Béthune is a city in northern France, sub-prefecture of the Pas-de-Calais department. Béthune is located in the former province of Artois, it is situated 73 kilometres south-east of Calais, 33 kilometres west of Lille, 186 kilometres north of Paris. Béthune is a town rich in architectural history, it has, among other features, a large paved square with shops, cafés, a 47-metre-tall belfry standing in the center from the top of which the Belgian border can be seen. The chime of the belfry is composed of thirty-six bells. A belfry has stood on the site since 1346; the current belfry plays melodies every 15 minutes, including the ch'ti children's lullaby "min p'tit quinquin". During the War of the Spanish Succession in July-August 1710, Béthune was besieged by forces of the Grand Alliance; the town surrendered after a vigorous defence conducted by Antoine de Vauban, a relative of the famous military engineer Vauban. In 1914-1918, Béthune was an important railway junction and command centre for the British Canadian Corps and Indian Expeditionary Force, as well as the 33rd Casualty Station until December 1917.
It suffered little damage until the second phase of the Ludendorff Offensive in April 1918, when German forces reached Locon, 5 km away. On 21 May, a bombardment destroyed large parts of the town. Over 3,200 casualties are buried in Béthune Cemetery, designed by Edwin Lutyens. Rebuilt after the war, Béthune was badly damaged once more by air attacks and house to house fighting on 24-26 May 1940 when it was captured by the SS Panzer Division Totenkopf; the Totenkopf suffered heavy casualties and anger at their losses played a role in the Le Paradis massacre on 27 May, when 97 members of the Royal Norfolk Regiment were shot after surrendering. During the war, many townspeople were deported to work in Germany; the railway station has seven daily TGV trains to a journey which takes 1 hour 15 minutes. There are regular trains to Lille, Amiens and several regional destinations. By car, Béthune is accessible from the A26. By road, it is 2 hours 30 minutes from Paris, 1 hour from Calais, 30 minutes from Arras and 40 minutes from Lille.
By using the Channel Tunnel and the A26, Béthune is 3 hours 30 minutes from London and 6 hours 45 minutes from Manchester. Using road connections on mainland Europe it is nearly 2 hours from Brussels, 3 hours from Aix-La-Chapelle, 3 hours from Cologne, 8 hours 30 minutes from Berlin and 3 hours 30 minutes from Amsterdam; the inhabitants are called Béthunois. Béthune was the birthplace of: Jean Buridan, philosopher Antoine Busnois and poet of the early Renaissance Jérôme Leroy, former captain of RC Lens and current FC Sochaux midfielder in France Pierre de Manchicourt, Renaissance composer Nicolas Fauvergue, footballer Thomas Crecquillon, the Renaissance composer died here. Béthune is associated with the following historic personalities: Maximilien de Béthune, duc de Sully and statesman Conon de Béthune and trouvère poet Stade Béthunois Football Club represent Béthune and was formed in 1902, they play in Nord-Pas-de-Calais league. Béthune is twinned with: Schwerte, Germany Hastings, United Kingdom Sully-sur-Loire, France Communes of the Pas-de-Calais department INSEE commune file Béthune city council website Béthune on Heritage Towns "Histoire de Béthune"
Architectural design competition
An architectural design competition is a type of design competition in which an organization that intends on constructing a new building invites architects to submit design proposals. The winning design is chosen by an independent panel of design professionals and stakeholders; this procedure is used to generate new ideas for building design, to stimulate public debate, generate publicity for the project, allow emerging designers the opportunity to gain exposure. Architecture competitions are used to award commissions for public buildings: in some countries rules for tendering public building contracts stipulate some form of mandatory open architectural competition. Winning first prize in a competition is not a guarantee; the commissioning body has the right to veto the winning design, both requirements and finances may change, thwarting the original intention. The 2002 World Trade Center site design competition is an example of a publicized competition where only the basic elements of the winning design by Daniel Libeskind appeared in the finished project.
Architecture competitions have a more than 2,500-year-old history. The Acropolis in Athens was a result of an architectural competition in 448 B. C. as were several cathedrals in the Middle Ages. During the Renaissance, many projects initiated by the church have been decided through design competition. Examples are the Spanish Stairs in Rome or in 1419, a competition was held to design the dome of the Florence Cathedral, won by Filippo Brunelleschi. Open competitions were held in the late 18th century in several countries including the United States, Great Britain, Ireland and Sweden. In 19th century England and Ireland there have been over 2,500 competitions in five decades, with 362 in London alone; the Institute of British Architects drafted a first set of rules in 1839, a set of formal regulations in 1872. The German Regulations were introduced in 1867. In the same period in the Netherlands, an association for the advancement of architecture, started organising conceptual competitions with the aim of stimulating architects' creativity.
There are a variety of competition types resulting from the combination of following options: Open competitions or limited, non-open competitions, depending on, allowed to participate. Project competitions or ideas competitions: depending on the intention of building the project or generating new ideas. Single-stage or two-stage competitions: depending on the scale and complexity of the competition. Anonymous or cooperative procedures: anonymity supports greater objectivity during the evaluation and award-granting deliberations. In cooperative procedures, the authors are invited to make in-person presentations to the jury in order to explain their design strategies and allow individual discussion. Student design competitions; the rules of each competition are defined by the organiser. Competition guidelines define roles, responsibilities and procedures within a competition and provide guidance on possible competition types, eligibility criteria, jury composition, participation conditions, prizes, publication of results and other aspects.
In France and Germany design competitions are compulsory for all public buildings exceeding a certain cost. Most significant among architectural competitions are the ones which are internationally open, attract a large number of design submissions, the winning design is built. Architectural design values Student competition Student design competition Andersson E. Bloxham Zettersten, G. und Rönn, M. Architectural Competitions - Histories and Practice. Stockholm: The Royal Institute of Technology and Rio Kulturkooperativ, 2013. ISBN 978-91-85249-16-9 Chupin, Jean-Pierre, Carmela Cucuzzella and Bechara Helal Architecture Competitions and the Production of Culture and Knowledge: An International Inquiry, Montreal: Potential Architecture Books, 2015, ISBN 978-0-9921317-0-8 Collyer, G. Stanley, Competing Globally in Architecture Competitions, Wiley Academy, 2004, ISBN 0470-86-2130 De Jong and Mattie, Erik: Architectural Competitions 1792-1949, Taschen, 1997, ISBN 3-8228-8599-1 Architectural Competition - Nordic Symposium Canadian Competitions Catalogue DesignCompetition.com, list of design competitions DCC Directory of Architecture and Design Competitions, Awards and Design Residencies.
List of 1500 architecture and design competitions CABE: Making Competitions Work RIBA Competitions, the Royal Institute of British Architects dedicated RIBA Competitions unit Wettbewerbe Aktuell, a German journal specialized in architectural competitions Handbook of Architectural Design Competitions, American Institute of Architects The Competition Project, Inc. a world-wide resource on competitions since 1990 with the periodical publication, COMPETITIONS and COMPETITIONS Annual
Dunkirk, is a commune in Nord, a French department in northern France. It is the most northern city of France, it has the third-largest French harbour. The population of the commune at the 2016 census was 91,412; the name of Dunkirk derives from West Flemish dun'dune' or'dun' and kerke'church', which together means'church in the dunes'. Until the middle of the 20th century, the city was situated in the French Flemish area. Today Dunkirk is the world's northernmost Francophone city. A fishing village arose late in the tenth century, in the flooded coastal area of the English Channel south of the Western Scheldt, when the area was held by the Counts of Flanders, vassals of the French Crown. About 960AD, Count Baldwin III had a town wall erected in order to protect the settlement against Viking raids; the surrounding wetlands were cultivated by the monks of nearby Bergues Abbey. The name Dunkirka was first mentioned in a tithe privilege of 27 May 1067, issued by Count Baldwin V of Flanders. Count Philip I brought further large tracts of marshland under cultivation, laid out the first plans to build a Canal from Dunkirk to Bergues and vested the Dunkirkers with market rights.
In the late 13th century, when the Dampierre count Guy of Flanders entered into the Franco-Flemish War with his suzerain King Philippe IV of France, the citizens of Dunkirk sided with the French against their count, who at first was defeated at the 1297 Battle of Furnes, but reached de facto autonomy upon the victorious Battle of the Golden Spurs five years and exacted vengeance. Guy's son, Count Robert III granted further city rights to Dunkirk. Count Louis remained a loyal liensman of the French king upon the outbreak of the Hundred Years' War with England in 1337, prohibited the maritime trade, which led to another revolt by the Dunkirk citizens. After the count had been killed in the 1346 Battle of Crécy, his son and successor Count Louis II of Flanders signed a truce with the English. However, in the course of the Western Schism from 1378, English supporters of Pope Urban VI disembarked at Dunkirk, captured the city and flooded the surrounding estates, they left great devastations in and around the town.
Upon the extinction of the Counts of Flanders with the death of Louis II in 1384, Flanders was acquired by the Burgundian, Duke Philip the Bold. The fortifications were again enlarged, including the construction of a belfry daymark; as a strategic point, Dunkirk has always been exposed to political covetousness, by Duke Robert I of Bar in 1395, by Louis de Luxembourg in 1435 and by the Austrian archduke Maximilian I of Habsburg, who in 1477 married Mary of Burgundy, sole heiress of late Duke Charles the Bold. As Maximilian was the son of Emperor Frederick III, all Flanders was seized by King Louis XI of France. However, the archduke defeated the French troops in 1479 at the Battle of Guinegate; when Mary died in 1482, Maximilian retained Flanders according to the terms of the 1482 Treaty of Arras. Dunkirk, along with the rest of Flanders, was incorporated into the Habsburg Netherlands and upon the 1581 secession of the Seven United Netherlands, remained part of the Southern Netherlands, which were held by Habsburg Spain as Imperial fiefs.
The area remained much disputed between the Kingdom of Spain, the United Netherlands, the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of France. At the beginning of the Eighty Years' War, Dunkirk was in the hands of the Dutch rebels, from 1577. Spanish forces under Duke Alexander Farnese of Parma re-established Spanish rule in 1583 and it became a base for the notorious Dunkirkers; the Dunkirkers lost their home port when the city was conquered by the French in 1646 but Spanish forces recaptured the city in 1652. In 1658, as a result of the long war between France and Spain, it was captured after a siege by Franco-English forces following the battle of the Dunes; the city along with Fort-Mardyck was awarded to England in the peace the following year as agreed in the Franco-English alliance against Spain. The English governors were Sir Edward Harley and Lord Rutherford, it came under French rule when King Charles II of England sold it to France for £320,000 on 17 October 1662. The French government developed the town as a fortified port.
The town's existing defences were adapted to create ten bastions. The port was expanded in the 1670s by the construction of a basin that could hold up to thirty warships with a double lock system to maintain water levels at low tide; the basin was linked to the sea by a channel. This work was completed by 1678; the jetties were defended a few years by the construction of five forts, Château d'Espérance, Château Vert, Grand Risban, Château Gaillard, Fort de Revers. An additional fort was built in 1701 called Fort Blanc; the jetties, their forts, the port facilities were demolished in 1713 under the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht. During
French Flanders is a part of the historical County of Flanders in present-day France where Flemings were traditionally the dominant ethnic group and where a dialect of Dutch was or still is traditionally spoken. The region lies in the modern-day region of Hauts-de-France and corresponds to the arrondissements of Lille and Dunkirk on the southern border with Belgium. Together with French Hainaut and the Cambrésis, it makes up the French Department of Nord. French Flanders is flat marshlands in the coal-rich area just south of the North Sea, it consists of two regions: French Westhoek to the northwest, lying between the Lys River and the North Sea the same area as the Arrondissement of Dunkirk. Once a part of ancient and medieval Francia since the inception of the Frankish kingdom under the Merovingian monarchs such as Clovis I, crowned at Tournai, Flanders fell under the control of the English and Spanish, becoming part of the Spanish Netherlands and retained by Spain at the end of the Eighty Years' War.
When French national military power returned under the Bourbons with King Louis XIV "The Sun King", a part of French Flanders was returned to the Kingdom. The region now called "French Flanders" was once part of the feudal state County of Flanders part of the Southern Netherlands, it was separated from the county in 1659 due to the Peace of the Pyrenees, which ended the French-Spanish conflict in the Thirty Years War, other parts of the region were added in successive treaties in 1668 and 1678. The region was ceded to the Kingdom of France, became part of the province of Flanders and Hainaut; the bulk became part of the modern French administrative Nord departément, although some western parts of the region, which separated in 1237 and became the County of Artois before the cession to the French, are now part of Pas-de-Calais. During World War II,'French Flanders' referred to all of Nord-Pas de Calais, first attached to the military administration of German-occupied Belgium part of "Belgien-Nordfrankreich" under a Reichskommissar, part of a theoretical Reichsgau of Flanders.
Rich in coal, facing the North Sea, bordered by powerful neighbors, French Flanders has been fought over numerous times in the thousand years between the Middle Ages and World War II. The traditional language of northern French Flanders, related to the Dutch language, is known as West Flemish a subdialect known as French Flemish, spoken by around 20,000 daily speakers and 40,000 occasional users; the traditional language of Walloon Flanders, is Picard. Many schools in this region teach Flemish to schoolchildren in an effort to revive the language. In 2008, the success of the movie Bienvenue chez les Ch'tis illuminated this part of France to a wide audience. Walloon Flanders Burgundian Netherlands Frisians Greater Netherlands Seventeen Provinces Wallonia Nouveau Petit Larousse Illustré, 1952. French Flanders Ethnologue Report for West Flemish Flemish in France The Extent of Flemish in France in 1970, contains language maps
École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts
The École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts is a fine arts grand school of PSL Research University in Paris, France. The École des Beaux-Arts is made up of a complex of buildings located at 14 rue Bonaparte, between the quai Malaquais and the rue Bonaparte; this is in the heart of Saint-Germain-des-Prés, just across the Seine from the Louvre museum. The school was founded in 1648 by Charles Le Brun as the famed French academy Académie de peinture et de sculpture. In 1793, at the height of the French Revolution, the institutes were suppressed. However, in 1816, following the Bourbon Restoration, it was revived under a changed name after merging with the Académie d'architecture. Held under the King's tutelage until 1863, an imperial decree on November 13, 1863 named the school's director, who serves for a five-year term. Long supervised by the Ministry of Public Instruction, the École des Beaux-Arts is now a public establishment; the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris is the original of a series of Écoles des Beaux-Arts in French regional centers.
Since its founding in 1648, the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture has had a school, France's elite institution of instruction in the arts. Its program was structured around a series of anonymous competitions that culminated in the grand prix de l'Académie Royale, more familiar as the Grand Prix de Rome, for its winner was awarded a bourse and a place at the French Academy in Rome. During his stay in Rome, a pensionnaire was expected to send regular envois of his developing work back to Paris. Contestants for the Prix were assigned a theme from the literature of Classical Antiquity. With his final admission into the Académie, the new member had to present his fellow academicians a morceau de réception, a painting or sculpture that demonstrated his learning and proficiency in his art. Jacques-Louis David's Andromache Mourning Hector was his reception offering in 1783. In 1793, during the French Revolution, the Académie Royale and the grand prix de l'Académie Royale were abolished, but only a few years in 1797, the Prix de Rome was re-established.
Each year throughout the nineteenth century, the winner of the Prix de Rome was granted five years of study at the Villa Medici, after which the painter or sculptor could expect to embark on a successful official career. The program resulted in the accumulation of some great collections at the Académie, one of the finest collections of French drawings, many of them sent as envoies from Rome, as well as the paintings and sculptures the winners, of the competitions, or salons. Lesser competitions, known as the petits concours, took themes like history composition, expressions of the emotions, full and half-figure painting. In its role as a teaching institution, the École assembled a large collection of Italian and French etchings and engravings, dating from the 16th through the 18th century; such prints published the composition of paintings to a wide audience. The print collection was first made available to students outside the Académie in 1864. Today, studies include: painting, graphic arts, sculpture, digital media and video.
ENSBA provides the highest level of training in contemporary art production. Throughout history, many world-renowned artists have either studied at this institution; the faculty is made up of recognized international artists. Theoretical courses permitting diverse approaches to the history of the arts complement studio work, supported by technical training and access to technical bases; the ENSBA media center provides students with rich documentation on art, organizes conferences and debates throughout the year. The School buildings have architectural interest and house prestigious historical collections and an extensive fine arts library; the school publishes a dozen texts per year on different collections, holds exhibitions ranging from the school's excellent collection of old-master drawings to the most up to date contemporary works, in the Quai Malaquais space and the Chapel throughout the year. The school owns circa 450,000 items divided between artworks and historical books, making it one of the largest public art collections in France.
The collection encompasses many types of artistic productions, from painting and sculpture to etching, furniture or decorated books and from all the periods of art history. Many pieces of the collection are artworks created by students of the School throughout its history but former students and scholars contributed to enlarge the holdings with many gifts and donations to the institution; the collection consists in approximatively 2,000 paintings, 600 pieces of decorative arts, 600 architectural elements, nearly 15,000 medals, 3,700 sculptures, 20,000 drawings including works by Paolo Veronese, Jacques Bellange, Charles Le Brun, Nicolas Poussin, Claude Gellée, Dürer, Ingres, François Boucher or Pierre Alechinsky, 45,000 architectural drawings, 100,000 etchings and engravings, 70,000 photographs, 65,000 books dating from the 15th to the 20th century, 1,000 handwritten pieces of archive and 390 important fragments or complete illuminated manuscripts. The physical setting of the school stands on about two hectares in the Saint-Germain-des-Prés section of Paris.
The main entrance at 14 Rue Bonaparte is flanked by co
The Hague is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland. It is the seat of government of the Netherlands. With a metropolitan population of more than 1 million, it is the third-largest city in the Netherlands, after Amsterdam and Rotterdam; the Rotterdam–The Hague metropolitan area, with a population of 2.7 million, is the 13th-largest in the European Union and the most populous in the country. Located in the west of the Netherlands, The Hague is in the centre of the Haaglanden conurbation and lies at the southwest corner of the larger Randstad conurbation; the Hague is the seat of the Cabinet, the States General, the Supreme Court, the Council of State of the Netherlands, but the city is not the constitutional capital of the Netherlands, Amsterdam. King Willem-Alexander lives in Huis ten Bosch and works at the Noordeinde Palace in The Hague, together with Queen Máxima; the Hague is home to the world headquarters of Royal Dutch Shell and other Dutch companies.
Most foreign embassies in the Netherlands and 200 international governmental organisations are located in the city, including the International Court of Justice and the International Criminal Court, which makes The Hague one of the major cities hosting a United Nations institution along with New York City, Vienna and Nairobi. Because of this, The Hague is known as the home of international law and arbitration; the Hague was first mentioned as Die Haghe in 1242. In the 15th century, the name des Graven hage came into use "The Count's Wood", with connotations like "The Count's Hedge, Private Enclosure or Hunting Grounds". "'s Gravenhage" was used for the city from the 17th century onward. Today, this name is only used in some official documents like marriage certificates; the city itself uses "Den Haag" in all its communications. Little is known about the origin of The Hague. There are no contemporary documents describing it, sources are of dubious reliability. What is certain is that The Hague was founded by the last counts of the House of Holland.
Floris IV owned two residences in the area, but purchased a third court situated by the present-day Hofvijver in 1229 owned by a woman called Meilendis. Floris IV intended to rebuild the court into a large castle, but he died in a tournament in 1234, before anything was built, his son and successor William II lived in the court, after he was elected King of the Romans in 1248, he promptly returned to The Hague, had builders turn the court into a "royal palace", which would be called the Binnenhof. He died in 1256 before this palace was completed but parts of it were finished during the reign of his son Floris V, of which the Ridderzaal, still intact, is the most prominent, it is still used for political events, such as the annual speech from the throne by the Dutch monarch. From the 13th century onward, the counts of Holland used The Hague as their administrative center and residence when in Holland; the village that originated around the Binnenhof was first mentioned as Die Haghe in a charter dating from 1242.
It became the primary residence of the Counts of Holland in 1358, thus became the seat of many government institutions. This status allowed the village to grow. In its early years, the village was located in the ambacht, or rural district, of Monster, governed by the Lord of Monster. Seeking to exercise more direct control over the village, the Count split the village off and created a separate ambacht called Haagambacht, governed directly by the Counts of Holland; the territory of Haagambacht was expanded during the reign of Floris V. When the House of Burgundy inherited the counties of Holland and Zeeland in 1432, they appointed a stadtholder to rule in their stead with the States of Holland and West Friesland as an advisory council. Although their seat was located in The Hague, the city became subordinate to more important centres of government such as Brussels and Mechelen, from where the sovereigns ruled over the centralised Burgundian Netherlands. At the beginning of the Eighty Years' War, the absence of city walls proved disastrous, as it allowed Spanish troops to occupy the town.
In 1575, the States of Holland, temporarily based in Delft considered demolishing the city but this proposal was abandoned, after mediation by William the Silent. In 1588, The Hague became the permanent seat of the States of Holland as well as the States General of the Dutch Republic. In order for the administration to maintain control over city matters, The Hague never received official city status, although it did have many of the privileges granted only to cities. In modern administrative law, "city rights" have no place anymore. Only in 1806, when the Kingdom of Holland was a puppet state of the First French Empire, was the settlement granted city rights by Louis Bonaparte. After the Napoleonic Wars, modern-day Belgium and the Netherlands were combined in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands to form a buffer against France; as a compromise and Amsterdam alternated as capital every two years, with the government remaining in The Hague. After the separation of Belgium in 1830, Amsterdam remained the capital of the Netherlands, while the government was situated in The Hague.
When the government started to play a more prominent role in Dutch society after 1850, The Hague expanded. Many streets were built for the large number of civil se