birthplace of: Carpentras, prominent early Renaissance composer Louis Archimbaud and organist of Carpentras Cathedral Joseph Duplessis, portraitist Alexis-Vincent-Charles Berbiguier de Terre-Neuve du Thym and demonologist François-Vincent Raspail, chemist and socialist Édouard Daladier politician and Prime Minister of France at the start of the Second World War Daniel Lazard, mathematician Christophe Maé musician and composer.
Carpentras is twinned with: Vevey, Switzerland Seesen, Germany Ponchatoula, Louisiana, USA Camaiore, Italy Arch of Carpentras Communes of the Vaucluse department Henri Raybaud INSEE Carpentras travel guide from Wikivoyage Carpentras official website Encyclopædia Britannica 1911 "Carpentras" Pictures of Carpentras Cathedral:, Pictures of Carpentras Synagogue