Naples is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan. In 2017, around 967,069 people lived within the city's administrative limits while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,115,320 residents, its continuously built-up metropolitan area is the second or third largest metropolitan area in Italy and one of the most densely populated cities in Europe. First settled by Greeks in the second millennium BC, Naples is one of the oldest continuously inhabited urban areas in the world. In the ninth century BC, a colony known as Parthenope or Παρθενόπη was established on the Island of Megaride refounded as Neápolis in the sixth century BC; the city was an important part of Magna Graecia, played a major role in the merging of Greek and Roman society and a significant cultural centre under the Romans. It served as the capital of the Duchy of Naples of the Kingdom of Naples and of the Two Sicilies until the unification of Italy in 1861.
Between 1925 and 1936, Naples was expanded and upgraded by Benito Mussolini's government but subsequently sustained severe damage from Allied bombing during World War II, which led to extensive post-1945 reconstruction work. Naples has experienced significant economic growth in recent decades, helped by the construction of the Centro Direzionale business district and an advanced transportation network, which includes the Alta Velocità high-speed rail link to Rome and Salerno and an expanded subway network. Naples is the third-largest urban economy in Italy, after Rome; the Port of Naples is one of the most important in Europe and home of the Allied Joint Force Command Naples, the NATO body that oversees North Africa, the Sahel and Middle East. Naples' historic city centre is the largest in Europe and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, with a wide range of culturally and significant sites nearby, including the Palace of Caserta and the Roman ruins of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Naples is known for its natural beauties such as Posillipo, Phlegraean Fields and Vesuvius.
Neapolitan cuisine is synonymous with pizza – which originated in the city – but it includes many lesser-known dishes. The best-known sports team in Naples is the Serie A club S. S. C. Napoli, two-time Italian champions who play at the San Paolo Stadium in the southwest of the city, in the Fuorigrotta quarter. Naples has been inhabited since the Neolithic period; the earliest Greek settlements were established in the Naples area in the second millennium BC. Sailors from the Greek island of Rhodes established a small commercial port called Parthenope on the island of Megaride in the ninth century BC. By the eighth century BC, the settlement had expanded to include Monte Echia. In the sixth century BC the new urban zone of Neápolis was founded on the plain becoming one of the foremost cities of Magna Graecia; the city grew due to the influence of the powerful Greek city-state of Syracuse, became an ally of the Roman Republic against Carthage. During the Samnite Wars, the city, now a bustling centre of trade, was captured by the Samnites.
During the Punic Wars, the strong walls surrounding Neápolis repelled the invading forces of the Carthaginian general Hannibal. Naples was respected by the Romans as a paragon of Hellenistic culture. During the Roman era, the people of Naples maintained their Greek language and customs, while the city was expanded with elegant Roman villas and public baths. Landmarks such as the Temple of Dioscures were built, many emperors chose to holiday in the city, including Claudius and Tiberius. Virgil, the author of Rome's national epic, the Aeneid, received part of his education in the city, resided in its environs, it was during this period. Januarius, who would become Naples' patron saint, was martyred there in the fourth century AD; the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, Romulus Augustulus, was exiled to Naples by the Germanic king Odoacer in the fifth century AD. Following the decline of the Western Roman Empire, Naples was captured by the Ostrogoths, a Germanic people, incorporated into the Ostrogothic Kingdom.
However, Belisarius of the Byzantine Empire recaptured Naples in 536, after entering the city via an aqueduct. In 543, during the Gothic Wars, Totila took the city for the Ostrogoths, but the Byzantines seized control of the area following the Battle of Mons Lactarius on the slopes of Vesuvius. Naples was expected to keep in contact with the Exarchate of Ravenna, the centre of Byzantine power on the Italian Peninsula. After the exarchate fell, a Duchy of Naples was created. Although Naples' Greco-Roman culture endured, it switched allegiance from Constantinople to Rome under Duke Stephen II, putting it under papal suzerainty by 763; the years between 818 and 832 were tumultuous in regard to Naples' relations with the Byzantine Emperor, with numerous local pretenders feuding for possession of the ducal throne. Theoctistus was appointed without imperial approval. However, the disgruntled general populace chased him from the city, instead elected Stephen III, a man who minted coins with his own initials, r
Crown lands of France
The crown lands, crown estate, royal domain or domaine royal of France refers to the lands and rights directly possessed by the kings of France. While the term came to refer to a territorial unit, the royal domain referred to the network of "castles and estates, towns, religious houses and bishoprics, the rights of justice and taxes" held by the king or under his domination. In terms of territory, before the reign of Henry IV, the domaine royal did not encompass the entirety of the territory of the kingdom of France and for much of the Middle Ages significant portions of the kingdom were the direct possessions of other feudal lords. In the tenth and eleventh centuries, the first Capetians—while being the kings of France—were among the least powerful of the great feudal lords of France in terms of territory possessed. Patiently, through the use of feudal law, annexation, skillful marriages with heiresses of large fiefs, by purchase, the kings of France were able to increase the royal domain.
By the time of Philip IV, the meaning of "royal domain" began to shift from a mere collection of lands and rights to a fixed territorial unit, by the sixteenth century the "royal domain" began to coincide with the entire kingdom. However, the medieval system of appanage alienated large territories from the royal domain and sometimes created dangerous rivals. During the Wars of Religion, the alienation of lands and fiefs from the royal domain was criticized; the Edict of Moulins declared that the royal domain could not be alienated, except in two cases: by interlocking, in the case of financial emergency, with a perpetual option to repurchase the land. Traditionally, the king was expected to survive from the revenues generated from the royal domain, but fiscal necessity in times of war, led the kings to enact "exceptional" taxes, like the taille, upon the whole of the kingdom. At the beginning of Hugh Capet's reign, the crown estate was small and consisted of scattered possessions in the Île-de-France and Orléanais regions, with several other isolated pockets, such as Attigny.
These lands were the inheritance of the Robertians, the direct ancestors of the Capetians. 988: Montreuil-sur-Mer, the first port held by the Capetians, is acquired through the marriage of the crown prince Robert with Rozala, the widow of the Arnulf II, Count of Flanders. 1016: acquisition of the Duchy of Burgundy. The king was the nephew of Duke Henry of Burgundy. Robert gains the counties of Paris and Melun, negotiates the ultimate acquisition of a part of Sens. 1034: the king gives the Duchy of Burgundy to his brother Robert 1055: annexation of the County of Sens. 1068: acquisition of Gâtinais and Château-Landon from Fulk IV, Count of Anjou 1077: annexation of the French Vexin 1081: acquisition of Moret-sur-Loing 1101: acquisition of the Viscounty of Bourges and the seigneury of Dun-sur-Auron from Odo Arpin of Bourges the king spends much of his reign pacifying and consolidating the royal domain by battling certain feudal lords from Fulk, Viscount of Gâtinais, Louis bought Moret, Le Châtelet-en-Brie, Boësses, Yèvre-le-Châtel and Chambon.
Other additions to the royal domain include: Montlhéry and Châteaufort, Corbeil, Meung-sur-Loire, Châteaurenard and Saint-Brisson. 1137: marriage of Louis with Eleanor of Aquitaine, Duchess of Aquitaine and Gascony and Countess of Poitou. By this marriage, Louis hopes to attach most of South-West France to the royal domain. 1137: Louis gives Dreux to his brother Robert. 1151: separation of Louis VII and of Eleanor of Aquitaine, who in 1152 weds Henry Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, Count of Maine and Duke of Normandy, who becomes in 1154, King of England. Eleanor's lands come to Henry in her dowry. 1160: gives Norman Vexin to his daughter Margaret as a dowry. Margaret is forced to surrender her dowry. 1184: granted Montargis. 1185: by the Treaty of Boves, gains Amiens and Montdidier, Choisy-au-Bac, Thourotte and rights to the inheritance of Vermandois and Valois. 1187: seizes Tournai from the bishop. Confiscates Meulan and other castles. 1191: at the death of Philip of Alsace, Count of Flanders, the County of Artois and its dependencies, the inheritance of the queen Isabelle of Hainaut, are given to prince Louis.
These areas would not become integrated into the royal domain until 1223. 1191: the County of Vermandois is acquired by the king, after the death of Elisabeth of Vermandois, the inheritor of the County. Confirmed in 1213, by Eléonore of Vermandois sister of Elisabeth. Philip gains Valois. 1200: the Norman Vexin is annexed 1200 the County of Évreux and Issoudun are annexed, in exchange for the king's recognition of John of England as king of England. 1204: confiscation of the Duchy of Normandy, the Touraine, Saintonge and, temporarily, of the Poitou from John of England. 1208: La Ferté-Macé confiscated from Guillaume IV of Ferté-Macé 1220: the Count
Duke of Nemours
Duke of Nemours was a title in the Peerage of France. The name refers to Nemours in the Île-de-France region of north-central France. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the Lordship of Nemours, in the Gatinais, was a possession of the house of Villebéon, a member of which, was marshal of France in the middle of the 13th century; the lordship was sold to King Philip III of France in 1276 by Jean and Philippe de Nemours. It was made a county and given in 1364 to Jean III de Grailly, captal de Buch. In 1404, Charles VI of France gave it to Charles III of Navarre and erected it into a duchy in the peerage of France, in exchange to his ancestral county of Évreux in Normandy. After being confiscated and restored several times, the duchy reverted to the French crown in 1504, after the extinction of the house of Armagnac-Pardiac. In 1507, it was given by Louis XII of France to his nephew, Gaston de Foix, killed at the Battle of Ravenna in 1512; the duchy returned to the royal domain and was detached from it successively for Giuliano de Medici and his wife Philiberta of Savoy in 1515, for Louise of Savoy in 1524, for Philip of Savoy, Count of Genevois, in 1528.
The descendants of Philip of Savoy held the duchy until its sale to Louis XIV of France. In 1672, Louis XIV gave it to his brother Philippe de France, Duke of Orléans, whose descendants held it until the French Revolution, it was one of the many subsidiary titles held by the House of Orléans. The title of Duke of Nemours was afterwards given to Louis Charles d'Orléans, the second son of King Louis Philippe of the French. House of Château-LandonOrson Aveline, died 1196Aveline married Walter of Villebéon, lord of Beaumont-du-Gâtinais, in 1150 and shared the lordship with him, they left it to their son in 1174. House of VillebéonWalter I, died 1205 Philip I Walter II Philip II Walter III Philip III The lordship was sold to the king in 1274. Charles d'Évreux King of NavarreAfter the death of Charles III in 1425, the Duchy was claimed both by the descendants of his younger daughter and his elder daughter and heiress, Blanche I of Navarre. Louis XI settled the claim on Jacques d'Armagnac, grandson of Beatrix, in 1462, though Blanche's descendants, the Kings of Navarre, claimed the title until 1571.
Eléanore de Bourbon Jacques d'Armagnac confiscated from Jacques at his execution for treason in 1477, restored to his son Jean in 1484Jean d'Armagnac Louis d'Armagnac Marguerite d'Armagnac Charlotte d'Armagnac The last descendant of Béatrix d'Évreux, she died without issue. Gaston of Foix Giuliano di Medici, married to: Philiberte of Savoy Louise of Savoy, Duchess of Angoulême, Francis I of France's mother, she received the duchy of Nemours in 1524 with the duchy of Anjou. It was transferred to her half-brother in 1528 and she received the duchy of Touraine in exchange, she received the Duchy of Auvergne. Philip of Savoy Jacques of Savoy Charles Emmanuel of Savoy Henry of Savoy Louis of Savoy Charles Amadeus of Savoy Henry of Savoy Philippe de France Philippe d'Orléans, Regent of France 1715–1723, son of the above Louis d'Orléans, Duke of Orléans, son of the above Louis Philippe d'Orléans, son of the above Philippe d'Orléans, Philippe Égalité, son of the above Louis Philippe d'Orléans, King of the French, 1830–1848, son of the above Louis Charles d'Orléans, son of the above Charles Philippe d'Orléans, great-grandson of the above This is a list of the Duchesses of Nemours and their original houses
Normandy is one of the 18 regions of France referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy. Normandy is divided into five administrative departments: Calvados, Manche and Seine-Maritime, it covers 30,627 square kilometres, comprising 5% of the territory of metropolitan France. Its population of 3.37 million accounts for around 5% of the population of France. The inhabitants of Normandy are known as Normans, the region is the historic homeland of the Norman language; the historical region of Normandy comprised the present-day region of Normandy, as well as small areas now part of the departments of Mayenne and Sarthe. The Channel Islands are historically part of Normandy. Normandy's name comes from the settlement of the territory by Danish and Norwegian Vikings from the 9th century, confirmed by treaty in the 10th century between King Charles III of France and the Viking jarl Rollo. For a century and a half following the Norman conquest of England in 1066, Normandy and England were linked by Norman and Frankish rulers.
Archaeological finds, such as cave paintings, prove that humans were present in the region in prehistoric times. Celts invaded Normandy in successive waves from the 4th to the 3rd century BC; when Julius Caesar invaded Gaul, there were nine different Celtic tribes living in Normandy. The Romanisation of Normandy was achieved by the usual methods: Roman roads and a policy of urbanisation. Classicists have knowledge of many Gallo-Roman villas in Normandy. In the late 3rd century, barbarian raids devastated Normandy. Coastal settlements were raided by Saxon pirates. Christianity began to enter the area during this period. In 406, Germanic tribes began invading from the east; as early as 487, the area between the River Somme and the River Loire came under the control of the Frankish lord Clovis. Vikings started to raid the Seine valley during the middle of the 9th century; as early as 841, a Viking fleet appeared at the mouth of the Seine, the principal route by which they entered the kingdom. After attacking and destroying monasteries, including one at Jumièges, they took advantage of the power vacuum created by the disintegration of Charlemagne's empire to take northern France.
The fiefdom of Normandy was created for Rollo. Rollo had besieged Paris but in 911 entered vassalage to the king of the West Franks, Charles the Simple, through the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte. In exchange for his homage and fealty, Rollo gained the territory which he and his Viking allies had conquered; the name "Normandy" reflects Rollo's Viking origins. To this day, in Norwegian language the word nordmann denotes a Norwegian person; the descendants of Rollo and his followers adopted the local Gallo-Romance language and intermarried with the area's native Gallo-Roman inhabitants. They became the Normans – a Norman-speaking mixture of Norsemen and indigenous Franks and Romans. Rollo's descendant William became king of England in 1066 after defeating Harold Godwinson, the last of the Anglo-Saxon kings, at the Battle of Hastings, while retaining the fiefdom of Normandy for himself and his descendants. Besides the conquest of England and the subsequent subjugation of Wales and Ireland, the Normans expanded into other areas.
Norman families, such as that of Tancred of Hauteville, Rainulf Drengot and Guimond de Moulins played important parts in the conquest of southern Italy and the Crusades. The Drengot lineage, de Hauteville's sons William Iron Arm and Humphrey, Robert Guiscard and Roger the Great Count progressively claimed territories in southern Italy until founding the Kingdom of Sicily in 1130, they carved out a place for themselves and their descendants in the Crusader states of Asia Minor and the Holy Land. The 14th-century explorer Jean de Béthencourt established a kingdom in the Canary Islands in 1404, he received the title King of the Canary Islands from Pope Innocent VII but recognized Henry III of Castile as his overlord, who had provided him aid during the conquest. In 1204, during the reign of John Lackland, mainland Normandy was taken from England by France under King Philip II. Insular Normandy remained however under English control. In 1259, Henry III of England recognized the legality of French possession of mainland Normandy under the Treaty of Paris.
His successors, however fought to regain control of their ancient fiefdom. The Charte aux Normands granted by Louis X of France in 1315 – like the analogous Magna Carta granted in England in the aftermath of 1204 – guaranteed the liberties and privileges of the province of Normandy. French Normandy was occupied by English forces during the Hundred Years' War in 1345–1360 and again in 1415–1450. Normandy lost three-quarters of its population during the war. Afterward prosperity returned to Normandy until the Wars of Religion; when many Norman towns joined the Protestant Reformation, battles ensued throughout the province. In the Channel Islands, a period of Calvinism following the Reformation was suppressed when Anglicanism was imposed following the English Civil War. Samuel de Champlain founded Acadia. Four years
Charles IV, Duke of Anjou
Charles IV, Duke of Anjou Charles of Maine, Count of Le Maine and Guise was the son of the Angevin prince Charles of Le Maine, Count of Maine and Isabelle of Luxembourg. He succeeded his father as Count of Maine, Guise and Gien in 1472, he succeeded his uncle René I of Naples in 1480 as forth Duke of Anjou and Count of Provence, according to the will of René who had no surviving son. René's surviving daughter Yolande received Bar and was Duchess of Lorraine, he used the title of Duke of Calabria, in token of the claims to Naples he inherited from René. In 1474 he married Joan of Lorraine, daughter of Frederick II of Vaudémont, but they had no children, he died on 10 December 1481. He willed his inheritance to his cousin Louis XI of France, whose heirs thus obtained a claim to the affairs of Italy, pursued in the next decades. Grierson, Philip. Medieval European Coinage: Volume 14, South Italy, Sardinia. Cambridge University Press. Potter, David. A History of France, 1460-1560: The Emergence of a Nation State.
St. Martin's Press. Counts and Dukes of Anjou Counts and Dukes of Maine Counts of Provence Dukes of Guise
Cerignola is a town and comune of Apulia, Italy, in the province of Foggia, 40 kilometres southeast from the town of Foggia. It has the third-largest land area of any comune in Italy, at 593.71 square kilometres, after Rome and Ravenna. In 2017, it had a population of 58,534; the large municipality of Cerignola is located on the Tavoliere plain, in south of its province, spans from the Salt Marshes of Margherita di Savoia to the borders with Basilicata region. It borders with Ascoli Satriano, Canosa di Puglia, Lavello, Ordona, Orta Nova, San Ferdinando di Puglia, Stornarella and Zapponeta. Cerignola occupies the site of Furfane, a station on the ancient Roman Via Traiana between Canusium and Herdoniae, it was a municipium during the Roman Empire. In the Middle Ages, as part of the Kingdom of Naples, in 1418 it become a fief of the Caracciolo family. In 1503 the Spaniards under Gonzalo de Córdoba defeated the French under Louis d'Armagnac below the town, a victory which ensured Spain the rule over the kingdom of Naples and is considered the first battle whose outcome was determined by gunpowder.
In 17th century the fief passed to the Pignatelli family. Cerignola was rebuilt after a great earthquake in 1731. In the 19th century, after the reclamation of its territory, it has been home to a considerable agricultural production; the Cathedral The Chiesa Madre of St. Francis of Assisi Torre Alemanna, in the frazione Borgo Libertà Church of Beata Vergine del Monte Carmelo Palazzo Cirillo-Farrusi Piano delle Fosse del Grano The Italian wine DOC of Rosso di Cerignola is designated for red wine production only. Grapes are limited to a harvest yield of 14 tonnes/ha with the finished wine required to have at least 12% alcohol; the wine is a blend of at least 55% Uva di Troia, 15-30% Negroamaro, up to 15% of an assortment of Sangiovese, Montepulciano and Trebbiano. If the wine is labeled as Riserva the wine must have been aged at least two years in oak barrels/wood with a minimum alcohol level of 13%. Cerignola has a station, Cerignola Campagna, on the Pescara-Bari main railroad, served by regional trains.
From 1891 to 1956, it was the terminus of a short line to the city centre. It has an exit on the A14 motorway Bologna-Taranto, one on the A16 motorway Naples-Canosa. Provincial roads connect it to the main centre in the region as well. Public bus service in the town is provided by STUC company. Cerignola is the native town of philologist Nicola Zingarelli, founder of the Zingarelli Italian dictionary, syndicalist Giuseppe Di Vittorio. Achille La Guardia, father of Fiorello LaGuardia, Mayor of New York, originated from here; the local football team is the Audace Cerignola, its home ground is the Domenico Monterisi Stadium. Cerignola is twinned with: Vizzini, Italy Montilla, Spain Nemours, France Roman Catholic Diocese of Cerignola-Ascoli Satriano This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Cerignola". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5. Cambridge University Press. P. 761. Official website La Notizia Web - Cerignola's online newspaper
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona