University of Chicago
The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. Founded in 1890 by John D. Rockefeller, the school is located on a 217-acre campus in Chicago's Hyde Park neighborhood, near Lake Michigan; the University of Chicago holds top-ten positions in various international rankings. The university is composed of an undergraduate college as well as various graduate programs and interdisciplinary committees organized into five academic research divisions. Beyond the arts and sciences, Chicago is well known for its professional schools, which include the Pritzker School of Medicine, the Booth School of Business, the Law School, the School of Social Service Administration, the Harris School of Public Policy Studies, the Divinity School and the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies; the university has additional campuses and centers in London, Beijing and Hong Kong, as well as in downtown Chicago. University of Chicago scholars have played a major role in the development of many academic disciplines, including sociology, economics, literary criticism and the behavioralism school of political science.
Chicago's physics department and the Met Lab helped develop the world's first man-made, self-sustaining nuclear reaction beneath the viewing stands of university's Stagg Field, a key part of the classified Manhattan Project effort of World War II. The university research efforts include administration of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory, as well as the Marine Biological Laboratory; the university is home to the University of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States. With an estimated completion date of 2021, the Barack Obama Presidential Center will be housed at the university and include both the Obama presidential library and offices of the Obama Foundation; the University of Chicago has produced faculty members and researchers. As of 2018, 98 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the university as professors, faculty, or staff, making it a university with one of the highest concentrations of Nobel laureates in the world. 34 faculty members and 18 alumni have been awarded the MacArthur "Genius Grant".
In addition, Chicago's alumni and faculty include 54 Rhodes Scholars, 26 Marshall Scholars, 9 Fields Medalists, 4 Turing Award Winners, 24 Pulitzer Prize winners, 20 National Humanities Medalists, 16 billionaire graduates and a plethora of members of the United States Congress and heads of state of countries all over the world. The University of Chicago was incorporated as a coeducational institution in 1890 by the American Baptist Education Society, using $400,000 donated to the ABES to match a $600,000 donation from Baptist oil magnate and philanthropist John D. Rockefeller, including land donated by Marshall Field. While the Rockefeller donation provided money for academic operations and long-term endowment, it was stipulated that such money could not be used for buildings; the Hyde Park campus was financed by donations from wealthy Chicagoans like Silas B. Cobb who provided the funds for the campus' first building, Cobb Lecture Hall, matched Marshall Field's pledge of $100,000. Other early benefactors included businessmen Charles L. Hutchinson, Martin A. Ryerson Adolphus Clay Bartlett and Leon Mandel, who funded the construction of the gymnasium and assembly hall, George C. Walker of the Walker Museum, a relative of Cobb who encouraged his inaugural donation for facilities.
The Hyde Park campus continued the legacy of the original university of the same name, which had closed in 1880s after its campus was foreclosed on. What became known as the Old University of Chicago had been founded by a small group of Baptist educators in 1856 through a land endowment from Senator Stephen A. Douglas. After a fire, it closed in 1886. Alumni from the Old University of Chicago are recognized as alumni of the present University of Chicago; the university's depiction on its coat of arms of a phoenix rising from the ashes is a reference to the fire and demolition of the Old University of Chicago campus. As an homage to this pre-1890 legacy, a single stone from the rubble of the original Douglas Hall on 34th Place was brought to the current Hyde Park location and set into the wall of the Classics Building; these connections have led the Dean of the College and University of Chicago and Professor of History John Boyer to conclude that the University of Chicago has, "a plausible genealogy as a pre–Civil War institution".
William Rainey Harper became the university's president on July 1, 1891 and the Hyde Park campus opened for classes on October 1, 1892. Harper worked on building up the faculty and in two years he had a faculty of 120, including eight former university or college presidents. Harper was an accomplished scholar and a member of the Baptist clergy who believed that a great university should maintain the study of faith as a central focus. To fulfill this commitment, he brought the Old University of Chicago's Seminary to Hyde Park; this became the Divinity School in the first professional school at the University of Chicago. Harper recruited acclaimed Yale baseball and football player Amos Alonzo Stagg from the Young Men's Christian Association training Shool at Springfield to coach the school's football program. Stagg was given a position on the first such athletic position in the United States. While coaching at the University, Stagg invented the numbered football jersey, the huddle, the lighted playing field.
Stagg is the namesake of the university's Stagg
In human social behavior, discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction towards, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong. These include age, criminal record, disability, family status, gender identity, genetic characteristics, marital status, race, religion and sexual orientation. Discrimination consists of treatment of an individual or group, based on their actual or perceived membership in a certain group or social category, "in a way, worse than the way people are treated", it involves the group's initial reaction or interaction going on to influence the individual's actual behavior towards the group leader or the group, restricting members of one group from opportunities or privileges that are available to another group, leading to the exclusion of the individual or entities based on illogical or irrational decision making. Discriminatory traditions, ideas and laws exist in many countries and institutions in every part of the world, including in territories where discrimination is looked down upon.
In some places, controversial attempts such as quotas have been used to benefit those who are believed to be current or past victims of discrimination—but they have sometimes been called reverse discrimination. The term discriminate appeared in the early 17th century in the English language, it is from the Latin discriminat-'distinguished between', from the verb discriminare, from discrimen'distinction', from the verb discernere. Since the American Civil War the term "discrimination" evolved in American English usage as an understanding of prejudicial treatment of an individual based on their race generalized as membership in a certain undesirable group or social category; the word "discrimination" derives from Latin, where the verb discrimire means "to separate, to distinguish, to make a distinction". Moral philosophers have defined discrimination as disadvantageous consideration; this is a comparative definition. An individual need not be harmed in order to be discriminated against, they just need to be treated worse than others for some arbitrary reason.
If someone decides to donate to help orphan children, but decides to donate less, say, to black children out of a racist attitude they would be acting in a discriminatory way despite the fact that the people they discriminate against benefit by receiving a donation. In addition to this discrimination develops into a source of oppression, it is similar to the action of recognizing someone as'different' so much that they are treated inhumanly and degraded. Based on realistic-conflict theory and social-identity theory and Hewstone have highlighted a distinction among three types of discrimination: Realistic competition is driven by self-interest and is aimed at obtaining material resources for the in-group. Social competition is driven by the need for self-esteem and is aimed at achieving a positive social status for the in-group relative to comparable out-groups. Consensual discrimination is driven by the need for accuracy and reflects stable and legitimate intergroup status hierarchies; the United Nations stance on discrimination includes the statement: "Discriminatory behaviors take many forms, but they all involve some form of exclusion or rejection."
International bodies United Nations Human Rights Council work towards helping ending discrimination around the world. Ageism or age discrimination is discrimination and stereotyping based on the grounds of someone's age, it is a set of beliefs and values which used to justify discrimination or subordination based on a person's age. Ageism is most directed towards old people, or adolescents and children. Age discrimination in hiring has been shown to exist in the United States. Joanna Lahey, professor at The Bush School of Government and Public Service at Texas A&M, found that firms are more than 40% more to interview a young adult job applicant than an older job applicant. In Europe, Stijn Baert, Jennifer Norga, Yannick Thuy and Marieke Van Hecke, researchers at Ghent University, measured comparable ratios in Belgium, they found that age discrimination is heterogeneous by the activity older candidates undertook during their additional post-educational years. In Belgium, they are only discriminated if they have more years of inactivity or irrelevant employment.
In a survey for the University of Kent, England, 29% of respondents stated that they had suffered from age discrimination. This is a higher proportion than for racial discrimination. Dominic Abrams, social psychology professor at the university, concluded that ageism is the most pervasive form of prejudice experienced in the UK population. According to UNICEF and Human Rights Watch, caste discrimination affects an estimated 250 million people worldwide. Discrimination based on caste, as perceived by UNICEF, is prevalent in parts of Asia and others; as of 2011, there were Scheduled Castes in India. Discrimination against people with disabilities in favor of people who are not is called ableism or disablism. Disability discrimination, which treats non-disabled individuals as the standard of'normal living', results in public and private places and services and social work that are built to serve'standard' people, thereby excluding
Charles Horton Cooley was an American sociologist and the son of Michigan Supreme Court Judge Thomas M. Cooley, he studied and went on to teach economics and sociology at the University of Michigan, was a founding member of the American Sociological Association in 1905 and became its eighth president in 1918. He is best known for his concept of the looking glass self, the concept that a person's self grows out of society's interpersonal interactions and the perceptions of others. Cooley's health began to deteriorate in 1928, he died two months later. Charles Horton Cooley was born in Ann Arbor, Michigan, on August 17, 1864, to Mary Elizabeth Horton and Thomas M. Cooley. Thomas Cooley was the Supreme Court Judge for the state of Michigan, he was one of the first three faculty members to found the University of Michigan Law School in 1859, he served as dean of the law school from 1859-1884. Cooley's mother, took an active interest in public affairs and traveled with her husband to several cities around the United States in relation to the Interstate Commerce Commission.
His father was a successful political figure that stressed the importance of education to his six children. Cooley had a difficult childhood, which exacerbated his feelings of detachment towards his father; the intimidation and alienation he felt towards his own father caused him to suffer from a variety of illnesses for fifteen years during his adolescence, some appearing to be psychosomatic. He developed a speech impediment, among other insecurities, due to his lack of interaction with other children. Cooley was a daydreamer and much of his "dreaming-life" had a substantial influence to his sociological works; as a child, he dealt with feelings of isolation and loneliness, which led him to develop an interest in reading and writing. At the age of sixteen, Cooley began attending the University of Michigan. Chronic constipation negatively affected his life in college since it distracted him from his studies. Due to his medical condition, Cooley graduated from the University of Michigan seven years in 1887, continued with a year's training in mechanical engineering.
Cooley returned to pursue a master's degree in political science and sociology in 1890. Following completion, he began teaching economics and sociology at UMich in the fall of 1892. Cooley went on to receive a Ph. D. in philosophy in 1894. At this time he was interested in the subject matter of sociology, but due to the University of Michigan not having a sociology department, he had to continue the examination of his Ph. D. through Columbia University. There, Cooley worked alongside American sociologist and economist, Franklin Henry Giddings and developed his doctoral thesis, The Theory of Transportation in economics. Since his father was honored nationwide, Cooley feared the idea of failure, he lacked direction in life and contemplated science, social science, psychology or sociology as his field of study. He wished to write and think, after reading philosopher Herbert Spencer's works, Cooley realized he had an interest in social problems, he shared his reflections of the works of Spencer in 1920, citing that while he brought many valuable viewpoints with the subject of Darwinian principles, he lacks sympathy and the appropriate usage of the sociological perspective.
Cooley decided that he wanted to study sociology because it gave him the ability to analyze social discrepancies. He taught the University of Michigan's first sociology class in 1899, he played a prominent role in the development of symbolic interactionism, in which he worked with another fellow staff member from the University of Michigan, psychologist John Dewey. Cooley married Elsie Jones in 1890, the daughter of a professor of medicine at the University of Michigan. Mrs. Cooley differed from her husband in that she was outgoing and capable of ordering their common lives in such a manner that mundane cares were not to weigh on her husband; the couple had three children, a boy, two girls, lived and withdrawn in a house close to the campus. The children served Cooley as his own domestic laboratory subjects for his study of genesis and growth of the self, he analyzed their reactions based on age. When he was not engaged in the observation of his own self and wished to observe others, he did not need to leave the domestic circle.
Cooley found pleasure in amateur botany and bird-watching in spare time away from his research. Cooley is noted for his displeasure at the divisions within the sociological community over methodology, he preferred an observational approach. While he appreciated the use of statistics after working as a statistician in the Interstate Commerce Commission and Census Bureau, he preferred case studies: using his own children as the subjects on his observation, he encouraged sociologists to use the method of sympathetic introspection when attempting to understand the consciousness of an individual. Cooley thought that the only practical method is to study the actual situation "closely" and "kindly" with other people involved gradually work out the evil from the mixture and replace it with good; the only way to understand a grotesque human being is to identify how and why his human nature has come to work that way. He felt it was necessary in order to understand the activities taken from the actor separating Cooley from a majority of sociologists who preferred more traditional, scientific techniques.
Cooley's first major work, The Theory of Transportation, was his doctoral dissertation on ec
According to many definitions, a disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, intellectual, physical, sensory, or some combination of these. Other definitions describe disability as the societal disadvantage arising from such impairments. Disability affects a person's life activities and may be present from birth or occur during a person's lifetime. Disabilities is an umbrella term, covering impairments, activity limitations, participation restrictions. An impairment is a problem in body structure. Disability is thus not just a health problem, it is a complex phenomenon, reflecting the interaction between features of a person’s body and features of the society in which he or she lives. Disability is a contested concept, with different meanings in different communities, it may be used to refer to physical or mental attributes that some institutions medicine, view as needing to be fixed. It may refer to limitations imposed on people by the constraints of an ableist society. Or the term may serve to refer to the identity of disabled people.
Physiological functional capacity is a related term that describes an individual's performance level. It gauges one's ability to perform the physical tasks of daily life and the ease with which these tasks are performed. PFC declines with advancing age to result in frailty, cognitive disorders or physical disorders, all of which may lead to labeling individuals as disabled; the discussion over disability's definition arose out of disability activism in the United States and the United Kingdom in the 1970s, which challenged how the medical concept of disability dominated perception and discourse about disabilities. Debates about proper terminology and their implied politics continue in disability communities and the academic field of disability studies. In some countries, the law requires that disabilities are documented by a healthcare provider in order to assess qualifications for disability benefits. For the purposes of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission regulations provide a list of conditions that should be concluded to be disabilities: deafness, blindness, an intellectual disability or missing limbs or mobility impairments requiring the use of a wheelchair, cancer, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, schizophrenia.
Contemporary understandings of disability derive from concepts that arose during the West's scientific Enlightenment. During the Middle Ages and other conditions were thought to be caused by demons, they were thought to be part of the natural order during and in the fallout of the Plague, which wrought impairments throughout the general population. In the early modern period there was a shift to seeking biological causes for physical and mental differences, as well as heightened interest in demarcating categories: for example, Ambroise Pare, in the sixteenth century, wrote of "monsters", "prodigies", "the maimed"; the European Enlightenment's emphases on knowledge derived from reason and on the value of natural science to human progress helped spawn the birth of institutions and associated knowledge systems that observed and categorized human beings. Contemporary concepts of disability are rooted in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century developments. Foremost among these was the development of clinical medical discourse, which made the human body visible as a thing to be manipulated and transformed.
These worked in tandem with scientific discourses that sought to classify and categorize and, in so doing, became methods of normalization. The concept of the "norm" developed in this time period, is signaled in the work of the Belgian statistician, sociologist and astronomer Adolphe Quetelet, who wrote in the 1830s of l'homme moyen – the average man. Quetelet postulated that one could take the sum of all people's attributes in a given population and find their average, that this figure should serve as a norm toward which all should aspire; this idea of a statistical norm threads through the rapid take up of statistics gathering by Britain, United States, the Western European states during this time period, it is tied to the rise of eugenics. Disability, as well as other concepts including: abnormal, non-normal, normalcy came from this; the circulation of these concepts is evident in the popularity of the freak show, where showmen profited from exhibiting people who deviated from those norms.
With the rise of eugenics in the latter part of the nineteenth century, such deviations were viewed as dangerous to the health of entire populations. With disability viewed as part of a person's biological make-up and thus their genetic inheritance, scientists turned their attention to notions of weeding such "deviations" out of the gene pool. Various metrics for assessing a person's genetic fitness, which were used to deport, sterilize, or institutionalize those deemed unfit. At the end of the Second World War, with the example of Nazi eugenics, eugenics faded from public discourse, d
William Graham Sumner
William Graham Sumner was a classical liberal American social scientist. He taught social sciences at Yale, he was one of the most influential teachers at any other major school. Sumner wrote within the social sciences, with numerous books and essays on American history, economic history, political theory and anthropology, he supported laissez-faire economics, free markets, the gold standard. He adopted the term "ethnocentrism" to identify the roots of imperialism, which he opposed, as a spokesman against it he was in favor of the "forgotten man" of the middle class, a term he coined, he had a long-term influence on conservatism in the United States. Sumner wrote an autobiographical sketch for the fourth of the histories of the Class of 1863 Yale College. In 1925, Rev. Harris E. Starr, class of 1910 Yale Department of Theology, published the first full-length biography of Sumner. A second full-length biography by Bruce Curtis was published in 1981. Other authors have included biographical information about Sumner as shown by citations in this "Biography" section.
Sumner was born in Paterson, New Jersey, on October 30, 1840. His father, Thomas Sumner, was born in England and immigrated to the United States in 1836, his mother, Sarah Graham, was born in England. She was brought to the United States in 1825 by her parents. Sumner's mother died. In 1841, Sumner's father went prospecting as far west as Ohio, but came back east to New England and settled in Hartford, Connecticut, in about 1845. Sumner wrote about his high regard for his father: "His principles and habits of life were the best possible." Earlier in his life, Sumner said, that he accepted from others "views and opinions" different from his father's. However, "at the present time," Sumner wrote, "in regard to those matters, I hold with him and not with the others." Sumner did not name the "matters."Sumner was educated in the Hartford public schools. After graduation, he worked for two years as a clerk in a store before going to Yale College from which he graduated in 1863. Sumner achieved an impressive record at Yale as a orator.
He was elected to the Phi Beta Kappa Society in his junior year and in his senior year to the secretive Skull and Bones society. Sumner avoided being drafted to fight in the American Civil War by paying a "substitute" $250, given to him by a friend, to enlist for three years; this and money given to him by his father and friends allowed Sumner to go to Europe for further studies. He spent his first year in the University of Geneva studying Latin and Hebrew and the following two years in the University of Göttingen studying ancient languages and Biblical science. All told, in his formal education, Sumner learned Hebrew, Latin and German. In addition, after middle age he taught himself Dutch, Portuguese, Russian, Polish and Swedish. In May 1866, he went to Oxford University to study theology. At Oxford, Henry Thomas Buckle planted the sociology seed in Sumner's mind. However, Herbert Spencer was to have the "dominating influence upon Sumner's thought." Except for a stint as a clergyman, Sumner's whole career was spent at Yale.
While at Oxford, Sumner was elected a tutor in mathematics. He was made a lecturer in Greek at Yale, beginning in September 1867. On December 27, 1867, at Trinity Church, New Haven, Sumner was ordained Deacon in the Episcopal Church. In March 1869, Sumner resigned his Yale tutorship to become assistant to the Rector of Calvary Episcopal Church. In July 1869, Sumner was ordained Priest. From September 1870 to September 1872, Sumner was Rector of the Church of the Redeemer in Morristown, N. J. On April 17, 1871, Sumner married Jeannie Whittemore Elliott, daughter of Henry H. Elliott of New York City, they had three boys: one died in infancy, Eliot became an officer of the Pennsylvania Railroad. Robert Bierstedt writes, they "stressed without surcease the Puritan virtues of hard work, self-reliance, self-denial, frugality and perseverance." Furthermore, writes Bierstedt, "it may be said that Sumner spent his entire life as a preacher of sermons." However, Sumner "preferred the classroom to the pulpit," so he left the ministry and returned to Yale in 1872 as "professor of political and social science" until he retired in 1909.
Sumner taught the first course in North America called "sociology."Other than what he said in the ordination service, there is no information about what motivated Sumner to be ordained. At his ordination, Sumner said. Sumner did not make known, at least publicly, his reasons for leaving the ministry. However, he and historians suggest that it might have been a loss of belief and/or a dim view of the church and its clergy. Clarence J. Karier says, "Sumner found that his deity vanished with the years." "I have never discarded beliefs deliberately," Sumner said in life, but "I left them in a drawer and, after a while, when I opened it there was nothing there at all." Harris E. Starr found that Sumner "never attacked religion" or "assumed a controversial attitude toward it." At the same time, Starr found that during Sumner's time as a professor he stopped attending Trinity Church, New Haven, where he had been ordained Deacon. After that, Sumner attended church only occasionally. However, in the closing years of his life, he baptized a little grandson, not long before his death he attended New Haven's St. John's Church to receive Holy Communion.
Starr wrote that these two events "suggest that deep down in his nature a modicum
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry and housing. A metro area comprises multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, boroughs, towns, suburbs, districts and nations like the eurodistricts; as social and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. Metropolitan areas include one or more urban areas, as well as satellite cities and intervening rural areas that are socioeconomically tied to the urban core measured by commuting patterns. In the United States, the concept of the metropolitan statistical area has gained prominence. Metropolitan areas may themselves be part of larger megalopolises. For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the regiopolis and regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006.
In the United States, the term micropolitan statistical area is used. A metropolitan area combines an urban agglomeration with zones not urban in character, but bound to the center by employment or other commerce; these outlying zones are sometimes known as a commuter belt, may extend well beyond the urban zone, to other political entities. For example, New York on Long Island is considered part of the New York metropolitan area. In practice, the parameters of metropolitan areas, in both official and unofficial usage, are not consistent. Sometimes they are little different from an urban area, in other cases they cover broad regions that have little relation to a single urban settlement. Population figures given for one metro area can vary by millions. There has been no significant change in the basic concept of metropolitan areas since its adoption in 1950, although significant changes in geographic distributions have occurred since and more are expected; because of the fluidity of the term "metropolitan statistical area," the term used colloquially is more "metro service area," "metro area," or "MSA" taken to include not only a city, but surrounding suburban and sometimes rural areas, all which it is presumed to influence.
A polycentric metropolitan area contains multiple urban agglomerations not connected by continuous development. In defining a metropolitan area, it is sufficient that a city or cities form a nucleus with which other areas have a high degree of integration. See the many lists of metropolitan areas itemized at § Lists of metropolitan areas; the Australian Bureau of Statistics defines Greater Capital City Statistical Areas as the areas of functional extent of the seven state capitals and the Australian Capital Territory. GCCSAs replaced "Statistical Divisions" used until 2011. In Brazil, metropolitan areas are called "metropolitan regions"; each State defines its own legislation for the creation and organization of a metropolitan region. The creation of a metropolitan region is not intended for any statistical purpose, although the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics uses them in its reports, their main purpose is to allow for a better management of public policies of common interest to all cities involved.
They don't have political, electoral or jurisdictional power whatsoever, so citizens living in a metropolitan region do not elect representatives for them. Statistics Canada defines a census metropolitan area as an area consisting of one or more adjacent municipalities situated around a major urban core. To form a CMA, the metropolitan area must have a population of at least 100,000, at least half within the urban core. To be included in the CMA, adjacent municipalities must have a high degree of integration with the core, as measured by commuter flows derived from census data. In Chinese, there used to be no clear distinction between "megalopolis" and "metropolitan area" until National Development and Reform Commission issued Guidelines on the Cultivation and Development of Modern Metropolitan Areas on Feb 19, 2019, in which a metropolitan area was defined as "an urbanized spatial form in a megalopolis dominated by supercity or megacity, or a large metropolis playing a leading part, within the basic range of 1-hour commute area."
The European Union's statistical agency, has created a concept named Larger Urban Zone. The LUZ represents an attempt at a harmonised definition of the metropolitan area, the goal was to have an area from a significant share of the resident commute into the city, a concept known as the "functional urban region". France's national statistics institute, the INSEE, names an urban core and its surrounding area of commuter influence an aire urbaine; this statistical method applies to agglomerations of all sizes, but the INSEE sometimes uses the term aire métropolitaine to refer to France's largest aires urbaines. In German definition, metropolian areas are eleven most densely populated areas in the Federal Republic of Germany, they comprise the major German cities and their surrounding catchment areas and form the political and cultural centres of the country. For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the Regiopolis and regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006.
In India, a metropolitan city is defin
Urban culture is the culture of towns and cities. The defining theme is the presence of a great number of different people in a limited space - most of them are strangers to each other; this makes it possible to build up a vast array of subcultures close to each other, exposed to each other's influence, but without intruding into people's private lives. Globally, urban areas tend to be home to concentrations of power, such as government capitals and corporate headquarters, the wealthy and powerful people that are employed in them. Cities organize people, create norms and values; as outlined by Max Weber in his book, The City, "there are five things that make a city: fortification, market, a law code, an association of urban citizenry creating a sense of municipal corporateness, sufficient political autonomy for urban citizens to choose the city’s governors." In some countries, elites have built. In most of the Western World, urban areas tend to be politically to the left of suburban and rural areas if deindustrialization has reduced the influence of labour unions and the working class, the new urban left is supported by upper middle class white-collar workers and academics, creative types.
Urbanites tend to be much less religious, more environmentalist, more open to immigration than rural people. In Canada, urban culture is sometimes used as a euphemism for the culture of visible minorities. Sometimes this means Black Canadian culture, though since Blacks are a much smaller part of Canada's population than in the United States, the connection is less obvious. More the phrase may be used to connote the multicultural, immigrant-friendly mosaic atmosphere cultivated by cities such as Toronto and Vancouver, British Columbia, in contrast to the Whiter rural regions of those provinces. In the United States, Urban culture is used as a euphemistic reference to contemporary African American culture. Prior to the 20th century, the African American population was rural; the Great Migration of African-Americans created the first large, urban black communities in the American North. It is conservatively estimated that 400,000 left the South during the two-year period of 1916-1918 to take advantage of a labor shortage created in the wake of the First World War.
The 20th century cultures of many of the United States' modern cities were forged in this period. In 1910, the African American population of Detroit was 6,000. By the start of the Great Depression in 1929, this figure had risen to 120,000. In 1900 Chicago had a total population of 1,698,575. By 1920 the population had increased by more than 1 million residents. During the second wave of the Great Migration, the African American population in the city grew from 278,000 to 813,000; the South Side of Chicago was considered the black capital of America. The massive number of African Americans to Ohio, in to Cleveland changed the demographics of the state and Cleveland. Prior to the Great Migration, an estimated 1.1 - 1.6% of Cleveland’s population was African American. In 1920, 4.3% of Cleveland’s population was African American. The number of African Americans in Cleveland continued to rise over the next twenty years of the Great Migration. Other cities, such as St. Louis, Baltimore and New York City experienced surges in their African-American populations.
In the South, the departure of hundreds of thousands of African Americans caused the black percentage of the population in most Southern states to decrease. For example, in Mississippi, blacks decreased from about 56% of the population in 1910 to about 37% by 1970 and in South Carolina, blacks decreased from about 55% of the population in 1910 to about 30% by 1970. By the end of the Second Great Migration, African Americans had become an urbanized population. More than 80 percent lived in cities. Fifty-three percent remained in the Southern United States, while 40 percent lived in the Northeast and North Central states and 7 percent in the West. Inner city Street culture African-American culture Graffiti Hip hop music Hipster Street Life, the Crusaders song and album of 1979Other: Futurism Chicago School Principles of Intelligent Urbanism Urbanism Urban economics Urban sociology Urban pop culture Hip hop fashion Urban contemporary Ocampo, Andrea.. Ciertos Ruidos, Nuevas Tribus Urbanas Chilenas.
Chile: Editorial Planeta. ISBN 978-956-247-466-5