Louis XVIII, known as "the Desired", was King of France from 1814 to 1824, except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days. He spent twenty-three years in exile, from 1791 to 1814, during the French Revolution and the First French Empire, again in 1815, during the period of the Hundred Days, upon the return of Napoleon I from Elba; until his accession to the throne of France, he held the title of Count of Provence as brother of King Louis XVI. On 21 September 1792, the National Convention abolished the monarchy and deposed Louis XVI, executed by guillotine; when his young nephew Louis XVII died in prison in June 1795, the Count of Provence succeeded as king Louis XVIII. Following the French Revolution and during the Napoleonic era, Louis XVIII lived in exile in Prussia and Russia; when the Sixth Coalition defeated Napoleon in 1814, Louis XVIII was placed in what he, the French royalists, considered his rightful position. However, Napoleon restored his French Empire. Louis XVIII fled, a Seventh Coalition declared war on the French Empire, defeated Napoleon again, again restored Louis XVIII to the French throne.
Louis XVIII ruled as king for less than a decade. The government of the Bourbon Restoration was a constitutional monarchy, unlike the Ancien Régime, absolutist; as a constitutional monarch, Louis XVIII's royal prerogative was reduced by the Charter of 1814, France's new constitution. Louis had no children, so upon his death the crown passed to his brother, Charles X. Louis XVIII was the last French monarch to die while still reigning, as Charles X abdicated and both Louis Philippe I and Napoleon III were deposed. Louis Stanislas Xavier, styled Count of Provence from birth, was born on 17 November 1755 in the Palace of Versailles, a younger son of Louis, Dauphin of France, his wife Maria Josepha of Saxony, he was the grandson of the reigning King Louis XV. As a son of the Dauphin, he was a Fils de France, he was christened Louis Stanislas Xavier six months after his birth, in accordance with Bourbon family tradition, being nameless before his baptism. By this act, he became a Knight of the Order of the Holy Spirit.
The name of Louis was bestowed. At the time of his birth, Louis Stanislas was fourth in line to the throne of France, behind his father and his two elder brothers: Louis Joseph Xavier, Duke of Burgundy, Louis Auguste, Duke of Berry; the former died in 1761, leaving Louis Auguste as heir to their father until the Dauphin's own premature death in 1765. The two deaths elevated Louis Stanislas to second in the line of succession, while his brother Louis Auguste acquired the title of Dauphin. Louis Stanislas found comfort in his governess, Madame de Marsan, Governess of the Children of France, as he was her favourite among his siblings. Louis Stanislas was taken away from his governess when he turned seven, the age at which the education of boys of royal blood and of the nobility was turned over to men. Antoine de Quélen de Stuer de Caussade, Duke of La Vauguyon, a friend of his father, was named as his governor. Louis Stanislas was an intelligent boy, his education was of the same quality and consistency as that of his older brother, Louis Auguste, despite the fact that Louis Auguste was heir and Louis Stanislas was not.
Louis Stanislas's education was quite religious in nature. La Vauguyon drilled into young Louis Stanislas and his brothers the way he thought princes should "know how to withdraw themselves, to like to work," and "to know how to reason correctly". In April 1771, when he was 15, Louis Stanislas's education was formally concluded, his own independent household was established, which astounded contemporaries with its extravagance: in 1773, the number of his servants reached 390. In the same month his household was founded, Louis was granted several titles by his grandfather, Louis XV: Duke of Anjou, Count of Maine, Count of Perche, Count of Senoches. During this period of his life he was known by the title Count of Provence. On 17 December 1773, he was inaugurated as a Grand Master of the Order of St. Lazarus. On 14 May 1771, Louis Stanislas married Princess Maria Giuseppina of Savoy. Marie Joséphine was a daughter of Victor Amadeus, Duke of Savoy, his wife Maria Antonia Ferdinanda of Spain. A luxurious ball followed the wedding on 20 May.
Louis Stanislas found his wife repulsive. The marriage remained unconsummated for years. Biographers disagree about the reason; the most common theories propose Louis Stanislas' alleged impotence or his unwillingness to sleep with his wife due to her poor personal hygiene. She never plucked her eyebrows, or used any perfumes. At the time of his marriage, Louis Stanislas was waddled instead of walked, he never continued to eat enormous amounts of food. Despite the fact that Louis Stanislas was not infatuated with his wife, he boasted that the two enjoyed vigorous conjugal relations – but such declarations were held in low esteem by courtiers at Versailles, he proclaimed his wife to be pregnant
Atlie FC is a South African football club based in Benoni, Gauteng. The club plays in the National First Division. Atlie came into existence in 2011 after the club's owners bought out Durban based side Nathi Lions and moved the club to Ekurhuleni; the team were relegated from the 2011–12 National First Division finishing the season 16th place. Carara Kicks had eighteen points removed due to fielding an ineligible player and Atlie were moved up to 15th place. Following the club's relegation, the owner Thabo Mathamela began talks with FC AK with a view to purchasing a controlling stake in the club. Official website Premier Soccer League
The Braindance Coincidence is a 2001 compilation album released by Rephlex Records. Rephlex Records was founded in 1991 by Richard D. Grant Wilson-Claridge, they coined the term "braindance", described by Wilson-Claridge as "a way of life" rather than a musical style. The record label launched the careers of µ-Ziq, Luke Vibert, Squarepusher. To celebrate the 10th year anniversary and over 100 releases, Rephlex Records released a 16-track compilation album of back catalog releases, titled The Braindance Coincidence, in 2001. Glenn Swan of AllMusic gave the album 4.5 stars out of 5, describing it as "stellar in scope, richly diverse, a smart starting point for the curious." Rod Smith of City Pages said, "Although the songs are more low-budget than lo-fi, the home-studio sound celebrates Rephlex's pre-Powerbook, analog origins." Matt Corwine of Seattle Weekly commented that "they all share the laid back, low-fidelity aesthetic of the geeky, reclusive personalities that made them and the bedroom studios in which they were recorded."
Nicolae White of The Stranger called it "a great starting point to see what's going on in the world of experimental electronic music." The Braindance Coincidence at Discogs The Braindance Coincidence at AllMusic. Retrieved April 2, 2017