University of Strasbourg
The University of Strasbourg in Strasbourg, France, is a university in France with nearly 51,000 students and over 3,200 researchers. The French university traces its history to the earlier German-language Universität Straßburg, founded in 1538, was divided in the 1970s into three separate institutions: Louis Pasteur University, Marc Bloch University, Robert Schuman University. On 1 January 2009, the fusion of these three universities reconstituted a united University of Strasbourg. With as many as 19 Nobel laureates, the university is now ranked among the best in the League of European Research Universities; the university emerged from a Lutheran humanist German Gymnasium, founded in 1538 by Johannes Sturm in the Free Imperial City of Strassburg. It was transformed to a university in 1621 and elevated to the ranks of a royal university in 1631. Among its earliest university students was Johann Scheffler who studied medicine and converted to Catholicism and became the mystic and poet Angelus Silesius.
The Lutheran German university still persisted after the annexation of the City by King Louis XIV in 1681, but turned into a French speaking university during the French Revolution. The university was refounded as the German Kaiser-Wilhelm-Universität in 1872, after the Franco-Prussian war and the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany provoked a westwards exodus of Francophone teachers. During the German Empire the university was expanded and numerous new buildings were erected because the university was intended to be a showcase of German against French culture in Alsace. In 1918, Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France, so a reverse exodus of Germanophone teachers took place. During the Second World War, when France was occupied and equipment of the University of Strasbourg were transferred to Clermont-Ferrand. In its place, the short-lived German Reichsuniversität Straßburg was created. In 1971, the university was subdivided into three separate institutions: Louis Pasteur University Marc Bloch University Robert Schuman University These were, reunited in 2009, were able to be among the first twenty French universities to gain greater autonomy.
The university campus covers a vast part near the center of the city, located between the "Cité Administrative", "Esplanade" and "Gallia" bus-tram stations. Modern architectural buildings include: Escarpe, the Doctoral College of Strasbourg, Pangloss, PEGE and others; the student residence building for the Doctoral College of Strasbourg was designed by London-based Nicholas Hare Architects in 2007. The structures are depicted on the main inner wall of the Esplanade university restaurant, accompanied by the names of their architects and years of establishment; the administrative organisms, attached to the university, are located in the "Agora" building. Karl Ferdinand Braun Paul Ehrlich Hermann Emil Fischer Jules Hoffmann Albrecht Kossel Martin Karplus Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran Jean-Marie Lehn Otto Loewi Otto Fritz Meyerhof Louis Néel Wilhelm Röntgen Albert Schweitzer Hermann Staudinger Adolf von Baeyer Max von Laue Pieter Zeeman Jean-Pierre Sauvage Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire Jardin botanique de l'Université de Strasbourg List of early modern universities in Europe Observatory of Strasbourg On the Poverty of Student Life Musée de minéralogie Musée zoologique de la ville de Strasbourg Reichsuniversität Straßburg University of Strasbourg The Art and Science collections of the University of Strasbourg
Hermann Staudinger was a German organic chemist who demonstrated the existence of macromolecules, which he characterized as polymers. For this work he received the 1953 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, he is known for his discovery of ketenes and of the Staudinger reaction. Staudinger, together with Leopold Ružička elucidated the molecular structures of pyrethrin I and II in the 1920s, enabling the development of pyrethroid insecticides in the 1960s and 1970s. Staudinger was born in 1881 in Worms. After receiving his Ph. D. from the University of Halle in 1903, Staudinger qualified as an academic lecturer at the University of Strasbourg in 1907. It was here that he discovered the ketenes, a family of molecules characterized by the general form depicted in Figure 1. Ketenes would prove a synthetically important intermediate for the production of yet-to-be-discovered antibiotics such as penicillin and amoxicillin. In 1907, Staudinger began an assistant professorship at the Technical University of Karlsruhe.
Here, he isolated a number of useful organic compounds as more reviewed by Rolf Mülhaupt. In 1912, Staudinger took on a new position at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland. One of his earliest discoveries came in 1919, when he and colleague Meyer reported that azides react with triphenylphosphine to form phosphazide; this reaction – referred to as the Staudinger reaction – produces a high phosphazide yield. While at Karlsruhe and Zurich, Staudinger began research in the chemistry of rubber, for which high molecular weights had been measured by the physical methods of Raoult and van't Hoff. Contrary to prevailing ideas, Staudinger proposed in a landmark paper published in 1920 that rubber and other polymers such as starch and proteins are long chains of short repeating molecular units linked by covalent bonds. In other words, polymers are like chains of paper clips, made up of small constituent parts linked from end to end. At the time leading organic chemists such as Emil Fischer and Heinrich Wieland believed that the measured high molecular weights were only apparent values caused by the aggregation of small molecules into colloids.
At first the majority of Staudinger’s colleagues refused to accept the possibility that small molecules could link together covalently to form high-molecular weight compounds. As Mülhaupt aptly notes, this is due in part to the fact that molecular structure and bonding theory were not understood in the early 20th century. In 1926 he was appointed lecturer of chemistry at the University of Freiburg at Freiburg im Breisgau, where he spent the rest of his career. In 1927, he married the Latvian botanist, Magda Voita (also shown as, a collaborator with him until his death and whose contributions he acknowledged in his Nobel Prize acceptance. Further evidence to support his polymer hypothesis emerged in the 1930s. High molecular weights of polymers were confirmed by membrane osmometry, by Staudinger’s measurements of viscosity in solution; the X-ray diffraction studies of polymers by Herman Mark provided direct evidence for long chains of repeating molecular units. And the synthetic work led by Carothers demonstrated that polymers such as nylon and polyester could be prepared by well-understood organic reactions.
His theory opened up the subject to further development, helped place polymer science on a sound basis. Staudinger’s groundbreaking elucidation of the nature of the high-molecular weight compounds he termed Makromoleküle paved the way for the birth of the field of polymer chemistry. Staudinger himself saw the potential for this science long before it was realized. “It is not improbable,” Staudinger smartly commented in 1936, “that sooner or a way will be discovered to prepare artificial fibers from synthetic high-molecular products, because the strength and elasticity of natural fibers depend on their macro-molecular structure – i.e. on their long thread-shaped molecules.” Staudinger founded the first polymer chemistry journal in 1940, in 1953 received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for “his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry.” In 1999, the American Chemical Society and Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker designated Staudinger's work as an International Historic Chemical Landmark.
His pioneering research has afforded the world myriad plastics and other polymeric materials which make consumer products more affordable and fun, while helping engineers develop lighter and more durable structures. Heidegger and Nazism: denounced or demoted non-Nazis Polymer science Helmut Ringsdorf. "Hermann Staudinger and the Future of Polymer Research Jubilees – Beloved Occasions for Cultural Piety". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 43: 1064–1076. Doi:10.1002/anie.200330071. PMID 14983439. Heinrich Hopff. "Hermann Staudinger 1881–1965". Chemische Berichte. 102: XLI. doi:10.1002/cber.19691020502. Ogilvie, Marilyn Bailey; the Biographical Dictionary of Women in Science: L-Z. New York, New York: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-92040-7. Works by or about Hermann Staudinger at Internet Archive Staudinger's Nobel Foundation biography Staudinger's Nobel Lecture Macromolecular Chemistry
University of Milan
The University of Milan, known colloquially as UniMi or Statale, is a higher education institution in Milan, Italy. It is one of the largest universities in Europe, with about 60,000 students, a permanent teaching and research staff of about 2,000; the University of Milan has 9 schools and offers 134 undergraduate and graduate courses, 21 Doctoral Schools and 92 Specialization Schools. The University's research and teaching activities have developed over the years and have received important international recognitions; the University is the only Italian member of the League of European Research Universities, a group of twenty-one research-intensive European Universities. It ranks one of the best universities of Italy, both overall and in specific subject areas. One Nobel Prize in Physics, Riccardo Giacconi, as well as one Fields medalist, Enrico Bombieri, studied at the University; the University of Milan is the only Italian member of the League of European Research Universities, a group of twenty-one research-intensive European Universities, which it helped found.
The university ranks as Italy's best university in a number of areas. In the most recent ranking of Italian universities released by ANVUR in February 2017, Statale ranked first among Italian universities in the areas of political science, sociology and philosophy, it ranked among the top three in economics and statistics, earth science and antiquities. The university is ranked third in Italy by Center for World University Rankings and fourth in the Webometrics Ranking of World Universities, it is ranked first in Italy by the Academic Ranking of World Universities while the Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranks it 6th to 9th. The University of Milan was founded in 1924 from the merger of two institutions that boasted a great tradition of medical and humanistic studies: the Accademia Scientifico-Letteraria, active since 1861, the Istituti Clinici di Perfezionamento, established in 1906. By 1928, the University had the fourth-highest number of enrolled students in Italy, after Naples and Padua.
Its premises are located in Città Studi, the university district built from 1915 onwards, where scientific schools have its headquarters, in several buildings in the historic city centre, which house the humanities schools. At the time of its foundation, there were four "traditional" schools – Law, Humanities and Mathematical, Physical and Natural Sciences. At the end of the Second World War, the old Ospedale dei Poveri building, known as "la Cà Granda", was assigned to the University; the building, one of the first Italian examples of civil architecture – commissioned in the 15th century by the Sforza family, the dukes of Milan – was damaged by the bombings of 1943. In 1958, after a complex series of reconstruction and renovation works, it became home to the University Rector's Office, the administrative offices and the schools of Law and Humanities. In the 1960s, due to the extension of compulsory school attendance and the subsequent liberalisation of access to higher education, the number of people entering Italian universities progressively increased and the University of Milan enrolled more than 60,000 students.
The University added at the same time increased its number of centres. Two new schools were established and Social and Political Sciences, which were based in Città Studi and in Via Conservatorio, in Milan city centre. Città Studi was the site of a new complex, intended for the biology departments, the work of architect Vico Magistretti. There was an increase in the number of agreements with the city's hospital facilities, where students from the School of Medicine receive their clinical training. In 1968, the University was occupying 127,000 m2. In 1989 there were 22 degree courses and 75,000 enrolled students, which increased to 90,000 by 1993. In view of this increase, the University began a process of streamlining and delocalising its facilities: from 1986 onwards, new centres began to appear in other areas of Milan in the Bicocca district, as well as in other parts of the region: in Como, Varese and Lodi. In 1998, the University split in two and the city's second public institution was founded: The University of Milan-Bicocca.
The University of Insubria was established in Varese, bringing together courses that were offered at Varese and Como by the Universities of Milan and Pavia. At the conclusion of this process, notwithstanding the reduction in the number of students, the University of Milan was still the largest institution in Lombardy and still one of the largest in the country; the 2001 law that transformed the education system opened a new phase of change. The University updated its range of courses, trying to adapt them to better suit the evolution of the social demand for education and the innovation of the production system: thus, the number of degree courses rose to 74 and there was a new increase in enrolments. There was an increase in the University's commitment to providing student services and in invest
University of Freiburg
The University of Freiburg the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg, is a public research university located in Freiburg im Breisgau, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. The university was founded in 1457 by the Habsburg dynasty as the second university in Austrian-Habsburg territory after the University of Vienna. Today, Freiburg is the fifth-oldest university in Germany, with a long tradition of teaching the humanities, social sciences and natural sciences; the university is made up of 11 faculties and attracts students from across Germany as well as from over 120 other countries. Foreign students constitute about 18.2% of total student numbers. Named as one of elite universities of Germany by academics, political representatives and the media, the University of Freiburg stands amongst Europe's top research and teaching institutions; the University of Freiburg has been associated with figures such as Martin Heidegger, Hannah Arendt, Rudolf Carnap, David Daube, Johann Eck, Hans-Georg Gadamer, Friedrich Hayek, Edmund Husserl, Friedrich Meinecke, Max Weber, Paul Uhlenhuth and Ernst Zermelo.
As of October 2018, 21 Nobel laureates are affiliated with the University of Freiburg as alumni, faculty or researchers, 15 academics have been honored with the highest German research prize, the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize, while working at the university. Albrechts University, the university started with four faculties, its establishment belongs to the second wave of German university foundings in the late Middle Ages, like the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen and the University of Basel. Established by papal privilege, the University in Freiburg was – like all or most universities in the Middle Ages – a corporation of the church body and therefore belonged to the Roman Catholic Church and its hierarchy; the bishop of Basel was its provost or chancellor, the bishop of Constance was its patron, the real founder of the university was the sovereign, Archduke Albert VI of Austria, being the brother of Frederick III, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. At its founding, the university was named after Albert VI of Austria.
He provided the university with land and endowments, as well as its own jurisdiction. He declared Albrechts University as the "county university" for his territory until it was handed over to the Austrian House of Habsburg in 1490; the university soon attracted many students, such as the humanists Geiler von Kaysersberg, Johann Reuchlin, Jakob Wimpfeling. When Ulrich Zasius was teaching law, Freiburg became a centre of humanist jurisprudence. From 1529 to 1535, Erasmus of Rotterdam taught in Freiburg. From around 1559 on, the university was housed at the Altes Collegium, today called the "new town-hall"; the importance of the university decreased during the time of the Counter-Reformation. To counter reformatory tendencies, the administration of two faculties was handed over to the Roman Catholic order of the Jesuits in 1620. From 1682 on, the Jesuits built their college, as well as the Jesuit church. In 1679, Freiburg temporarily became French territory, along with the southern parts of the upper Rhine.
French King Louis XIV disliked the Austrian system and gave the Jesuits a free hand to operate the university. On November 6, 1684, a bilingual educational program was initiated. From 1686 to 1698, the faculty fled to Konstanz. After Freiburg was re-conquered and appointed as capital of Further Austria, a new time began for the university by the reforms of Empress Maria Theresa of Austria; the requirements for admission were changed for all faculties in 1767 and Natural Sciences were added as well as Public Administration. In 1767, the university became a governmental institution despite the Church's protests; the Church lost its predominant influence on the university when the Jesuits were suppressed following a decree signed by Pope Clement XIV in 1773. Johann Georg Jacobi in 1784 was the first Protestant professor teaching at the university in Freiburg; when Freiburg became a part of the newly established Grand Duchy of Baden in 1805, a crisis began for the university in Freiburg. Indeed, there were considerations by Karl Friedrich, Grand Duke of Baden and Karl, Grand Duke of Baden to close down the university in Freiburg while both of them thought that the Grand Duchy could not afford to run two universities at the same time.
The university had enough endowments and earnings to survive until the beginning of the regency of Ludwig I, Grand Duke of Baden in 1818. In 1820, he saved the university with an annual contribution. Since the university has been named Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg as an acknowledgement of gratitude by the university and the citizens of Freiburg. In the 1880s, the population of the student body and faculty started to grow quickly; the scientific reputation of Albert Ludwigs University attracted several researchers such as economist Adolph Wagner, historians Georg von Below and Friedrich Meinecke, jurists Karl von Amira and Paul Lenel. In 1900, Freiburg became the first German university to accept female students. In the beginning of the 20th century, several new university buildings were built in the centre of Freiburg, such as the new
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation. Mechanisms such as peer review and repeatability of findings are used to try to ensure the validity of scientific advances. Natural science can be divided into two main branches: physical science. Physical science is subdivided into branches, including physics, chemistry and earth science; these branches of natural science may be further divided into more specialized branches. In Western society's analytic tradition, the empirical sciences and natural sciences use tools from formal sciences, such as mathematics and logic, converting information about nature into measurements which can be explained as clear statements of the "laws of nature"; the social sciences use such methods, but rely more on qualitative research, so that they are sometimes called "soft science", whereas natural sciences, insofar as they emphasize quantifiable data produced and confirmed through the scientific method, are sometimes called "hard science".
Modern natural science succeeded more classical approaches to natural philosophy traced to ancient Greece. Galileo, Descartes and Newton debated the benefits of using approaches which were more mathematical and more experimental in a methodical way. Still, philosophical perspectives and presuppositions overlooked, remain necessary in natural science. Systematic data collection, including discovery science, succeeded natural history, which emerged in the 16th century by describing and classifying plants, minerals, so on. Today, "natural history" suggests observational descriptions aimed at popular audiences. Philosophers of science have suggested a number of criteria, including Karl Popper's controversial falsifiability criterion, to help them differentiate scientific endeavors from non-scientific ones. Validity and quality control, such as peer review and repeatability of findings, are amongst the most respected criteria in the present-day global scientific community; this field encompasses a set of disciplines.
The scale of study can range from sub-component biophysics up to complex ecologies. Biology is concerned with the characteristics and behaviors of organisms, as well as how species were formed and their interactions with each other and the environment; the biological fields of botany and medicine date back to early periods of civilization, while microbiology was introduced in the 17th century with the invention of the microscope. However, it was not until the 19th century. Once scientists discovered commonalities between all living things, it was decided they were best studied as a whole; some key developments in biology were the discovery of genetics. Modern biology is divided into subdisciplines by the type of organism and by the scale being studied. Molecular biology is the study of the fundamental chemistry of life, while cellular biology is the examination of the cell. At a higher level and physiology look at the internal structures, their functions, of an organism, while ecology looks at how various organisms interrelate.
Constituting the scientific study of matter at the atomic and molecular scale, chemistry deals with collections of atoms, such as gases, molecules and metals. The composition, statistical properties and reactions of these materials are studied. Chemistry involves understanding the properties and interactions of individual atoms and molecules for use in larger-scale applications. Most chemical processes can be studied directly in a laboratory, using a series of techniques for manipulating materials, as well as an understanding of the underlying processes. Chemistry is called "the central science" because of its role in connecting the other natural sciences. Early experiments in chemistry had their roots in the system of Alchemy, a set of beliefs combining mysticism with physical experiments; the science of chemistry began to develop with the work of Robert Boyle, the discoverer of gas, Antoine Lavoisier, who developed the theory of the Conservation of mass. The discovery of the chemical elements and atomic theory began to systematize this science, researchers developed a fundamental understanding of states of matter, chemical bonds and chemical reactions.
The success of this science led to a complementary chemical industry that now plays a significant role in the world economy. Physics embodies the study of the fundamental constituents of the universe, the forces and interactions they exert on one another, the results produced by these interactions. In general, physics is regarded as the fundamental science, because all other natural sciences use and obey the principles and laws set down by the field. Physics relies on mathematics as the logical framework for formulation and quantification of principles; the study of the principles of the universe has a long history and derives from direct observation and experimentation. The formulation of theories about the governing laws of the universe has been central to the study of physics from early on, with philosophy yielding to systematic, quantitative experimental testing and observation as the source of verification. Key historical developments in physics include Isaac Newton's theory of universal g
University of Amsterdam
The University of Amsterdam is a public university located in Amsterdam, Netherlands. The UvA is one of two large, publicly funded research universities in the city, the other being the VU University Amsterdam. Established in 1632 by municipal authorities and renamed for the city of Amsterdam, the University of Amsterdam is the third-oldest university in the Netherlands, it is one of the largest research universities in Europe with 31,186 students, 4,794 staff, 1,340 PhD students and an annual budget of €600 million. It is the largest university in the Netherlands by enrollment; the main campus is located with a few faculties located in adjacent boroughs. The university is organised into seven faculties: Humanities and Behavioural Sciences and Business, Law and Dentistry; the University of Amsterdam has produced six Nobel Laureates and five prime ministers of the Netherlands. In 2014, it was ranked 50th in the world, 15th in Europe, 1st in the Netherlands by the QS World University Rankings; the university placed in the top 50 worldwide in seven fields in the 2011 QS World University Rankings in the fields of linguistics, philosophy, science and econometrics, accountancy and finance.
In 2018 and 2019 the two departments of Media and Communication were ranked 1st in the world by subject by QS Ranking. Close ties are harbored with other institutions internationally through its membership in the League of European Research Universities, the Institutional Network of the Universities from the Capitals of Europe, European University Association, the International Student Exchange Programs, Universitas 21. In January 1632, the Athenaeum Illustre of Amsterdam was founded by the municipal authorities in Amsterdam, it was devoted to medical teaching. The first two professors were Gerardus Vossius and Caspar Barlaeus; the Athenaeum Illustre provided education comparable to other higher education institutions, although it could not confer doctoral degrees. After training at the Athenaeum, students could complete their education at a university in another town. At the time, Amsterdam housed several other institutions of higher education, including the Collegium Chirugicum, which trained surgeons, other institutions that provided theological courses for the Remonstrant and the Mennonite communities.
Amsterdam's large degree of religious freedom allowed for the establishment of these institutions. Students of the Colegium Chirugicum and the theological institutions attended classes at the Athenaeum Illustre. In 1815 it was given the statutory obligation “to disseminate taste and learning" and “to replace, at least in part, the institutes of higher education and an academic education for those young men whose circumstances unable them to spend the time necessary for an academic career at an institute of higher education.” The Athenaeum began offering classes for students attending non-academic professional training in pharmacy and surgery in 1800. The Athenaeum Illustre worked together with Amsterdam's theological institutions such as the Evangelisch-Luthers Seminarium and the Klinische School, the successor to the Collegium Chirurgicum; the Athenaeum remained a small institution until the 19th century, with no more than 250 students and eight professors. Alumni of the Athenaeum include Cornelis Petrus Tiele.
In 1877, the Athenuem Illustre became the Municipal University of Amsterdam and received the right to confer doctoral degrees. This gave the university the same privileges as national universities while being funded by the city of Amsterdam; the professors and lecturers were appointed by the municipal council. This resulted in a staff, in many ways more colorful than the staffs of national universities. During its time as a municipal university, the university flourished, in particular in the science department, which counted many Nobel prize winners: Tobias Asser, Christiaan Eijkman, Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff, Johannes Diderik van der Waals, Pieter Zeeman, Frits Zernike; the University of Amsterdam's municipal status brought about the early addition of the faculties of Economics and Social Sciences. After the World War II the dramatic rise in the cost of university education put a constraint on the university's growth. In 1961, the national government made the university a national university, giving it its current name, the University of Amsterdam.
Funding was now given by the national government instead of the city and the appointment of professors was transferred to the board of governors. The city of Amsterdam retained a limited influence until 1971, when the appointment was handed over to the executive board. During May 1969, the university became the focus of nationwide news when UvA's administrative centre at the Maagdenhuis was occupied by hundreds of students who wanted more democratic influence in educational and administrative matters; the protest lasted for days and was broken up by the police. During the 1970s and 1980s, the university was the target of nationwide student actions; the university saw considerable expansion since becoming a national university, from 7,500 students in 1960 to over 32,000 in 2010. In 2007, UvA undertook the construction of the Science Park Amsterdam, a 70 hectare campus to house the Faculty of Science along with the new University Sports Center. Much of the park has now been completed; the University of Amsterdam began working in close collaboration with the Hogeschool van Amsterdam.
In 2008, the University of Amsterdam and VU University jointly founded the Amsterdam Univer
Hermann Emil Louis Fischer FRS FRSE FCS was a German chemist and 1902 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. He discovered the Fischer esterification, he developed the Fischer projection, a symbolic way of drawing asymmetric carbon atoms. He never used his first given name, was known throughout his life as Emil Fischer. Fischer was born in Euskirchen, near Cologne, the son of Laurenz Fischer, a businessman, his wife Julie Poensgen. After graduating he wished to study natural sciences, but his father compelled him to work in the family business until determining that his son was unsuitable. Fischer attended the University of Bonn in 1871, but switched to the University of Strasbourg in 1872, he earned his doctorate in 1874 under Adolf von Baeyer with his study of phthaleins and was appointed to a position at the university. Fischer is noted for his work on sugars: among other work, the organic synthesis of D--glucose and purines. Fischer was instrumental in the discovery of barbiturates, a class of sedative drugs used for insomnia, epilepsy and anesthesia.
Along with the physician Josef von Mering, he helped to launch the first barbiturate sedative, barbital, in 1904. In 1897 he put forward the idea to create the International Atomic Weights Commission. Fischer was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society in 1899. Many names of chemical reactions and concepts are named after him: Nobel Lecture Syntheses in the Purine and Sugar Group from Nobelprize.org website Eminent Chemists of Our Time By Benjamin Harrow pages 216–239, published 1920 by Von Nostrand Company at books.google.com. Guide to the Emil Fischer Papers at The Bancroft Library Text-book of Physiological Chemistry in Thirty Lectures by Emil Abderhalden, translated by William Thomas Hall and George Defren. American Journal of Diseases of Children 1911 volume 2 by the American Medical Association refers to Fischer's work. An Introduction to the History of Medicine: With Medical Chronology by Fielding Hudson Garrison, page 708 refers to Fischer and Merings discovery of the drugs veronal and proponal, published 1921 by Saunders Company.
1914 Year Book of the American Pharmaceutical Association, page 438 abstracts Fischer and Strauss's work on Phenol-Glucosides – Synthetic Production from Berlin d. D Chem. Germany, page 45 No. 12. Texts on Wikisource: "Fischer, Emil". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. "Fischer, Emil". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. "Fischer, Emil". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920