École des Beaux-Arts
An École des Beaux-Arts is one of a number of influential art schools in France. The most famous is the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts, now located on the left bank in Paris, across the Seine from the Louvre, at 14 rue Bonaparte; the school has a history spanning more than 350 years, training many of the great artists in Europe. Beaux Arts style was modeled on classical "antiquities", preserving these idealized forms and passing the style on to future generations; the origins of the school go back to 1648 when the Académie des Beaux-Arts was founded by Cardinal Mazarin to educate the most talented students in drawing, sculpture, engraving and other media. Louis XIV was known to select graduates from the school to decorate the royal apartments at Versailles, in 1863 Napoleon III granted the school independence from the government, changing the name to "L'École des Beaux-Arts". Women were admitted beginning in 1897; the curriculum was divided into the "Academy of Painting and Sculpture" and the "Academy of Architecture".
Both programs focused on classical arts and architecture from Ancient Roman culture. All students were required to prove their skills with basic drawing tasks before advancing to figure drawing and painting; this culminated in a competition for the Grand Prix de Rome, awarding a full scholarship to study in Rome. The three trials to obtain the prize lasted for nearly three months. Many of the most famous artists in Europe were trained here, including Géricault, Delacroix, Ingres, Renoir, Seurat and Sisley. Rodin however, applied on three occasions but was refused entry; the buildings of the school are the creation of French architect Félix Duban, commissioned for the main building in 1830. His work realigned the campus, continued through 1861, completing an architectural program out towards the Quai Malaquais; the Paris school is the namesake and founding location of the Beaux Arts architectural movement in the early twentieth century. Known for demanding classwork and setting the highest standards for education, the École attracted students from around the world—including the United States, where students returned to design buildings that would influence the history of architecture in America, including the Boston Public Library, 1888–1895 and the New York Public Library, 1897–1911.
Architectural graduates in France, are granted the title élève. The architecture department was separated from the École after the May 1968 student strikes at the Sorbonne; the name was changed to École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts. Today, over 500 students make use of an extensive collection of classical art coupled with modern additions to the curriculum, including photography and hypermedia. ENSA École nationale des beaux arts de Dijon ENSA École nationale des beaux arts de Bourges ENSBA École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts Lyon European Academy of Art in Lorient, Rennes and Brest ESADMM École supérieure d'art et de design Marseille-Méditerranée ENSA École nationale des beaux arts de Nancy École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts, Paris ESAD École supérieure d'art et design de Valence, Valence Académie des Beaux-Arts Architecture of Paris Beaux-Arts architecture Comité des Étudiants Américains de l'École des Beaux-Arts Paris Paris Salon The Ecole des Beaux-Arts – Historical essay École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts – Official website École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts – History
The Luxembourg Palace is located at 15 Rue de Vaugirard in the 6th arrondissement of Paris. It was built to the designs of the French architect Salomon de Brosse to be the royal residence of the regent Marie de' Medici, mother of Louis XIII of France. After the Revolution it was refashioned by Jean Chalgrin into a legislative building and subsequently enlarged and remodeled by Alphonse de Gisors. Since 1958 it has been the seat of the Senate of the Fifth Republic. West of the palace on the Rue de Vaugirard is the Petit Luxembourg, now the residence of the Senate President. On the south side of the palace, the formal Luxembourg Garden presents a 25-hectare green parterre of gravel and lawn populated with statues and large basins of water where children sail model boats. After the death of Henry IV in 1610, his widow, Marie de' Medici, became regent to her son, Louis XIII. Having acceded to a much more powerful position, she decided to erect a new palace for herself, adjacent to an old hôtel particulier owned by François de Luxembourg, Duc de Piney, now called the Petit Luxembourg and is the residence of the president of the French Senate.
Marie de' Medici desired to make a building similar to her native Florence's Palazzo Pitti. She bought the Hôtel de Luxembourg and its extensive domain in 1612 and commissioned the new building, which she referred to as her Palais Médicis, in 1615, its construction and furnishing formed her major artistic project, though nothing remains today of the interiors as they were created for her, save some architectural fragments reassembled in the Salle du Livre d'Or. The suites of paintings she commissioned, in the subjects of which she expressed her requirements through her agents and advisers, are scattered among museums. De' Medici installed her household in 1625; the apartments in the right wing on the western side were reserved for the Queen and the matching suite to the east, for her son, Louis XIII, when he was visiting. The 24 Marie de' Medici cycle canvases, a series commissioned from Peter Paul Rubens, were installed in the Galerie de Rubens on the main floor of the western wing; these paintings were executed between 1622 and 1625 and depicts Marie's struggles and triumphs in life.
They are now visible in the Galerie Medicis of the Louvre, one of the treasures of the museum's Flemish paintings department. A series of paintings executed for her Cabinet doré was identified by Anthony Blunt in 1967; the gallery in the east wing had been intended for the display of paintings celebrating Henri IV and buildings housing stables and services were planned to either side of the pavilions flanking the entrance on the street, but these projects remained unfinished in 1631, when the Queen Mother was forced from court, following the "Day of the Dupes" in November. Louis XIII commissioned further decorations for the Palace from Nicolas Poussin and Philippe de Champaigne. In 1642, Marie de' Medici bequeathed the Luxembourg to her second and favourite son, duc d'Orléans, who called it the Orléans Palace but by popular will it was still known by its original name. Upon Gaston's death, the palace passed to his widow, Marguerite de Lorraine to his elder daughter by his first marriage, duchesse de Montpensier, La Grande Mademoiselle.
In 1660, Anne de Montpensier sold the Luxembourg to her younger half-sister, Élisabeth Marguerite d'Orléans, duchesse de Guise who, in turn, gave it to her cousin, King Louis XIV, in 1694. In 1715, the Luxembourg Palace became the residence of Marie Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans, Duchess of Berry; the widowed Duchess was notoriously promiscuous, having the reputation of a French Messalina, relentlessly driven by her unquenchable thirst for all pleasures of the flesh. The palace and its gardens thus became stages where the princess acted out her ambitions, enthroned like a queen surrounded by her court. In some of her more exclusive parties, Madame de Berry played the leading part in elaborate "tableaux-vivants" that represented mythological scenes and in which she displayed her person impersonating Venus or Diana. According to various satirical songs which scurrilously evoked her amours "the Lady of the Luxembourg" hid several pregnancies, shutting herself up from society when about to give birth.
Her taste for strong liquors and her sheer gluttony scandalized the court. On 21 May 1717, Madame de Berry received Peter the Great at the Luxembourg, she welcomed the visiting Tsar splendidly dressed in a magnificent sack-back gown which showcased her voluptuous bosom as well as her mischievous face but helped conceal her growing corpulence for she was in an "interesting condition". On 28 February 1718, the Duchess of Berry threw a magnificent party for her visiting aunt, the Duchess of Lorraine; the entire palace and its gardens were elaborately illuminated. The lavish banquet was followed by a masked ball. Madame de Berry made a dazzling appearance before her guests, she was in the full splendour of her youthful beauty and pride and acted as if she were the incarnation of the goddess of love, mirth and sensual pleasures. On 2 April 1719, after a grueling four-day labour, shut up in a small room of her palace, the young widow was delivered of a still-born baby girl fathered by her lieutenant of the guards, the Count of Riom.
Berry's delivery was troublesome and killed her. The Church refused her the Sac
Palais de Justice, Brussels
The Palace of Justice or Law Courts of Brussels is the most important court building in Belgium. It was built between 1866 and 1883 in the eclectic style by the celebrated architect Joseph Poelaert; the total cost of the construction and furnishings was somewhere in the region of 45 million Belgian francs. It is reputed to be the largest building constructed in the 19th century and is a notable landmark of Brussels; the Palace of Justice is located on Place Poelaert/Poelaertplein. This site is served by the Louise/Louiza metro station on lines 6 of the Brussels metro; the Palace of Justice's location is on the Galgenberg hill, where in the Middle Ages convicted criminals were hanged. In 1860, during the reign of Leopold I, a Royal decree announced the building of the Palace of Justice and an international architecture contest was organised for its design; the designs entered in the contest were thus rejected. The Minister of Justice Victor Tesch appointed Joseph Poelaert to design the building in 1861.
The first stone was laid on 31 October 1866, the building was inaugurated on 15 October 1883, four years after Poelaert's death in 1879. For the building of the Palace of Justice, a section of the Marollen neighbourhood was demolished, while most of the park belonging to the House of Mérode was expropriated; the 75 landlord owners of the houses, many of whom lived in their homes, received large indemnities, while the other inhabitants, about a hundred, were forced to move by the Belgian government, though they were compensated with houses in the garden city "Tillens-Roosendael" in the municipality of Uccle, in the Quartier du Chat. Poelaert himself lived in the Marollen neighbourhood in a house only a few hundred metres from the building, a house adjoining his vast offices and workshops, it is thus unlikely. As a result of the forced relocation of so many people, the word architect became one of the most serious insults in Brussels; the building includes huge interior statues of Demosthenes and Lycurgus, by sculptor Pierre Armand Cattier, figures of Roman jurists Cicero and Ulpian, by Antoine-Félix Bouré.
Although the construction took place during the reign of Léopold II, he showed little interest in the building, it is not considered part of his extensive architectural programme in Brussels or his legacy as the "Builder-King". At the end of the Second World War, on the eve of the liberation of Brussels, the retreating Germans started a fire in the Palace of Justice in order to destroy it; as a result, the cupola collapsed and part of the building was damaged. By 1947 most of the building was repaired and the cupola was rebuilt two and a half metres higher than the original. Renovations on the building have been in progress since 2003; these renovations pertain to the repair and strengthening of the roof structure and the walls as well as putting a new layer on the gilded cupola. Progress is slow, in 2013, it was reported that the decade-old scaffolding was so rusted and unsafe that the scaffolding itself was in need of renovation; the Brussels Palace of Justice is bigger than St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.
The building is 160 by 150 meters, has a total built ground surface of 26,000 m². The 104 meter high dome weighs 24,000 tons; the building has 8 courtyards with a surface of 6000 m², 27 large court rooms and 245 smaller court rooms and other rooms. Situated on a hill, there is a level difference of 20 meters between the upper and lower town, which results in multiple entrances to the building at different levels; the Palace of Justice is divided into several sections: Court of Cassation Court of Appeal of Brussels Bar Association of Brussels Library of the Magistrate Library of the Bar Association of Brussels Library of the Lawyers There is a well-known story that Adolf Hitler was fond of the building. Albert Speer stated in his book Inside the Third Reich that he had been dispatched to Brussels in 1940 to study the building. Although lacking the dome and being much smaller, the Justice Palace in Lima in Peru, which houses the Supreme Court of Peru, is based upon Brussels' Palace of Justice.
Climbing the Law Courts Justitiepaleis or Palais de justice
Louvre Abu Dhabi
The Louvre Abu Dhabi is an art and civilization museum, located in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. The museum was inaugurated on 8 November 2017 by French President Emmanuel Macron and United Arab Emirates Vice President Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum and Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan; the museum is part of a thirty-year agreement between the city of Abu Dhabi and the French government. The museum is located on the Saadiyat Island Cultural District, it is 24,000 square metres in size, with 8,000 square metres of galleries, making it the largest art museum in the Arabian peninsula. The final cost of the construction is expected to be about €600 million. In addition, US$525 million was paid by Abu Dhabi to be associated with the Louvre name, an additional US$747 million will be paid in exchange for art loans, special exhibitions and management advice. Artworks from around the world are showcased at the museum, with particular focus placed upon bridging the gap between Eastern and Western art.
The establishment of this museum was approved by the French Parliament on 9 October 2007. The architect for the building is Jean Nouvel and the engineers are BuroHappold Engineering. Jean Nouvel designed the Institut du Monde Arabe in Paris; the museum is part of a US$27 billion tourist and cultural development for Saadiyat Island, a complex, planned to include three other museums, including a Guggenheim Museum and the Zayed National Museum. According to the government-sponsored website UAE Interact: "The French Museums Agency will operate in collaboration with the Tourism Development and Investment Company, behind the transformation of Saadiyat Island, it will be chaired by French financier and member of the country's Académie des Beaux-Arts, Marc Ladreit de Lacharrière, publisher of the periodical Revue des Deux Mondes." Bruno Maquart, the former Executive Director of Centre Georges Pompidou, will take the position of Executive Director. By choosing the Louvre, the emirate of Abu Dhabi not only sealed a partnership with the world’s most visited and well-known museum, but selected one which, from its inception, had a vocation to reach out to the world, to the essence of mankind, through the contemplation of works of art.
Saadiyat Island's Cultural District plans to house the largest single cluster of world-class cultural assets. In addition to the Louvre Abu Dhabi these are intended to include: Zayed National Museum, to be designed by United Kingdom-based architectural company Foster and Partners under the direction of Lord Norman Foster; the museum is designed as a "seemingly floating dome structure". The overall effect is meant to represent "rays of sunlight passing through date palm fronds in an oasis." The total area of the museum will be 24,000 square metres. The permanent collection will occupy 6,000 square metres, the temporary exhibitions will take place over 2,000 square metres. BuroHappold Engineering provided multidisciplinary engineering services across the project, including structural engineering, geotechnical engineering and environmental consultancy, water engineering, facade engineering, lighting design, people movement consultancy, security services and inclusive design, their structural engineers realised the "floating dome" from 7,850 aluminium stars of varying sizes, which tessellate over eight layers to create a perforated roof structure that allows sunlight through to the spaces below.
A team of specialist geotechnical and water engineers designed a watertight basement and tidal pools within the galleries to give the illusion of a "museum in the sea" while protecting artwork and visitors from the corrosive marine environment. Construction works at Louvre Abu Dhabi started on 26 May 2009. Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, the Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi and the President of France, Nicolas Sarkozy inaugurated an exhibition titled, Talking Art: Louvre Abu Dhabi at the Gallery One of the Emirates Palace hotel which includes 19 works of art bought over the last 18 months for the Louvre Abu Dhabi, as well as loans from the French national museums to mark the beginning of the construction work. Piling works at the Louvre were to be completed by August 2010, with the piling and enabling works package awarded to the German specialized company; the total of 4536 piles consisted of RC Piles and H-Piles and was completed on 3 August 2010. On 29 October 2011, Tourism Development & Investment Company, the project manager owned by the government of Abu Dhabi, announced it would delay establishing the museum.
The company gave no new date. According to the UAE newspapers Gulf News and The National, the delay could be explained by a review of the emirate's economic strategy. In January 2012 it was confirmed that the Louvre Abu Dhabi's new opening date would be 2015. Construction on the main phase of the museum began in early 2013 by a consortium headed by Arabtec, Constructora San José and Oger Abu Dhabi; this stage includes waterproofing and the two basement levels, along with four concrete pillars that will support the 7,000-tonne dome. Work on the construction of the gallery spaces and initial preparation for the dome began in the fourth quarter of 2013. On 5 December 2013, the first element of the museum's canopy was lifted into place. On 17 March 2014 TDIC announced the completion of the first permanent gallery structure to mark the first anniversary of the start of construction
The Vatican Museums are Christian and art museums located within the city boundaries of the Vatican City. They display works from the immense collection amassed by popes throughout the centuries including several of the most renowned Roman sculptures and most important masterpieces of Renaissance art in the world; the museums contain 70,000 works, of which 20,000 are on display, employ 640 people who work in 40 different administrative and restoration departments. Pope Julius II founded the museums in the early 16th century; the Sistine Chapel, with its ceiling decorated by Michelangelo and the Stanze di Raffaello decorated by Raphael, are on the visitor route through the Vatican Museums. In 2017, they were visited by 6 million people, which combined makes it the 4th most visited art museum in the world, it is one of the largest museums in the world. There are 54 galleries, or sale, in total, with the Sistine Chapel, being the last sala within the Museum; the Vatican Museums trace their origin to one marble sculpture, purchased in the 16th century: Laocoön and His Sons was discovered on 14 January 1506, in a vineyard near the basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome.
Pope Julius II sent Giuliano da Sangallo and Michelangelo Buonarroti, who were working at the Vatican, to examine the discovery. On their recommendation, the pope purchased the sculpture from the vineyard owner; the pope put the sculpture, which depicts the Trojan priest Laocoön and his two sons being attacked by giant serpents, on public display at the Vatican one month after its discovery. Benedict XIV founded the Museum Christianum, some of the Vatican collections formed the Lateran Museum, which Pius IX founded by decree in 1854; the Museums celebrated their 500th anniversary in October 2006 by permanently opening the excavations of a Vatican Hill necropolis to the public. On 1 January 2017, Barbara Jatta became the Director of the Vatican Museums, replacing Antonio Paolucci, director since 2007; the art gallery was housed in the Borgia Apartment until Pope Pius XI ordered construction of a proper building. The new building, designed by Luca Beltrami, was inaugurated on 27 October 1932; the museum's paintings include: Giotto's Stefaneschi Triptych Olivuccio di Ciccarello, Opere di Misericordia Raphael's Madonna of Foligno, Oddi Altarpiece and Transfiguration Leonardo da Vinci's St. Jerome in the Wilderness Caravaggio's Entombment Perugino's Madonna and Child with Saints and San Francesco al Prato Resurrection Filippo Lippi's Marsuppini Coronation Jan Matejko's Sobieski at Vienna The Collection of Modern Religious Art was added in 1973 and houses paintings and sculptures from artists like Carlo Carrà, Giorgio de Chirico, Vincent van Gogh, Paul Gauguin, Marc Chagall, Paul Klee, Salvador Dalí, Pablo Picasso.
The group of museums includes several sculpture museums surrounding the Cortile del Belvedere. These are the Gregoriano Profano Museum, with classical sculpture, others as below: The museum takes its name from two popes. Clement XIV came up with the idea of creating a new museum in Innocent VIII's Belvedere Palace and started the refurbishment work. Pope Clement XIV founded the Pio-Clementino museum in 1771, it contained the Renaissance and antique works; the museum and collection were enlarged by Clement's successor Pius VI. Today, the museum houses works of Roman sculpture; some notable galleries are: Greek Cross Gallery:: with the porphyri sarcophagi of Constance and Saint Helen and mother of Constantine the Great. Sala Rotonda: shaped like a miniature Pantheon, the room has impressive ancient mosaics on the floors, ancient statues lining the perimeter, including a gilded bronze statue of Hercules. Gallery of the Statues: as its name implies, holds various important statues, including Sleeping Ariadne and the bust of Menander.
It contains the Barberini Candelabra. Gallery of the Busts: Many ancient busts are displayed. Cabinet of the Masks: The name comes from the mosaic on the floor of the gallery, found in Villa Adriana, which shows ancient theater masks. Statues are displayed along the walls, including the Three Graces. Sala delle Muse: Houses the statue group of Apollo and the nine muses, uncovered in a Roman villa near Tivoli in 1774, as well as statues by important ancient Greek or Roman sculptors; the centerpiece is the Belvedere Torso, revered by other Renaissance men. Sala degli Animali: So named because of the many ancient statues of animals; this museum was founded in the early 19th century by Pope Pius VII, whose surname before his election as pope was Chiaramonti. The museum consists of a large arched gallery in which are exhibited several statues and friezes; the New Wing, Braccio Nuovo, built by Raffaele Stern, houses statues including the Augustus of Prima Porta, the Doryphoros, The River Nile. The Galeria Lapidaria forms part of the Museo Chiaramonti, contains over 3,000 stone tablets and inscriptions.
It is accessible only with special permission for the purpose of academic study. Founded by Pope Gregory XVI in 1836, this museum has eight galleries and houses important Etruscan pieces, coming from archaeological excavations; the pieces include: vases, sarcophagus and the Guglielmi Collection. This museum houses a large collection of artifacts from Ancient Egypt; such material includes papyruses, the Grassi Collection, animal mummies, reproductions of the Book of the Dead. The Museo Gregoriano Egiziano was inaugurated on 2 February 1839 to commemorate the anniversary of Gr
The large public space at the Place Saint Sulpice, dominated on its eastern side by the church of Saint-Sulpice, was built in 1754 as a tranquil garden in the Latin Quarter of the 6th arrondissement of Paris. In addition to the church, the square features: The Fountain Saint-Sulpice or Fountain of the Four Bishops, built in the center of the square between 1844 and 1848, was designed by the architect Joachim Visconti; the fountain presents the statues of four bishops, one on each of its sides: Bossuet, statue by Jean-Jacques Feuchère Fénelon, statue by François Lanno Fléchier, statue by Louis Desprez Massillon, statue by Jacques-Auguste FauginetSome people call this monumental fountain the fontaine des quatre points cardinaux. This is a bit of innocent wordplay. Chestnut trees that produce pink flowers, in season; the Café de la Mairie, a rendezvous for writers and students. The café was featured in the 1990 film, La Discrète, directed by Christian Vincent, starring Fabrice Luchini and Judith Henry.
The mairie of the 6th arrondissement. The Place Saint-Sulpice is: It is served by lines 4 and 10. Media related to Place Saint-Sulpice at Wikimedia Commons Place Saint-Sulpice