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Louis XVI of France

Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste, was the last king of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution. He was referred to as Citizen Louis Capet during the four months. In 1765, upon the death of his father, Dauphin of France—the son and heir apparent of Louis XV—Louis-Auguste became the new Dauphin of France. Upon his grandfather's death on 10 May 1774, he assumed the title King of France and Navarre, until 4 September 1791, when he received the title of King of the French until the monarchy was abolished on 21 September 1792; the first part of his reign was marked by attempts to reform the French government in accordance with Enlightenment ideas. These included efforts to abolish serfdom, remove the taille and the corvée, increase tolerance toward non-Catholics as well as the abolition of the death penalty for deserters; the French nobility reacted to the proposed reforms with hostility, opposed their implementation. Louis implemented deregulation of the grain market, advocated by his economic liberal minister Turgot, but it resulted in an increase in bread prices.

In periods of bad harvests, it would lead to food scarcity. From 1776, Louis XVI supported the North American colonists, who were seeking their independence from Great Britain, realised in the 1783 Treaty of Paris; the ensuing debt and financial crisis contributed to the unpopularity of the Ancien Régime. This led to the convening of the Estates-General of 1789. Discontent among the members of France's middle and lower classes resulted in strengthened opposition to the French aristocracy and to the absolute monarchy, of which Louis and his wife, Queen Marie Antoinette, were viewed as representatives. Increasing tensions and violence were marked by events such as the storming of the Bastille, during which riots in Paris forced Louis to definitively recognize the legislative authority of the National Assembly. Louis XVI was initiated into masonic lodge Trois-Frères à l'Orient de la Cour. Louis' indecisiveness and conservatism led some elements of the people of France to view him as a symbol of the perceived tyranny of the Ancien Régime, his popularity deteriorated progressively.

His disastrous flight to Varennes in June 1791, four months before the constitutional monarchy was declared, seemed to justify the rumors that the king tied his hopes of political salvation to the prospects of foreign intervention. The credibility of the king was undermined, the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a republic became an ever-increasing possibility. In a context of civil and international war, Louis XVI was suspended and arrested at the time of the Insurrection of 10 August 1792, he was tried by the National Convention, found guilty of high treason, executed by guillotine on 21 January 1793, as a desacralized French citizen under the name of Citizen Louis Capet, in reference to Hugh Capet, the founder of the Capetian dynasty – which the revolutionaries interpreted as Louis' surname. Louis XVI was the only King of France to be executed, his death brought an end to more than a thousand years of continuous French monarchy. Both of his sons died before the Bourbon Restoration.

Louis-Auguste de France, given the title Duc de Berry at birth, was born in the Palace of Versailles. One of seven children, he was the second surviving son of Louis, the Dauphin of France, the grandson of Louis XV of France and of his consort, Maria Leszczyńska, his mother was Marie-Josèphe of Saxony, the daughter of Frederick Augustus II of Saxony, Prince-Elector of Saxony and King of Poland. Louis-Auguste was overlooked by his parents who favored his older brother, duc de Bourgogne, regarded as bright and handsome but who died at the age of nine in 1761. Louis-Auguste, a strong and healthy boy but shy, excelled in his studies and had a strong taste for Latin, history and astronomy and became fluent in Italian and English, he enjoyed physical activities such as hunting with his grandfather and rough play with his younger brothers, Louis-Stanislas, comte de Provence, Charles-Philippe, comte d'Artois. From an early age, Louis-Auguste was encouraged in another of his interests, seen as a useful pursuit for a child.

When his father died of tuberculosis on 20 December 1765, the eleven-year-old Louis-Auguste became the new Dauphin. His mother never recovered from the loss of her husband and died on 13 March 1767 from tuberculosis; the strict and conservative education he received from the Duc de La Vauguyon, "gouverneur des Enfants de France", from 1760 until his marriage in 1770, did not prepare him for the throne that he was to inherit in 1774 after the death of his grandfather, Louis XV. Throughout his education, Louis-Auguste received a mixture of studies particular to religion and humanities, his instructors may have had a good hand in shaping Louis-Auguste into the indecisive king that he became. Abbé Berthier, his instructor, taught him that timidity was a value in strong monarchs, Abbé Soldini, his confessor, instructed him not to let people read his mind. On 16 May 1770, at the age of fifteen, Louis-Auguste married the fourteen-year-old Habsburg Archduchess Maria Antonia

Gretchena bolliana

Gretchena bolliana, the pecan bud moth or gray-flanked gretchena moth, is a moth of the family Tortricidae. It is found in the United States from South Carolina to Florida and west to Texas and New Mexico; the wingspan is about 17 mm. Adults are gray with blackish-brown patches on the forewings. There are five or six generations per year; the larvae feed on the foliage of Carya illinoinensis. They feed on young nuts in the spring and infest the shucks in the fall; the most serious damage occurs on pecan nursery stock, where the larvae feed on the terminal buds and unfolding foliage. The species overwinters as an adult. Pupation takes place in infested buds and sometimes under bark scales; the larvae are about 12 mm long, creamy to dirty white when young and yellowish green with dark brown heads and necks when mature

Khatushyam Temple

The Khatushyam Temple is a Hindu temple in the village of Khatushyamji, India, popular with pilgrims. Devotees believe it houses the miraculously rediscovered head of Barbarika or Khatushyam, a character from the Mahabharata. Before the beginning of the Mahābhārata battle, Barbarika's last wish was to see the war "Mahabharat" so Lord krishna himself placed his head on the top of a mountain for Barbarika to see the war. After many years when Kalyug started the head was found buried in the village of Khatu in present-day Rajasthan; the location was obscured until well. On one occasion, milk started flowing spontaneously out of a cow's udder when she neared the burial spot. Amazed at this incident, the local villagers dug the place up and the buried head was revealed; the head was handed over to a Brahmin who worshipped it for many days, awaiting divine revelations as to what was to be done next. Roopsingh Chauhan, king of Khatu had a dream where he was inspired to build a temple and install the head therein.

Subsequently, a temple was built and the idol was installed on the 11th day of the Shukla Paksha of the month of Phalgun. There is another, only different version of this legend. Roopsingh Chauhan was the ruler of Khatu, his wife, Narmada Kanwar, once had a dream in which the deity instructed her to take his image out of the earth. The indicated place when dug up. Sure enough, it yielded the idol, duly enshrined in the temple; the original temple was built in 1027 AD by Roopsingh Chauhan, after his wife Narmada Kanwar, saw dream about the buried idol. The place where the idol was dug out from is called Shyam Kund. In 1720 AD, a nobleman known as Diwan Abhaisingh renovated the old temple, at the behest of the ruler of Marwar; the temple took its present shape at this time and the idol was enshrined in the sanctum sanctorum. The idol is made of rare stone. Khatushyam is the family deity of many families, his another temple is located at Lambha, Gujarat where people are coming with their newly born child to have blessings of Khatushyam.

Here he is known as Baliya Dev. The temple is architecturally rich. Lime mortar and tiles have been used in constructing the structure; the shutters of the sanctum sanctorum are beautifully covered with gold sheet. Outside is the prayer hall, named Jagmohan; the hall is large in size and its walls are elaborately painted, depicting mythological scenes. The entrance gate and exit gate are made of marble. There is an open space in front of the entrance gate of the temple; the Shyam Bagicha is a garden near the temple from where flowers are picked to be offered to the deity. The Samadhi of Aloo Singh, a great devotee, is located within the garden; the "Shyam Kund" is a holy pond near the temple from. In this kund devotees do worship of khatu naresh; the Gopinath temple lies to the south-east of the main temple. The Gaurishankar temple lies nearby. There is an interesting tale associated with the Gaurishankar temple, it is said. They attacked. Fountains of blood appeared from the Shiva Lingam; the soldiers ran away.

One can still see the mark of the spear on the Lingam. Khatushyam main temple is located at Khatu Town about 80 km from Jaipur. Devotees are requested to take route via Ringus; the Public Trust that has charge of the temple is registered under registration No. 3/86. A 7-member committee oversees the management of the temple. A number of Dharmashalas are available for their comfortable stay; the temple timings are as follows: In winter: 5.30 am - 4.00 pm - 9.00 pm. In summer: 4.30 am - 12.30 pm and 4.00 pm - 10.00 pm. The temple is open 24 hours a day on every Shukla Paksha Ekadasi, i.e. on the 11th day of the bright half of every month in the Hindu calendar. The temple is open throughout the 4-day Phalgun Mela. Khatu Iravat 27.364597°N 75.403479°E / 27.364597.