England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Anglo-Irish is a term, more used in the 19th and early 20th centuries to identify a social class in Ireland, whose members are the descendants and successors of the English Protestant Ascendancy. They belong to the Anglican Church of Ireland, the established church of Ireland until 1871, or to a lesser extent one of the English dissenting churches, such as the Methodist church, though some were Catholic, its members tended to follow English practices in matters of culture, law and politics but defined themselves as "Irish" or "British", "Anglo-Irish" or "English". Many became eminent as senior army and naval officers. Others were prominent Irish nationalists; the term is not applied to Presbyterians in the province of Ulster, whose ancestry is Lowland Scottish, rather than English or Irish, who are sometimes identified as Ulster-Scots. The Anglo-Irish held a wide range of political views, with some being outspoken Irish Nationalists, but most overall being Unionists, and while many of the Anglo-Irish were part of the English diaspora in Ireland, some were of native Irish origin in part and Catholic but had converted to Anglicanism.
The term "Anglo-Irish" is applied to the members of the Church of Ireland who made up the professional and landed class in Ireland from the 17th century up to the time of Irish independence in the early 20th century. In the course of the 17th century, this Anglo-Irish landed class replaced the Gaelic Irish and Old English aristocracies as the ruling class in Ireland, they were referred to as "New English" to distinguish them from the "Old English", who descended from the medieval Hiberno-Norman settlers. A larger but less prominent element of the Protestant Irish population were immigrant French Huguenots and the English and Scottish dissenters who settled in Ireland in the 17th and 18th centuries in the plantation period. Many of these the Scots-Irish or their descendants, emigrated to the American colonies in the eighteenth century before the American Revolutionary War. Under the Penal Laws, which were in force between the 17th and 19th centuries, Roman Catholic recusants in Great Britain and Ireland were barred from holding public office, while in Ireland they were barred from entry to the University of Dublin and from professions such as law and the military.
The lands of the recusant Roman Catholic landed gentry who refused to take the prescribed oaths were confiscated during the Plantations of Ireland. The rights of Roman Catholics to inherit landed property were restricted; those who converted to the Church of Ireland were able to keep or regain their lost property, as the issue was considered one of allegiance. In the late 18th century, the Parliament of Ireland in Dublin won legislative independence, the movement for the repeal of the Test Acts began. Not all Anglo-Irish people could trace their origins to the Protestant English settlers of the Cromwellian period. Members of this ruling class identified themselves as Irish, while retaining English habits in politics and culture, they participated in the popular English sports of the day racing and fox hunting, intermarried with the ruling classes in Great Britain. Many of the more successful of them spent much of their careers either in Great Britain or in some part of the British Empire. Many constructed large country houses, which became known in Ireland as Big Houses, these became symbolic of the class' dominance in Irish society.
The Dublin working class playwright Brendan Behan, a staunch Irish Republican, saw the Anglo-Irish as Ireland's leisure class and famously defined an Anglo-Irishman as "a Protestant with a horse". The Anglo-Irish novelist and short story writer Elizabeth Bowen memorably described her experience as feeling "English in Ireland, Irish in England" and not accepted as belonging to either. Due to their prominence in the military and their conservative politics, the Anglo-Irish have been compared to the Prussian Junker class by, among others, Correlli Barnett. At the beginning of the 20th century, the Anglo-Irish owned many of the major indigenous businesses in Ireland, such as Jacob's Biscuits, Bewley's, Beamish and Crawford, Jameson's Whiskey, W. P. & R. Odlum, Cleeve's, R&H Hall, Maguire & Patterson, Dockrell's, Arnott's, Goulding Chemicals, the Irish Times, the Irish Railways, the Guinness brewery, Ireland's largest employer, they controlled financial companies such as the Bank of Ireland and Goodbody Stockbrokers.
Prominent Anglo-Irish poets and playwrights include Maria Edgeworth, Jonathan Swift, George Berkeley, Oliver Goldsmith, George Darley, Lucy Knox, Bram Stoker, Oscar Wilde, J. M. Synge, W. B. Yeats, Cecil Day-Lewis, Bernard Shaw, Lady Gregory, Samuel Beckett, Giles Cooper, C. S. Lewis, Lord Longford, Elizabeth Bowen, William Trevor and William Allingham. In the 19th century, some of the most prominent mathematical and physical scientists of the British Isles, including Sir William Rowan Hamilton, Sir George Stokes, John Tyndall, George Johnstone Stoney, Thomas Romney Robinson, Edward Sabine, Thomas Andrews, Lord Rosse, George Salmon, George FitzGerald, were Anglo-Irish. In the 20th-century, scientists John Joly and Ernest Walton were Anglo-Irish, as was the polar explorer Sir Ernest Shackleton. Medical experts included Sir William Wilde, Robert Graves, Thomas Wrigley Grimshaw, William Stokes, Robert Collis, Sir John Lumsden and William Babi
Roorkee is a city in North India and a Municipal Corporation in the Haridwar district of state Uttarakhand, India. It is spread over a flat terrain under Sivalik Hills of Himalayas; the city is developed on the banks of Ganges Canal, its dominant feature, which flows from north–south through middle of the city. Roorkee is home to Asia's first engineering college Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee known as Thomson College of Civil Engineering. Roorkee is known for the Roorkee Cantonment, one of the country's oldest military establishment and the headquarters of Bengal Engineer Group since 1853. Roorkee has the distinction of being one of the endpoints of the first train journey in India on 22 December 1851. Before 1840, the city was a tiny hamlet consisting of mud huts on the banks of the Solani rivulet. Digging work on the Upper Ganges Canal formally began in April 1842, under the aegis of Proby Cautley, a British officer. Local works were overseen by the engineer Thomas Login. Soon, Roorkee developed into a town.
The canal, formally opened on 8 April 1854, provided irrigation waters for more than 767,000 acres in 5,000 villages. Col. P. T. Cautley, an officer in the British Army, was most instrumental in constructing the canal. According to Dept. of Hydrology the canal, still considered as a marvel of engineering, was built in 1853. However, water was released in the canal on 8 April 1854. To look after the maintenance of canal, the Canal Workshop and Iron Foundry were established in 1843 on the civil lines on the canal bank, known as Irrigation workshop nowadays; this was followed by the establishment of Civil Engineering School. This was to become the first engineering college established in India. On 25 November 1847, the college was formally constituted through a proposal by the Sir James Thomason, Lt. Governor of North Western Province. After his death in 1853, the college was rechristened as Thomason College of Civil Engineering; the college upgraded to University of Roorkee in 1949. In 1853 Bengal Sappers and Miners were stationed here which provided a controlling influence during the 1857 uprising.
Other important events in the history of Roorkee include that under the Post Office Act of 1866, it was among the first few towns to have a post office and first telegraph office in the district. Now Roorkee has a General Post Office and a number of post offices located in Roorkee City and Cantt. In 1886, Roorkee was placed on the Railway map of India. In 1907, first provincial trunk road Meerut-Roorkee-Dehradun was constructed. In 1920, Roorkee became the first town in Uttar Pradesh to have Hydroelectricity. India's first aqueduct was constructed over the Solani river, near Roorkee, part of the Ganges Canal project, which itself was India's first irrigation work in North India, started by the British; the Ganges Canal led to another first for Roorkee — India's first steam engine Jenny Lind, ran in Roorkee on 22 December 1851, between Roorkee and Piran Kaliyar, two years before the first passenger train ran from Bombay to Thane in 1853. Operated by the Bengal Sappers, the railway line was built to carry soil used for the construction of the Upper Ganges Canal aqueduct from Piran Kaliyar, 10 km from the city.
The locomotive rail paths are still intact. A replica of what the locomotive is thought to have looked like is exhibited at Roorkee Railway Station; the municipality of Roorkee was created in 1868. Now it is a Municipal Corporation, it had been home to the Bengal Sappers and Miners since 1853, two artillery units were stationed there. Today, the Roorkee Cantonment has a large army base; the Bengal Engineering Group and Centre, are still there today. In 1901, when the city had a population of 17,197, it was made headquarters of the Roorkee Tehsil, in Saharanpur district of the United Province of the British Raj; the Old Cemetery in the city is a protected monument, by the Archaeological Survey of India. Roorkee is located at 29.87°N 77.88°E / 29.87. It has an average elevation of 268 metres. Roorkee is 165 kilometres north of the Indian capital, New Delhi, between the rivers Ganges and Yamuna, close to the foothills of the Himalayas. Before the creation of Uttarakhand on 9 November 2000, Roorkee was a part of the state of Uttar Pradesh.
In Roorkee, the climate is temperate. Roorkee is a city with significant rainfall; the climate here is classified as Cfa by the Köppen-Geiger system. The average annual temperature in Roorkee is 23.7 °C. In a year, the average rainfall is 1170 mm. According to the 2011 census Roorkee city has a population of 118,200; the average literacy rate of Roorkee is 89.48% Major languages spoken in Roorkee are: Hindi 72%, Urdu 23%, Punjabi 3%, English 2% Roorkee travel guide from Wikivoyage Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Roorkee". Encyclopædia Britannica. 23. Cambridge University Press. P. 706
Douglas Scott Botting was an English explorer, biographer and TV presenter and producer. He wrote biographies of naturalists Gavin Gerald Durrell, he was the inspiration behind and writer of the 1972 BBC comedy show The Black Safari, a role-reversal comedy show with Africans touring England. He featured in much other BBC programming, including Under London Expedition exploring the London sewerage system, as part of the BBC2 nature series The World About Us, he wrote numerous Second World War and early aviation books for Time Life Books. Botting took part, in the first balloon flight over Africa. Botting was born in Kingston upon Surrey. Having witnessed the London Blitz first-hand, he went on to make documentaries and write historical records of the Second World War and aviation. Botting got an early flavour of travel when he served as an infantry subaltern for the King's African Rifles in Kenya, as part of his National Service, he went on to study English at St Edmund Hall, during which time he undertook a pioneering exploration of the little-known island of Socotra in the Indian Ocean.
His first book, Island of the Dragon's Blood, is an account of this trip. During Oxford and post-Oxford years, he volunteered and worked in a variety of positions, including as a paramilitary ambulance unit member during the 1956 Hungarian Revolution, as a private tutor to the Crown Prince of Nepal, as a worker in a leper colony in Biafra, as a trainer for ex-head-hunter tribes undergoing re-training in the Venezuelan rain forest. However, he chose documentary filmmaking, investigative journalism as his career; as a BBC Special Correspondent to the former USSR, he reported news events such as the first cosmonauts' homecoming and Fidel Castro's state visit, was the first person from west of the Iron Curtain since the Russian Revolution of 1917 to travel voluntarily among the nomadic reindeer tribes of Arctic Siberia and the Gulag. Botting went on to make documentary films for organisations including National Geographic, the BBC, Time Life and Royal Geographical Society. Among his other occupations was that of writing: Botting wrote a series of Time Life Books on the Second World War, early aviation and maritime vessels.
His foray into investigative journalism included several other Second World War books, including the best-selling Nazi Gold: The Story of the World's Greatest Robbery - And Its Aftermath. His back-to-back biographies of Gavin Maxwell and Gerald Durrell earned him praise, he was the father of newsreader Anna Botting. His former wife is company director Louise Botting. Botting was an accomplished explorer in his own right, he undertook a systematic explorations of Socotra while at university, was part of the world's first balloon journey over Africa, the first British balloon journey across the High Alps, the first vessel to voyage by inland waterways from the Amazon to the Caribbean via the unexplored rain forests of the Casiquiare and Orinoco. Island of the Dragon's Blood. Eckener's Dream Machine: The Extraordinary Story of the Zeppelin; the Forgotten Island Festival in Kano The Surf Boats of Anomabu Beauty for Ashes Kenya Mountain Balloon Safari Maytime in Muscovy Siberia Greville Wynne Spy Trial Shadow in the Clouds The Italia Tragedy Balloon Over the Alps Three Men in a Balloon The Great Balloon Race The Under London Expedition The Black Safari (BB
Corfu or Kerkyra is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea. It is the second largest of the Ionian Islands, including its small satellite islands, forms the northwesternmost part of Greece; the island is part of the Corfu regional unit, is administered as a single municipality, which includes the smaller islands of Ereikoussa and Othonoi. The municipality has an area of 610,9 km2, the island proper 592,8 km2; the principal city of the island and seat of the municipality is named Corfu. Corfu is home to the Ionian University; the island is bound up with the history of Greece from the beginnings of Greek mythology. Its history is full of conquests. Ancient Korkyra took part in the Battle of Sybota, a catalyst for the Peloponnesian War, according to Thucydides, the largest naval battle between Greek city states until that time. Thucydides reports that Korkyra was one of the three great naval powers of fifth century BC Greece, along with Athens and Corinth. Medieval castles punctuating strategic locations across the island are a legacy of struggles in the Middle Ages against invasions by pirates and the Ottomans.
Two of these castles enclose its capital, the only city in Greece to be surrounded in such a way. As a result, Corfu's capital has been declared a Kastropolis by the Greek government. From medieval times and into the 17th century, the island, having repulsed the Ottomans during several sieges, was recognised as a bulwark of the European States against the Ottoman Empire and became one of the most fortified places in Europe; the fortifications of the island were used by the Venetians to defend against Ottoman intrusion into the Adriatic. Corfu fell under British rule following the Napoleonic Wars. Corfu was ceded by the British Empire along with the remaining islands of the United States of the Ionian Islands, unification with modern Greece was concluded in 1864 under the Treaty of London. In 2007, the city's old quarter was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List, following a recommendation by ICOMOS. Corfu is a popular tourist destination; the island was the location of the 1994 European Union summit.
The Greek name, Kerkyra or Korkyra, is related to two powerful water deities: Poseidon, god of the sea, Asopos, an important Greek mainland river. According to myth, Poseidon fell in love with the beautiful nymph Korkyra, daughter of Asopos and river nymph Metope, abducted her. Poseidon brought Korkyra to the hitherto unnamed island and, in marital bliss, offered her name to the place: Korkyra, which evolved to Kerkyra, they had a child they called Phaiax, after whom the inhabitants of the island were named Phaiakes, in Latin Phaeaciani. Corfu's nickname is the island of the Phaeacians; the name Corfù, an Italian version of the Byzantine Κορυφώ, meaning "city of the peaks", derives from the Byzantine Greek Κορυφαί, denoting the two peaks of Palaio Frourio. The northeastern edge of Corfu lies off the coast of Sarandë, separated by straits varying in width from 3 to 23 km; the southeast side of the island lies off the coast of Greece. Its shape resembles a sickle, to which it was compared by the ancients: the concave side, with the city and harbour of Corfu in the centre, lies toward the Albanian coast.
With the island's area estimated at 592.9 square kilometres, it runs 64 km long, with greatest breadth at around 32 km. Two high and well-defined ranges divide the island into three districts, of which the northern is mountainous, the central undulating, the southern low-lying; the more important of the two ranges, that of Pantokrator stretches east and west from Cape Falacro to Cape Psaromita, attains its greatest elevation in the summit of the same name. The second range culminates in the mountain of Santi Jeca, or Santa Decca, as it is called by misinterpretation of the Greek designation Άγιοι Δέκα, or the Ten Saints; the whole island, composed as it is of various limestone formations, presents great diversity of surface, views from more elevated spots are magnificent. Beaches are found in Agios Gordis, the Korission lagoon, Agios Georgios, Kassiopi, Sidari and many others. Corfu is located near the Kefalonia geological fault formation. Corfu's coastline spans 217 kilometres including capes.
The full extent of capes and promontories take in Agia Aikaterini, Drastis to the north and Asprokavos to the southeast, Megachoro to the south. Two islands are to be found at a middle point of Gouvia and Corfu Bay, which extends across much of the eastern shore of the island. Camping areas can be found in Palaiokastritsa, with four in the northern part, Roda and Messonghi; the Diapontia Islands are located in the northwest of Corfu, about 40 km away from Italian coasts. The main islands are Othonoi and Mathraki. Lazaretto Island known as Aghios Dimitrios, is located two nautical miles northeast of Corfu. During Venetian rule in the early 16th century, a monastery was built on the islet and a leprosarium established in the century, after which the island was
Bournemouth is a large coastal resort town on the south coast of England, east of the 96-mile-long Jurassic Coast, a World Heritage Site. At the 2011 census, the town had a population of 183,491. With Poole to the west and Christchurch in the east, Bournemouth is part of the South East Dorset conurbation, which has a population of 465,000. Before it was founded in 1810 by Lewis Tregonwell, the area was a deserted heathland visited by fishermen and smugglers. Marketed as a health resort, the town received a boost when it appeared in Augustus Granville's 1841 book, The Spas of England. Bournemouth's growth accelerated with the arrival of the railway, it became a town in 1870. Part of Hampshire, it joined Dorset with the reorganisation of local government in 1974. Since 1997, the town has been administered by a unitary authority independent of Dorset County Council, although it remains part of that ceremonial county; the local council is Bournemouth Borough Council. From 1 April 2019 it will be part of the new Bournemouth and Poole Council.
The town centre has notable Victorian architecture and the 202-foot spire of St Peter's Church, one of three Grade 1 listed churches in the borough, is a local landmark. Bournemouth's location has made it a popular destination for tourists, attracting over five million visitors annually with its beaches and popular nightlife; the town is a regional centre of business, home of the Bournemouth International Centre or BIC, a financial sector, worth more than £1,000 million in gross value added. The first mention of Bournemouth comes in the Christchurch cartulary of 1406, where a monk describes how a large fish, 18 feet long, was washed up at "La Bournemothe" in October of that year and taken to the Manor of Wick. "La Bournemowthe", was purely a geographic reference to the uninhabited area around the mouth of the small river which, in turn, drained the heathland between the towns of Poole and Christchurch. The word bourne, meaning a small stream, is a derivative of burna, old English for a brook.
From the latter half of the 16th century "Bourne Mouth" seems to be preferred, being recorded as such in surveys and reports of the period, but this appears to have been shortened to "Bourne" after the area had started to develop. A travel guide published in 1831 calls the place "Bourne Cliffe" or "Tregonwell's Bourne" after its founder; the Spas of England, published ten years calls it "Bourne" as does an 1838 edition of the Hampshire Advertiser. In the late 19th century "Bournemouth" became predominant, although its two-word form appears to have remained in use up until at least the early 20th century, turning up on a 1909 ordnance map. In the 12th century the region around the mouth of the River Bourne was part of the Hundred of Holdenhurst; the hundred became the Liberty of Westover when it was extended to include the settlements of North Ashley, Muccleshell, Iford, Pokesdown and Wick, incorporated into the Manor of Christchurch. Although the Dorset and Hampshire region surrounding it had been the site of human settlement for thousands of years, Westover was a remote and barren heathland before 1800.
In 1574 the Earl of Southampton noted that the area was "Devoid of all habitation", as late as 1795 the Duke of Rutland recorded that "... on this barren and uncultivated heath there was not a human to direct us". In the late 19th and early 20th centuries the Borough of Bournemouth would grow to encompass a number of ancient settlements along the River Stour, including Longham where a skull thought to be 5,500 years old was found in 1932. Bronze Age burials near Moordown, the discovery of Iron Age pottery on the East Cliff in 1969, suggest there may have been settlements there during that period. Hengistbury Head, added to the borough in 1932, was the site of a much older Palaeolithic encampment. During the latter half of the 16th century James Blount, 6th Baron Mountjoy, began mining for alum in the area, at one time part of the heath was used for hunting, although by the late 18th century little evidence of either event remained. No-one lived at the mouth of the Bourne river and the only regular visitors to the area before the 19th century were a few fishermen, turf cutters and gangs of smugglers.
Prior to the Christchurch Inclosures Act 1802, more than 70% of the Westover area was common land. The act, together with the Inclosure Commissioners' Award of 1805, transferred 5000 acres into the hands of five private owners, including James Harris, 1st Earl of Malmesbury, Sir George Ivison Tapps. In 1809 the Tapps Arms public house appeared on the heath. A few years in 1812, the first official residents, retired army officer Lewis Tregonwell and his wife, moved into their new home built on land purchased from Tapps; the area was well known to Tregonwell who, during the Napoleonic wars, spent much of his time searching the heath and coastline for French invaders and smugglers. Anticipating that people would come to the area to indulge in the newly fashionable pastime of sea-bathing, an activity with perceived health benefits, Tregonwell built a series of villas on his land between 1816 and 1822, which he hoped to let out; the common belief that pine-scented air was good for lung conditions, in particular tuberculosis, prompted Tregonwell and Tapps to plant hundreds of pine trees.
These early attempts to promote the town as a health resort meant that by the time Tregonwell died in 1832, Bournemouth had grown into a small community with a scattering of houses and cottages. The town would gr
Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust
Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust is a conservation organization with a mission to save species from extinction. Gerald Durrell founded the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust as a charitable institution in 1963 with the dodo as its symbol; the trust was renamed Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust in its founder's honour on 26 March 1999. Its patron is the Princess Royal, its headquarters are at Les Augrès Manor on the isle of Jersey in the English Channel. The grounds of Les Augrès Manor form the Durrell Wildlife Park, established by Gerald Durrell in 1959 as a sanctuary and breeding centre for endangered species; the zoological park was known as the Jersey Zoo at that time. Gerald Durrell OBE, author and broadcaster on wildlife conservation, was the founder of the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, he wrote 37 books. He featured in several other television series and one-off programmes, which documented his work in Jersey and around the world. In 1945 he became a student keeper at the Zoological Society of London's Whipsnade Park.
At 21 he inherited £3,000 and he financed and led the first of several animal collecting expeditions. It was on these expeditions that he first became aware of the desperate struggle for survival many animal species were facing in the wild, he became convinced that zoos had a responsibility to try to prevent further decline and extinctions. Despite strong resistance to his ideas from much of the zoological community as few people recognised the alarming rate at which animals were vanishing in their native habitats, in 1959 he succeeded in creating his own Zoo in Jersey, dedicating it to saving endangered animals from extinction. Gerald Durrell died aged 70, in January 1995, his wife Lee McGeorge Durrell succeeded him as Honorary Director of the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust and maintains an intense involvement in the Trust’s work both in Jersey and overseas. Durrell provides intensive hands-on management of endangered species at its Jersey headquarters and through 50 conservation programmes in 18 countries worldwide.
Durrell’s headquarters in Jersey is a safe-haven for endangered animals which need to be rescued from whatever is threatening their survival in their native home. Here they breed and recover in numbers while keeper-conservationists observe and study them to learn more about what they will need to thrive in the wild again; the Trust’s headquarters is a ‘window’ to the work of Durrell Wildlife around the world – where visitors can enjoy the opportunity to see some of the planet’s most endangered species and learn how the Trust is working to save them. What keeper-conservationists learn about a species while it is living in Jersey can help to save its cousins struggling for survival in the wild; some species, such as gorillas and orangutans, are well known while other species, such as the Livingstone's fruit bat, the pied tamarin, the giant jumping rat, the Madagascar teal, the echo parakeet, the mountain chicken, Round Island boa, are more obscure. Other endangered animals include the aye-aye, Alaotran gentle lemur, free-ranging black lion tamarin, pied tamarin and silvery marmoset, Andean bear, maned wolf, narrow-striped mongoose, Mauritius pink pigeon, Mauritius kestrel, Saint Lucia amazon, Bali starling, Meller's duck, Madagascar teal, Round Island boa, Lesser Antillean iguana and Mallorcan midwife toad.
Durrell worked with local governments and other conservation organisations in countries across the globe to save animals and their environments. The Trust began working in Mauritius during the 1970s. In 1998 it announced that the Mauritius kestrel – a species once reduced to only four birds – had been saved from extinction. Durrell is working to save critically endangered species such as the pink pigeon, echo parakeet, Round Island boa and Mauritius fody, it has helped in the restoration of Round Island – a small island about 12 miles north east of Mauritius. The Trust is managing several projects on the island of Madagascar, where it first became involved during the 1980s. Madagascar, like Mauritius, is home to many animals found nowhere else in the world. Project Angonoka is one of the successful breeding programmes that has seen the rarest tortoise in the world, the angonoka, brought back from the brink of extinction. One of the rarest ducks in the world, the Madagascar teal, is now breeding at the Trust’s headquarters in Jersey, the Alaotran gentle lemur is starting to make a recovery, now that hunting and burning of its habitat have been reduced thanks to an education programme targeted at local villages and schools.
In the Menabe region of Madagascar, a biodiversity hotspot of great importance, the Trust is working with a cluster of endangered species, including the Malagasy giant rat, flat-tailed tortoise, Madagascar big-headed turtle, narrow-striped mongoose and Madagascar teal. In Brazil the Trust has played a major role in saving endangered lion tamarin, not only breeding them in captivity and reintroducing them into the wild, but with the purchase of a corridor of land to link two halves of a reserve where this species lives; the Trust is running an aluminium can recycling project in conjunction with local primary schools. The scheme is raising funds to purchase and plant trees in Brazil to create ‘tree corridors’, to link up fragmented areas of the tamarins’ habitat and allow isolated groups to reach each other and breed. In India the critically endangered pygmy hog is breeding in a centre designed and built by the Trust; the Trust has provided a safety net for two species living on the Caribbean island of Montserrat where a volcano erupted