Duke of Fife
Duke of Fife is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, created twice, in both cases for Alexander Duff, 6th Earl Fife, who in 1889 married Louise, Princess Royal, the eldest daughter of the future King Edward VII. The dukedom of Fife was created for Queen Victoria's grandson-in-law, thus for a member of the British Royal Family. Alexander Duff was the eldest son of 5th Earl Fife. Upon his father's death on 7 August 1879, he succeeded as the 6th Earl Fife. With this, he inherited the titles Baron Braco, Earl Fife and Viscount Macduff, all in the Peerage of Ireland, Baron Skene in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. In 1885, Queen Victoria created for Alexander Duff the title Earl of Fife in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. On Saturday, 27 July 1889, Alexander Duff married Princess Louise, the third child and eldest daughter of the then-Prince of Wales and his wife Princess Alexandra, in the Private Chapel at Buckingham Palace; the couple were third cousins in descent from George III. The wedding marked the second time.
Two days after the wedding, the Queen elevated Alexander Duff to the dignities of Duke of Fife and Marquess of Macduff, in the County of Banff, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Queen Victoria's Letters Patent of 29 June 1889 creating these titles contained the standard remainder to "heirs male of his body". On 24 April 1900, Queen Victoria issued another Letters Patent by which she created for the 1st Duke of Fife the further dignities of Duke of Fife and Earl of Macduff, both in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, both with a special remainder that allowed these titles to pass to his daughters, in default of a son, to the male heirs of those daughters; the one restriction was. On 9 November 1905, King Edward VII granted to Alexander Duff's two daughters Lady Alexandra and Lady Maud the styles of Highness and Princess. Upon Alexander Duff's death in 1912, the peerages created in 1889 and all the older peerages held by the Duff family became extinct, while the peerages created in 1900 passed to his elder daughter, Princess Alexandra.
On 15 October 1913, the 2nd Duchess of Fife married Prince Arthur of Connaught, the only son of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, third son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert and thus a younger brother of her maternal grandfather King Edward VII. As such and Alexandra were first cousins once removed, their only son, died in 1943. When the 2nd Duchess of Fife died in 1959, her hereditary peerages passed to her nephew James Carnegie, eldest son of her sister Maud and her husband Charles Carnegie, 11th Earl of Southesk. Thirty-three years in 1992, the 3rd Duke of Fife succeeded his father as 12th Earl of Southesk and chief of the Clan Carnegie; as consequence, the following peerage titles became therefore subsidiary to that of the Dukedom: Lord Carnegie of Kinnaird in the Peerage of Scotland, Earl of Southesk and Lord Carnegie in the Peerage of Scotland, Baron Balinhard in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, the Carnegie Baronetcy in the Baronetage of Nova Scotia. Upon his death in 2015, he was succeeded in the Fife and Carnegie titles by his son, David Charles Carnegie.
The 4th Duke of Fife's heir apparent is his son Charles Duff Carnegie, who uses the courtesy title Earl of Southesk. The hypothetical grandson of the duke and heir-to-heir apparent would be styled instead Lord Carnegie; the family's current main residence is Elsick House near the town Stonehaven in Aberdeenshire, within the watershed of the Burn of Elsick. Another seat of the Duke is Kinnaird Castle near the town Brechin in Scotland; the Mar Lodge, to the west of the village Braemar in Aberdeenshire, was bequeathed by Princess Alexandra, 2nd Duchess of Fife to her nephew Alexander Ramsay of Mar, subsequently sold. The first two holders of the dukedom are buried in Braemar; the following heraldic achievement was matriculated by the Court of the Lord Lyon in 2017 for the 4th Duke of Fife: Shield: Or, a Lion rampant Gules and langued Azure, on an Inescutcheon Argent, ensigned of an Earl's Coronet proper, an Eagle displayed Azure, armed and membered Gules, charged on its breast with an Antique Covered Cup Or.
Crest: A Thunderbolt proper, winged Or. Supporters: Dexter: a Lion guardant Gules, langued Azure, collared with a Label of five-points Argent, charged with two Thistles proper, between three Crosses of St George Gules. Sinister: a Talbot Argent and langued Gules. Mottoes: Above the crest, on a Scroll DRED GOD; the arms as borne by the 3rd Duke of Fife were: Shield: Quarterly: 1st, Or a Lion rampant Gules armed and langued Azure.
Prince Henry of Battenberg
Prince Henry of Battenberg was a morganatic descendant of the Grand Ducal House of Hesse becoming a member of the British Royal Family, through his marriage to Princess Beatrice. Henry was born on 5 October 1858 in Lombardy -- Venetia, his father was Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine, the third son and fourth child of Grand Duke Ludwig II of Hesse and Wilhelmina of Baden. His mother was Countess Julia Hauke, he was known as "Liko" to his family. His parents' marriage was morganatic, as Julia was not considered a proper wife for a prince of a reigning dynasty, being only a countess; as such, at the time of his birth, Henry could not bear his father's title or name, was styled His Illustrious Highness Count Henry Maurice of Battenberg. When Henry's mother was raised to Princess von Battenberg and given the higher style of Her Serene Highness by Alexander's older brother, Louis III, Grand Duke of Hesse and his siblings shared in their mother's new rank, he became His Serene Highness Prince Henry of Battenberg, although he remained ineligible to inherit the throne of Hesse or to receive a civil list stipend.
Prince Henry received a military education and took up a commission as a lieutenant in the 1st Regiment of the Rhenish Hussars in the Prussian Army. He served in the Prussian Garde du Corps and was Honorary Colonel of the 1st Infantry Regiment of Bulgaria, where his brother Alexander was Prince; because of their close relationship to the Grand Ducal House of Hesse, the Battenbergs came into close contact with various ruling families of Europe, including the British Royal House. Henry's elder brother, Prince Louis of Battenberg, had married Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine, his first cousin once-removed and a granddaughter of Queen Victoria. In 1884, Prince Henry became engaged to Princess Beatrice, the fifth daughter and the youngest child of Queen Victoria and Albert, Prince Consort. Queen Victoria agreed to the marriage on the condition that the couple should make their home with her; the Queen formally gave her consent to the marriage at a meeting of the Privy Council on 27 January 1885.
On 22 July 1885, the Queen made Prince Henry a Knight of the Garter, granted him the style Royal Highness to give him equal rank with his wife. This style took effect in the United Kingdom, but not in the German Empire. Beatrice and Henry were married at St Mildred's Church at Whippingham, near Osborne, on 23 July 1885. On the same day, a bill to naturalise Prince Henry a British subject passed the House of Lords; the couple adopted Their Royal Highnesses Prince and Princess Henry of Battenberg. On 22 August 1885 he was made Honorary Colonel of the 5th Volunteer Battalion, the Hampshire Regiment, In early 1886 it was announced in The Times that he would be made a Captain in the 1st Life Guards, but the Secretary of State for War denied knowledge of this in the House of Commons and the appointment did not take place. Prince and Princess Henry of Battenberg had four children. By Royal Warrant of 13 December 1886, the Queen granted their children the style Highness, although not the title of Prince/Princess.
This style took immediate effect in the United Kingdom and elsewhere except within the German Empire, where, as Princes and Princesses of Battenberg, they were only entitled to the style Serene Highness. In 1889 Prince Henry was made Governor of Carisbrooke Castle and Captain-General and Governor of the Isle of Wight, he was made Lieutenant-Colonel in the Army on 21 June 1887, Colonel on 22 February 1893 and appointed to the Privy Council on 20 November 1894. In November 1895, Prince Henry persuaded Queen Victoria to allow him to go to West Africa to fight in the Ashanti War, he served as the military secretary to the commander-in-chief of British forces, General Sir Francis Scott. He contracted malaria when the expedition reached Prahsu, about 30 miles from Kumasi, subsequently died aboard the cruiser HMS Blonde stationed off the coast of Sierra Leone, his body was repatriated by the cruiser HMS Blenheim from the Canary Islands and his funeral service took place on 5 February 1896, at the same St. Mildred's Church, Whippingham on the Isle of Wight where he had been married.
Interment followed in. The remains of his wife, Princess Beatrice, were placed there in August 1945 and those of his eldest son, the Marquess of Carisbrooke, in July 1961. Beatrice's sister Louise told Sir James Reid of "Prince Henry's attempted relations with her, which she had declined." 5 October 1858 – 21 December 1858: His Illustrious Highness Count Henry of Battenberg 21 December 1858 – 22 July 1885: His Serene Highness Prince Henry of Battenberg 22 July 1885 – 20 January 1896: His Royal Highness Prince Henry of Battenberg KG: Knight of the Garter, 1885 PC: Privy Counsellor, 1894
Marlborough House, a Grade I listed mansion in St James's, is the headquarters of the Commonwealth of Nations and the seat of the Commonwealth Secretariat. It was built for Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, the favourite and confidante of Queen Anne. For over a century it served as the London residence of the Dukes of Marlborough, it became a royal residence through the 19th century and first half of the 20th. It was leased by Queen Elizabeth II to the Commonwealth beginning in 1965; the Duchess wanted her new house to be "strong and convenient and good". The architect Christopher Wren and his son of the same name designed a brick building with rusticated stone quoins, completed in 1711; the house was taken-up by the Crown in 1817. In the 1820s plans were drawn up to demolish Marlborough House and replace it with a terrace of similar dimensions to the two in neighbouring Carlton House Terrace, this idea featured on some contemporary maps, including Christopher and John Greenwood's large-scale London map of 1830, but the proposal was not implemented.
Located north of The Mall and east of St James's Palace, Marlborough House was used by members of the Royal Family dowager queens and by Prince Albert Edward of Wales and his wife Alexandra. Queen Adelaide, widow of William IV, was given the use of Marlborough House from 1831 until her death in 1849. From 1853 to 1861 Prince Albert, the consort of Queen Victoria, arranged for the building to be used by the "National Art Training School" the Royal College of Art. From 1861-1863, Sir James Pennethorne enlarged the structure by adding a range of rooms on the north side and a deep porch for the Prince of Wales King Edward VII, his wife the Princess of Wales, Alexandra of Denmark, who made their home the social centre of London, their second son King George V, was born at Marlborough House in 1865, the family lived there until Victoria died in 1901, when Edward acceded the throne and they moved to nearby Buckingham Palace. After Edward VII died in 1910, Alexandra again made Marlborough House her London home until her death in 1925.
A late Art Nouveau-Gothic memorial fountain by Alfred Gilbert in the Marlborough Road wall of the house commemorates her. In 1936, Marlborough House became the London residence of George V's widow, Queen Mary who survived George by 17 years. In the grounds of the house remains her pet cemetery. A thatch-roofed rotating summer house built. A plaque to commemorate Queen Mary was unveiled by the Queen in 1967 in the exterior wall closest to the corner with the Mall. After Queen Mary's death in 1953, Marlborough House continued to be used by various members of the royal family as a London residence before Queen Elizabeth II leased it to the Commonwealth Secretariat in 1965, an arrangement which continues today; the nearly cubical saloon retains wall-paintings by Louis Laguerre of the Battle of Blenheim. A cupola inserted in the ceiling is surrounded by paintings by Orazio Gentileschi for the Queen's House, Greenwich, 1636. There are paired staircases flanking the saloon, with further battle pieces by Laguerre.
Most of the interiors have been altered. Marlborough House is open to the public for Open House Weekend each September; the house is open for group tours by prior arrangement. Stourton, James. Great Houses of London. London: Frances Lincoln. ISBN 978-0-7112-3366-9.. Visiting Information at The Commonwealth Secretariat Virtual tour Flickr images tagged Marlborough House
Princess Maud, Countess of Southesk
Princess Maud Countess of Southesk, was a granddaughter of the British king Edward VII. Maud and her elder sister, had the distinction of being the only female-line descendants of a British sovereign granted both the title of Princess and the style of Highness. Despite the fact that they were not daughters of a royal duke, they were sometimes unofficially referred to with the territorial designation of Fife but in official documents, until their marriages, they were always styled Her Highness Princess Maud or Alexandra, without the territorial designation "of Fife". Although Princess Maud did not otherwise carry out royal engagements, because of her position in the Commonwealth's order of succession she served as a Counsellor of State between 1942 and 1945. Maud was born at East Sheen Lodge, Richmond-upon-Thames, Surrey on 3 April 1893, her father was 1st Duke of Fife. He was raised from Earl to Duke of Fife following marriage to Maud's mother, Princess Louise of Wales, the eldest daughter of the future King Edward VII.
Maud and her sister were unique in sharing descent from both William IV, William IV's niece, Queen Victoria, who succeeded him because he left no legitimate issue. In 1900, Queen Victoria granted Maud's father a second dukedom of Fife in the peerage of the United Kingdom with a special remainder providing for the succession of the duke's daughters and their male-line descendants to the title, in default of a male heir. Maud became second in line to the dukedom, after her elder sister Alexandra, her descendants would succeed to the peerage; as a cognatic great-granddaughter of a British monarch, Maud was not entitled to the title of a Princess of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland nor to the attribute Royal Highness. Instead she was styled Lady Maud Duff, as the daughter of a duke, she was sixth in the line of succession to the British throne at the time of her birth. On 9 November 1905, King Edward VII gave Maud's mother the title of Princess Royal, he further ordered Garter King of Arms to gazette Maud and her sister with the style and attribute of Highness and the style of Princess prefixed to their respective Christian names, with precedence after all members of the British royal family bearing the style of Royal Highness.
She took part in the carriage procession for members of the royal family when she attended the funeral of Edward VII in 1911. She attended the coronation of her uncle, George V, on 22 June 1911 with the royal family, styled as "Her Highness Princess Maud" Maud's uncle, King George V, in letters patent dated 20 November 1917, restructured the styles and titles of the royal family by restricting the titles of Prince or Princess and the style of Royal Highness to the children of the sovereign, the children of the sovereign's sons, the eldest living son of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales; the Letters Patent stated that "the titles of Royal Highness, Highness or Serene Highness, the titular dignity of Prince and Princess shall cease except those titles granted and remaining unrevoked". This had no direct effect on Maud and her sister, whose rank and style derived from the specific promotions granted to them by their grandfather, Edward VII. However, Maud complied with George V's wish that she stop using her title and style of Princess and Highness.
He did not, retract the royal warrant conferring the princely title and attribute upon her. She rode in the carriage procession with members of the royal family at the funeral of George V in 1936, she attended the coronation of her first cousin, King George VI in May 1937, taking part in the procession of Members of the royal family, but not in the procession for Princes and Princesses of the Blood Royal, was styled as Lady Maud Carnegie. On 13 November 1923, Maud married Charles, Lord Carnegie at the Royal Military Chapel, Wellington Barracks, London. Lord Carnegie was the eldest son of Charles Noel Carnegie, 10th Earl of Southesk and inherited the title of Earl of Southesk on his father's death on 10 November 1941. Maud and her husband operated a model farm in Kincardineshire, Scotland, they had James. Princess Maud appeared at the Court of St. James's among the royal family, although she did not undertake official or public duties. During George VI's absence in Africa in 1943, Maud served as a Counsellor of State.
At the time of her death in 1945, she was thirteenth in line to the British throne and heir presumptive to the dukedom of Fife, since her sister's only son Alastair Windsor, 2nd Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, had died in 1943. Maud's only son James, Lord Carnegie, succeeded his aunt as 3rd Duke of Fife in 1959, he succeeded to his father's titles in 1992. Princess Maud died in a London nursing home in December 1945 after a bout of acute bronchitis. 3 April 1893 – 9 November 1905: Lady Maud Duff 9 November 1905 – 12 November 1923: Her Highness Princess Maud 12 November 1923 – 10 November 1941: Lady Maud Carnegie 10 November 1941 – 14 December 1945: The Right Honourable The Countess of SoutheskThough still entitled to the title and style of Princess and Highness after marriage, Maud chose to discontinue their us
Christian IX of Denmark
Christian IX was King of Denmark from 1863 until his death in 1906. From 1863 to 1864, he was concurrently Duke of Schleswig and Lauenburg. Growing up as a prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, a junior branch of the House of Oldenburg which had ruled Denmark since 1448, Christian was not in the immediate line of succession to the Danish throne. However, in 1852, Christian was chosen as heir to the Danish monarchy in light of the expected extinction of the senior line of the House of Oldenburg. Upon the death of King Frederick VII of Denmark in 1863, Christian acceded to the throne as the first Danish monarch of the House of Glücksburg; the beginning of his reign was marked by the Danish defeat in the Second Schleswig War and the subsequent loss of the duchies of Schleswig and Lauenburg which made the king immensely unpopular. The following years of his reign were dominated by political disputes as Denmark had only become a constitutional monarchy in 1849 and the balance of power between the sovereign and parliament was still in dispute.
In spite of his initial unpopularity and the many years of political strife, where the king was in conflict with large parts of the population, his popularity recovered towards the end of his reign, he became a national icon due to the length of his reign and the high standards of personal morality with which he was identified. Christian married his second cousin, Princess Louise of Hesse-Kassel, in 1842, their six children married into other royal families across Europe, earning him the sobriquet "the father-in-law of Europe". Margrethe II of Denmark, Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, Philippe of Belgium, Harald V of Norway, Felipe VI of Spain, Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg, Constantine II of Greece, Queen Anne-Marie of Greece, Queen Sofia of Spain, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, are among his descendants. Christian was born on 8 April 1818 at Gottorf Castle near the town of Schleswig in the Duchy of Schleswig as Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, the fourth son of Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, Princess Louise Caroline of Hesse-Kassel.
He was named after Prince Christian of Denmark, the King Christian VIII, his godfather. Christian's father was the head of the ducal house of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, a junior male branch of the House of Oldenburg. Through his father, Christian was thus a direct male-line descendant of King Christian III of Denmark and an agnatic descendant of Helvig of Schauenburg, mother of King Christian I of Denmark, the "Semi-Salic" heiress of her brother Adolf of Schauenburg, last Schauenburg duke of Schleswig and count of Holstein; as such, Christian was eligible to succeed in the twin duchies of Schleswig-Holstein, but not first in line. Christian's mother was a daughter of Landgrave Charles of Hesse, a Danish Field Marshal and Royal Governor of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, his wife Princess Louise of Denmark, a daughter of Frederick V of Denmark. Through his mother, Christian was thus a great-grandson of Frederick V, great-great-grandson of George II of Great Britain and a descendant of several other monarchs, but had no direct claim to any European throne.
Christian lived with his parents and many siblings at Gottorf Castle, where the family stayed with Duke Friedrich Wilhelm's parents-in-law. However, on 6 June 1825, Duke Friedrich Wilhelm was appointed Duke of Glücksburg by his brother-in-law Frederick VI of Denmark, as the elder Glücksburg line had become extinct in 1779, he subsequently changed his title to Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and founded the younger Glücksburg line. Subsequently, the family moved to Glücksburg Castle, where Christian was raised with his siblings under their father's supervision. Following the early death of the father in 1831, Christian grew up in Denmark and was educated in the Military Academy of Copenhagen; as a young man, Christian unsuccessfully sought the hand of his third cousin, Queen Victoria, in marriage. At the Amalienborg Palace in Copenhagen on 26 May 1842, he married his half-second cousin, Louise of Hesse-Kassel, a niece of Christian VIII. In 1852, with the approval of the great powers of Europe, Christian was chosen by King Frederick VII to be heir presumptive after the extinction of the most senior line to the Danish throne, as Frederick VII seemed incapable of fathering children.
A justification for this choice was his marriage to Louise of Hesse-Kassel, who—as a niece of Christian VIII of Denmark—was related to the royal family. Frederick VII's childlessness had presented a thorny dilemma and the question of succession to the Danish throne proved problematic. Denmark's adherence to the Salic Law and a burgeoning nationalism within the German-speaking parts of Schleswig-Holstein hindered all hopes of a peaceful solution. Proposed resolutions to keep the two Duchies together and part of Denmark proved unsatisfactory to both Danish and German interests. While Denmark had adopted the Salic Law, this only affected the descendants of Frederick III of Denmark, the first hereditary monarch of Denmark. Agnatic descent from Frederick III would end with the death of the childless King Frederick VII and his childless uncle, Prince Ferdinand. At that point, the law of succession promulgated by Frederick III provided for a Semi-Salic succession. There were, several ways to interpret to whom the crown could pass, since the provision was not clear as to whether a claimant to the throne could be the closest female relative or not.
As the nations of Europe looked on, the numerous descendants of Hel
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
The House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha is a German dynasty that ruled the duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, one of the Ernestine duchies. It is a cadet branch of the Saxon House of Wettin. Founded by Ernest Anton, the sixth duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, it has been the royal house of several European monarchies. Agnatic branches reign in Belgium through the descendants of Leopold I and in the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms through the descendants of Prince Albert. Due to anti-German sentiment in the United Kingdom during World War I, George V changed the name of his branch from "Saxe-Coburg and Gotha" to "Windsor" in 1917; the same happened in 1920 in Belgium, where the name was changed to "de Belgique" or "van België" or "von Belgien", meaning "of Belgium". The first duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was Ernest I, who reigned from 1826 until his death in 1844, he had been Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld from 1806 until the duchy was reorganized in 1826. Ernest's younger brother became King of the Belgians in 1831, his descendants continue to serve as Belgian heads of state.
Léopold's only daughter, Princess Charlotte of Belgium, was the consort of Maximilian I of Mexico, she was known as Empress Carlota of Mexico in the 1860s. Ernest I's second son, Prince Albert, married Queen Victoria in 1840, thus is the progenitor of the United Kingdom's current royal family, called Windsor since 1917. In 1826, a cadet branch of the house inherited the Hungarian princely estate of the Koháry family, converted to Roman Catholicism, its members managed to marry a queen-regnant of Portugal, an imperial princess of Brazil, an archduchess of Austria, a French royal princess, a royal princess of Belgium and a royal princess of Saxony. A scion of this branch named Ferdinand, became ruling Prince, Tsar, of Bulgaria, his descendants continued to reign there until 1946; the current head of the House of Bulgaria, the former Tsar Simeon II, deposed and exiled after World War II, goes by the name of Simeon Sakskoburggotski and served as Bulgaria's prime minister from 2001 to 2005. The ducal house consisted of all male-line descendants of John Ernest IV, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld legitimately born of an equal marriage and females, their wives in equal and authorised marriages, their widows until remarriage.
According to the House law of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the full title of the Duke was: There were two official residences, in Gotha and Coburg. Therefore, the whole ducal court, including the court theatre, had to move twice a year: from Gotha to Coburg for the summer and from Coburg to Gotha for the winter. For the Court Theater, two identical buildings had to be built in 1840 in Gotha and Coburg and thereafter maintained at the same time. In addition to the residential castles, Friedenstein in Gotha and Ehrenburg in Coburg, the ducal family used the Schloss Reinhardsbrunn in Gotha, as well as the Rosenau and Callenberg Castles in Coburg, a hunting lodge in Grein, Austria. Ernest I 1826–1844 Ernest II 1844–1893 Alfred 1893–1900 Charles Edward 1900–1918 Charles Edward 1918–1954 Friedrich Josias 1954–1998 Andreas 1998–presentAlthough the ducal branch is eponymous with the dynasty, its head is not the senior member of the family genealogically or agnatic. In 1893, the reigning duke Ernest II died childless, whereupon the throne would have devolved, by male primogeniture, upon the descendants of his brother Prince Albert.
However, as heirs to the British throne, Albert's descendants consented and the law of the duchy ratified that the ducal throne would not be inherited by the British monarch or heir apparent. Therefore, the German duchy became a secundogeniture, hereditary among the younger princes of the British royal family who belonged to the House of Wettin, their male-line descendants. Instead of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales inheriting the duchy, it was diverted to his next brother, Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh. Upon the latter's death without surviving sons, it went to the youngest grandson of Prince Albert and Queen Victoria, Prince Charles Edward, Duke of Albany. Charles Edward's uncle Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and his male line had renounced their claim. Although senior by birth, they were either not acceptable to the German Emperor as either a member of the British military or unwilling to move to Germany; the current head of the ducal branch is the grandson of Charles Edward. Since the duchy was abolished in 1918, the heads use the title Prince rather than Duke.
The House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha-Koháry is a Catholic cadet branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. It was founded with the marriage of Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, second son of Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, with Princess Maria Antonia Koháry de Csábrág, their second son Prince August inherited the estates of the House of Koháry in Austria. August's youngest son became Ferdinand I of Bulgaria; the Portuguese line was founded by Prince Ferdinand's eldest son, Ferdinand the younger, who married Queen Maria II of the House of Braganza and became king himself. It was overthrown in the Revolution of 1910, after which it became extinct in 1932 upon the death of Manuel II. Duarte Nuno of Braganza and his successors were descendants of the banished Miguelist line. Pedro V Luís I Carlos I Manuel II Ferdinand I Boris III Simeon II In 2001, elected Prime Minister of Bulgaria as Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha—also known as
Morocco the Kingdom of Morocco, is a country located in the Maghreb region of North West Africa with an area of 710,850 km2. Its capital is the largest city Casablanca, it overlooks the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Morocco claims the areas of Ceuta, Melilla and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, all of them under Spanish jurisdiction. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid and Almohad dynasties, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa; the Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, allowing Morocco to remain the only northwest African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, which rules to this day, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, it regained its independence in 1956, has since remained comparatively stable and prosperous by regional standards.
Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco occupies two thirds of the territory, peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock; the unitary sovereign state of Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors; the king can issue decrees called dahirs. He can dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court.
Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, its official languages are Arabic and Berber. E; the Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, French are widely spoken. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Sephardi Jews, West African and European influences. Morocco is a member of the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union, it has the fifth largest economy of Africa. The full Arabic name al-Mamlakah al-Maghribiyyah translates to "Kingdom of the West". For historical references, medieval Arab historians and geographers sometimes referred to Morocco as al-Maghrib al-Aqṣá to distinguish it from neighbouring historical regions called al-Maghrib al-Awsaṭ and al-Maghrib al-Adná; the basis of Morocco's English name is Marrakesh, its capital under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad Caliphate. The origin of the name Marrakesh is disputed, but is most from the Berber words amur akush or "Land of God"; the modern Berber name for Marrakesh is Mṛṛakc. In Turkish, Morocco is known as a name derived from its ancient capital of Fes.
However, this was not the case in other parts of the Islamic world: until the middle of the 20th century, the common name of Morocco in Egyptian and Middle Eastern Arabic literature was Marrakesh. The English name Morocco is an anglicisation of the Spanish "Marruecos", from which derives the Tuscan "Morrocco", the origin of the Italian "Marocco"; the area of present-day Morocco has been inhabited since Paleolithic times, sometime between 190,000 and 90,000 BC. A recent publication may demonstrate an earlier habitation period, as Homo sapiens fossils discovered in the late 2000s near the Atlantic coast in Jebel Irhoud were dated to 315,000 years before present. During the Upper Paleolithic, the Maghreb was more fertile than it is today, resembling a savanna more than today's arid landscape. Twenty-two thousand years ago, the Aterian was succeeded by the Iberomaurusian culture, which shared similarities with Iberian cultures. Skeletal similarities have been suggested between the Iberomaurusian "Mechta-Afalou" burials and European Cro-Magnon remains.
The Iberomaurusian was succeeded by the Beaker culture in Morocco. Mitochondrial DNA studies have discovered the Saami of Scandinavia; this supports theories that the Franco-Cantabrian refuge area of southwestern Europe was the source of late-glacial expansions of hunter-gatherers who repopulated northern Europe after the last ice age. Northwest Africa and Morocco were drawn into the wider emerging Mediterranean world by the Phoenicians, who established trading colonies and settlements in the early Classical period. Substantial Phoenician settlements were at Chellah and Mogador. Mogador was a Phoenician colony as early as the early 6th century BC. Morocco became a realm of the Northwest African civilisation of ancie