The Jersey Journal
The Jersey Journal is a daily newspaper, published from Monday through Saturday, covering news and events throughout Hudson County, New Jersey. The Journal is a sister paper to The Star-Ledger of Newark, The Times of Trenton and the Staten Island Advance, all of which are owned by Advance Publications, which bought the paper in 1945. Founded by Civil War veterans William Dunning and Z. K. Pangborn, the Jersey Journal was known as the Evening Journal and was first published on May 2, 1867; the newspaper's first offices were located at 13 Exchange Place in Jersey City with a reported initial capitalization of $119. The newspaper built a new office building on 37 Montgomery Street in 1874. Editor Joseph A. Dear changed the Evening Journal to its current name in 1909; the paper relocated again, to a building at the northeast corner of Bergen and Sip avenues. This building was demolished in 1923 to make room for Journal Square, which took its name from the newspaper; the Journal made its home at 30 Journal Square for the next 90 years.
Its weekly Spanish-language publication, El Nuevo Hudson, ceased publication after the February 26, 2009 edition. In December 2012, it was announced that the newspaper would sell the building and relocate to another location in Hudson County. In August 2013, the paper announced it would move to Secaucus, which it did in January 2014; the Jersey Journal's Newspapers in Education Program, supported with an additional sponsorship, comprises three annual events and awards: the Hudson County Science Fair, the Hudson County Spelling Bee, the Everyday Heroes Awards. 1867-1909: The newspaper is published as The Evening Journal. 1909: The name is changed to The Jersey Journal. 1911: The headquarters are moved to Journal Square. 1951: The paper merges with The Jersey Observer. 2014: The paper's offices move from Jersey City to Secaucus. Official website The Jersey Journal at the Library of Congress History of the Journal "The Jersey Journal turns 150"; the Jersey Journal. May 2, 2017
New Jersey Senate
The New Jersey Senate was established as the upper house of the New Jersey Legislature by the Constitution of 1844, replacing the Legislative Council. There are 40 legislative districts, representing districts with average populations of 210,359; each district has one senator and two members of the New Jersey General Assembly, the lower house of the legislature. Prior to the election in which they are chosen, senators must be a minimum of 30 years old and a resident of the state for four years to be eligible to serve in office. From 1844 until 1965, each county was an electoral district, with each county electing one senator. Under the 1844 Constitution the term of office was three years; the 1947 Constitution changed the term to four years. Since 1968 it has consisted of 40 senators. Senators serve a two-year term at the beginning of each decade, with the rest of the decade divided into two four-year terms; the "2-4-4" cycle was put into place so that Senate elections can reflect the changes made to the district boundaries on the basis of the decennial United States Census.
If the cycle were not put into place the boundaries would sometimes be four years out of date before being used for Senate elections. Rather, with the varied term, the boundaries are only two years out of date, thus elections for Senate seats take place in years ending with a "1", "3" or "7". Interim appointments are made to fill vacant legislative seats by the county committee or committees of the party of the vacating person; the office is on the ballot for the next general election, unless the vacancy occurred within 51 days of the election. The appointment stands until the following general election. Senatorial courtesy is a senate tradition that allows home county legislators to intercede to prevent consideration of a local resident nominated by the Governor for a position that requires Senate confirmation. Any of the senators from the nominee's home county can invoke senatorial courtesy to block a nomination, temporarily or permanently, without any obligation to justify the basis of their actions.
Governor Corzine nominated Stuart Rabner on June 4, 2007, to be the next Chief Justice of the New Jersey Supreme Court, replacing James R. Zazzali, nearing mandatory retirement age. Shortly after the nomination, two members of the Senate from Essex County, where Rabner resides, blocked consideration of his confirmation by invoking senatorial courtesy. State Senator Ronald Rice had blocked the nomination, but relented on June 15, 2007, after a meeting with the governor. Nia Gill dropped her block on June 19, 2007, but did not explain the nature of her concerns, though anonymous lawmakers cited in The New York Times indicated that the objection was due to Rabner's race and Governor Corzine's failure to consider a minority candidate for the post. In June 2007, Loretta Weinberg used senatorial courtesy privileges to hold up consideration of a new term in office for Bergen County Prosecutor John Molinelli; until 2010, in the event of a gubernatorial vacancy, the New Jersey Constitution had specified that the President of the Senate would assume the role of Acting Governor and retain their role in the Senate.
An Acting Governor would assume the governorship while retaining the reins of power in their house of the legislature. The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey took office for the first time on January 19, 2010, following conjoint election with the Governor of New Jersey; the position was created as the result of a Constitutional amendment to the New Jersey State Constitution passed by the voters on November 8, 2005. While the amendment itself took effect as of January 17, 2006, made some interim changes to the succession to the governorship, the first lieutenant governor was not elected until November 3, 2009. District 1: Bob Andrzejczak District 2: Chris A. Brown District 3: Stephen M. Sweeney District 4: Fred H. Madden District 5: Nilsa Cruz-Perez District 6: James Beach District 7: Troy Singleton District 8: Dawn Marie Addiego District 9: Christopher J. Connors District 10: James W. Holzapfel District 11: Vin Gopal District 12: Samuel D. Thompson District 13: Declan O'Scanlon District 14: Linda R. Greenstein District 15: Shirley Turner District 16: Christopher Bateman District 17: Bob Smith District 18: Patrick J. Diegnan District 19: Joseph Vitale District 20: Joseph Cryan District 21: Thomas Kean, Jr. District 22: Nicholas Scutari District 23: Michael J. Doherty District 24: Steve Oroho District 25: Anthony Bucco District 26: Joseph Pennacchio District 27: Richard Codey District 28: Ronald Rice District 29: Teresa Ruiz District 30: Robert Singer District 31: Sandra Bolden Cunningham District 32: Nicholas Sacco District 33: Brian P. Stack District 34: Nia Gill District 35: Nellie Pou District 36: Paul Sarlo District 37: Loretta Weinberg District 38: Joseph Lagana District 39: Gerald Cardinale District 40: Kristin Corrado Committee chairs for the 2018-2019 Legislative Session are: Budget and Appropriations - Paul Sarlo Commerce - Nellie Pou Community and Urban Affairs - Jeff Van Drew Economic Growth - Nilsa Cruz-Perez Education - Teresa Ruiz Environment and Energy - Bob Smith Health, Human Services and Senior Citizens - Joseph Vitale Higher Education - Sandra Bolden Cunningh
New Jersey City University
New Jersey City University is a public liberal arts university in Jersey City, New Jersey. Chartered in 1927, it opened in 1929 as the New Jersey State Normal School at Jersey City. Today consists of the NJCU School of Business, College of Arts and Sciences, College of Education, College of Professional Studies, it is a member of the New Jersey Association of State Universities. New Jersey City University is a recognized and accredited university. NJCU provides education to over 8,500 students; the university's main campus is situated on a beautifully landscaped campus in a vibrant urban community located at 2039 Kennedy Boulevard Jersey City. The University's administrative center is Hepburn Hall. Designed by Guilbert and Betelle and completed in 1930, the Gothic structure serves as the symbol of the university and features in school publications as well as the university's athletic nickname; the NJCU Frank J. Guarini Library is available to students as well as staff for learning materials such as books, DVDs, CDs, computer lab, quiet study rooms and access to electronic databases.
Since the Fall 2014 semester, despite some objections by librarians, there has been a Dunkin Donuts franchise operating out of the first floor of the library. A six-story Arts and Sciences building named Karnoutsos Hall was designed by architect Michael Graves, it is known by students as the Crayola building, because of the colors which make up the building's exterior, as the K building. It is located in the center of the campus; the 77,000-square-foot building, houses 14 classrooms, 10 computer labs, faculty offices for nine departments, the Office of the Dean of Arts and Sciences. Other academic buildings include Rossey Hall, the renovated Science Building, the Professional Studies Building; the Visual Arts Building on Culver Avenue features a Maya Lin sculpture in the entrance garden area. There are renovated buildings on West Side Avenue that are part of the school, including the West Side Theatre, used for theatrical productions and community events. Another building houses the Business Development Incubator program.
NJCU is in the midst of a major expansion, which will include a new 21-acre west campus, situated between West Side Avenue and New Jersey Route 440. The first building, a student residence, opened in 2016; the new campus will include a performing arts center, student housing, a college of education, a business school. Construction has begun on the new "West Campus" between West Side Avenue and Bayfront on Route 440 that will more than double the campus's total area; the West Campus will include academic buildings, retail spaces, a University Promenade. The center of will be the Center for Music Theater Dance. and the Joffrey Ballet School. The university's Thomas M. Gerrity Athletic Complex is located less than a mile southwest of the main campus at near Droyers Point on Newark Bay. In 2017, the New York Red Bulls of Major League Soccer entered into a facility usage partnership with the University to upgrade the natural grass soccer training field at the complex to professionally approved standards.
Under the partnership and international teams will be allowed to train at the facility ahead of their matches at Red Bull Arena. Phase one of the project began in early June 2017 and involved regrading and reseeding of the training facility; the project, still ongoing, will involve overall maintenance of the training facility. In September 2015, the NJCU School of Business, a state-of-the art, custom-designed facility opened at Harborside Plaza directly on the Jersey City waterfront; the two-story facility features 18 instructional spaces, two data science centers, a simulated trading floor, an auditorium, study areas, a student lounge, a large waterfront conference center with stunning views of Lower Manhattan. The university operates four residence halls: Co-op Hall, a corridor-style facility with common area bathrooms and study lounges for freshmen and first year dorm students; the fourth is a new residence hall on the west campus. Another accommodation for students is the Knight Rider, for dorm students only.
It is accessible between 1:00 am. Between these hours students may call if they need to be taken to Pathmark and surrounding stores on Route 440, Rite Aid and surrounding stores in Danforth Plaza, Hudson Mall, the Light Rail station. Hudson Mall is home to the Hudson Applebee's restaurant. Several clubs are available for students to join, including Biology Club, Chess Club, Salsa Club. NJCU has a large population of commuter students 97% of undergraduates. There is a bus service on Kennedy Boulevard along routes 10 and 99 south to Bayonne or north to Journal Square and the Port Authority Bus Terminal. Along West Side Avenue, New Jersey Transit #80 and other local buses provide frequent service to Journal Square. At Journal Square Transportation Center transfer is available to points in Hudson County, Manhattan and suburban New Jersey via bus service provided by New Jersey Transit or train service on the PATH rail system. Hudson Bergen Light Rail is accessible at West Side Avenue to Downtown Jersey City and North Hudson and alternative PATH c
Jerramiah T. Healy is a New Jersey based politician who served as the 48th mayor of Jersey City, New Jersey serving from 2004 to 2013, he ran for the unexpired term of the late Glenn D. Cunningham and was elected in November 2004. In the special election, he defeated Acting Mayor L. Harvey Smith, he was subsequently elected to a full term by a record landslide. Healy entered public service as an assistant prosecutor for the Hudson County Prosecutor's Office in 1977. From 1981 to 1991, he maintained a private law practice in Jersey City, he was appointed Chief Judge in the Jersey City Municipal Court in 1991, was reappointed in 1995. In 1997, he ran unsuccessfully for Mayor of Jersey City against Bret Schundler, who ran for Governor of New Jersey against Jim McGreevey. Healy resumed his private law practice until 2004. Healy lost to Councilman Steven Fulop for mayor in 2013. Jerramiah Healy was the fourth of five children born to Daniel and Catherine Healy, Irish immigrants who met and married in Jersey City.
His father died. He attended St. Michael's Grammar School in Union City and Xavier High School in New York City, is a 1972 graduate of Villanova University. Healy attended Seton Hall University School of Law, supported himself as a bartender and an ironworker; the sudden death of Mayor Glenn Cunningham in May 2004 triggered a special election. Among the eleven candidates, Jerramiah Healy won Cunningham's unexpired term with 17,401 votes out of 62,641 cast. Other than the unusually high number of candidates, the election was notable for the rabidly negative nature of the campaign; the attacks included the distribution of a photo taken of Jerramiah Healy on his porch in Jersey City, passed out and naked. Healy stood for re-election in May 2005, facing only token opposition from Melissa Holloway, a former city councilperson, Alfred Marc Pine, who had received less than one percent of the votes in the special election. Healy received. Healy sought re-election in 2009, running as an agent of change and promoting his record of putting extra police on the street and reducing violent crime in Jersey City.
His critics challenged his claims during the campaign. On May 12, 2009, Healy was re-elected with nearly 53% of the vote. Six of Healy's nine running mates for city council won outright on election day, two faced runoffs on June 9 and one lost to incumbent Steven Fulop in Ward E. Healy lost his bid for another term as mayor on May 2013 to Councilman Steven Fulop. Healy claimed to have been "roughed up", arrested outside his sister's bar in Bradley Beach in 2006. Cops allege. Healy claimed, his claims were rejected by the court and he was found guilty of obstruction of justice on June 22, 2007. Healy appealed the decision while trying to portray himself as having broad public support. On July 2, 2008, Healy's appeal was denied by the state appellate court which upheld Healy's conviction. During his appeal, it was revealed. Healy filed suit against the officers in question, alleging that they violated his right to free speech. Healy was again denied. Healy had a similar charge reduced to violation of a noise ordinance on a guilty plea in August 1999.
He is a member of the Mayors Against Illegal Guns Coalition, a bi-partisan group with a stated goal of "making the public safer by getting illegal guns off the streets." The Coalition is co-chaired by former Boston Mayor Thomas Menino and former New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg. As part of his efforts at removing guns from Jersey City, Healy pushed an ordinance banning the sale of more than one handgun per month per customer; this ordinance was found unconstitutional in state superior court, an appellate court affirmed that result. However, the New Jersey government has since enacted legislation creating similar limits statewide. List of mayors of Jersey City, New Jersey Biography of Mayor Jerramiah T. Healy Jersey City Economic Development Corporation Jerramiah T. Healy Charitable Foundation Destination Jersey City
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
United States Department of Justice
The United States Department of Justice known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U. S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration; the Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives, the Drug Enforcement Administration. The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters, running the federal prison system; the department is responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet.
The current Attorney General is William Barr. The office of the Attorney General was established by the Judiciary Act of 1789 as a part-time job for one person, but grew with the bureaucracy. At one time, the Attorney General gave legal advice to the U. S. Congress as well as the President, but in 1819 the Attorney General began advising Congress alone to ensure a manageable workload; until March 3, 1853, the salary of the Attorney General was set by statute at less than the amount paid to other Cabinet members. Early Attorneys General supplemented their salaries by running private law practices arguing cases before the courts as attorneys for paying litigants. Following unsuccessful efforts to make Attorney General a full-time job, in 1869, the U. S. House Committee on the Judiciary, led by Congressman William Lawrence, conducted an inquiry into the creation of a "law department" headed by the Attorney General and composed of the various department solicitors and United States attorneys. On February 19, 1868, Lawrence introduced a bill in Congress to create the Department of Justice.
President Ulysses S. Grant signed the bill into law on June 22, 1870. Grant appointed Amos T. Akerman as Attorney General and Benjamin H. Bristow as America's first Solicitor General the same week that Congress created the Department of Justice; the Department's immediate function was to preserve civil rights. It set about fighting against domestic terrorist groups, using both violence and litigation to oppose the 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments to the Constitution. Both Akerman and Bristow used the Department of Justice to vigorously prosecute Ku Klux Klan members in the early 1870s. In the first few years of Grant's first term in office there were 1000 indictments against Klan members with over 550 convictions from the Department of Justice. By 1871, there were 3000 indictments and 600 convictions with most only serving brief sentences while the ringleaders were imprisoned for up to five years in the federal penitentiary in Albany, New York; the result was a dramatic decrease in violence in the South.
Akerman gave credit to Grant and told a friend that no one was "better" or "stronger" than Grant when it came to prosecuting terrorists. George H. Williams, who succeeded Akerman in December 1871, continued to prosecute the Klan throughout 1872 until the spring of 1873 during Grant's second term in office. Williams placed a moratorium on Klan prosecutions because the Justice Department, inundated by cases involving the Klan, did not have the manpower to continue prosecutions; the "Act to Establish the Department of Justice" drastically increased the Attorney General's responsibilities to include the supervision of all United States Attorneys under the Department of the Interior, the prosecution of all federal crimes, the representation of the United States in all court actions, barring the use of private attorneys by the federal government. The law created the office of Solicitor General to supervise and conduct government litigation in the Supreme Court of the United States. With the passage of the Interstate Commerce Act in 1887, the federal government took on some law enforcement responsibilities, the Department of Justice tasked with performing these.
In 1884, control of federal prisons was transferred to the new department, from the Department of Interior. New facilities were built, including the penitentiary at Leavenworth in 1895, a facility for women located in West Virginia, at Alderson was established in 1924. In 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued an executive order which gave the Department of Justice responsibility for the "functions of prosecuting in the courts of the United States claims and demands by, offsenses against, the Government of the United States, of defending claims and demands against the Government, of supervising the work of United States attorneys and clerks in connection therewith, now exercised by any agency or officer..." The U. S. Department of Justice building was completed in 1935 from a design by Milton Bennett Medary. Upon Medary's death in 1929, the other partners of his Philadelphia firm Zantzinger and Medary took over the project. On a lot bordered by Constitution and Pennsylvania Avenues and Ninth and Tenth Streets, Northwest, it holds over 1,000,000 square feet of space.
The sculptor C. Paul Jennewein served as overall design consultant for the entire building, contributing more than 50 separate sculptural elements inside and outside. Various efforts, none successful, have been made to determine the original intended meaning of the Latin motto appearing on the Department of Justice s