Louise Bertin

Louise-Angélique Bertin was a French composer and poet. Louise Bertin was born in Les Roches, France, her father, Louis-François Bertin, her brother on, were the editors of Journal des débats, an influential newspaper. As encouraged by her family, Bertin pursued music, she received lessons from François-Joseph Fétis, who directed a private family performance of Guy Mannering, Bertin's first opera, in 1825. This opera, never formally produced, took its story line from the book of the same name, written by Sir Walter Scott. Two years Bertin's second opera, Le Loup-garou, was produced at the Opéra-Comique. At the age of 21, Bertin began working on the opera semiseria Fausto to her own libretto in Italian, based on Goethe's Faust, a subject "almost suggested" by her father. A performance of the completed opera was scheduled for 1830. However, due to many unforeseen complications, Fausto did not reach the stage until a full year later, it only saw three performances. Shortly before this, Bertin became friends with Victor Hugo.

Hugo himself had sketched out an operatic version of his book Notre-Dame de Paris and between the two of them, the opera La Esmeralda was born, Hugo providing the libretto. Bertin was the only composer to have collaborated directly with Hugo on an opera. However, as the opera's run began in 1836, there were accusations against Bertin and her family, claiming she had special privileges due to her brother Armand's connection to the government's opera administration. During the seventh performance, a riot ensued, the run of La Esmeralda was forced to end, though a version of the opera continued to be performed over the next three years; the composer Hector Berlioz, who helped Bertin with the staging and production of La Esmeralda, was accused of providing the better music of this work, a charge he vehemently denied. In frustration, Bertin refused to write any more operas. In 1837, Franz Liszt transcribed the orchestral score for solo piano and made a piano transcription of the "Air chanté par Massol".

Bertin did, continue to compose in many different genres. Her compositions include twelve cantatas, six piano ballades, five chamber symphonies, a few string quartets, a piano trio, many vocal selections. Of these, only the ballades and the trio were published. Bertin wrote and published two volumes of poetry, Les Glanes in 1842 and Nouvelles Glanes in 1876; the former of these received a prize from the Académie française. Bertin died in Paris the year after the publication of Nouvelles Glanes. La Esmeralda, with Maya Boog.

Lockheed YF-22

The Lockheed/Boeing/General Dynamics YF-22 is an American single-seat, twin-engine fighter aircraft technology demonstrator designed for the United States Air Force. The design was a finalist in the USAF's Advanced Tactical Fighter competition, two prototypes were built for the demonstration/validation phase of the competition; the YF-22 won the contest against the Northrop YF-23, entered production as the Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor. The YF-22 has similar aerodynamic layout and configuration as the F-22, but with differences in the position and design of the cockpit, tail fins and wings, in internal structural layout. In the 1980s, the USAF began looking for a replacement for its fighter aircraft to counter the advanced Su-27 and MiG-29. A number of companies, divided into two teams, submitted their proposals. Northrop and McDonnell Douglas submitted the YF-23. Lockheed and General Dynamics proposed and built the YF-22, although marginally slower and having a larger radar cross-section, was more agile than the YF-23.

For this reason, it was picked by the Air Force as the winner of the ATF in April 1991. Following the selection, the first YF-22 was retired to a museum, while the second prototype continued flying until an accident relegated it to the role of an antenna test vehicle. In 1981, the U. S. Air Force developed a requirement for an Advanced Tactical Fighter as a new air superiority fighter to replace the F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon; this was made more crucial by the emerging worldwide threats, including development and proliferation of Soviet MiG-29 and Su-27 "Flanker"-class fighter aircraft. It would take advantage of the new technologies in fighter design on the horizon including composite materials, lightweight alloys, advanced flight-control systems, more powerful propulsion systems and stealth technology. In September 1985, the Air Force sent out technical request for proposals to a number of aircraft manufacturing teams; the seven bids were submitted in July 1986, two companies and Northrop, were selected on 31 October 1986.

The two teams, Lockheed/Boeing/General Dynamics and Northrop/McDonnell Douglas, undertook a 50-month demonstration phase, culminating in the flight test of the two teams' prototypes, the YF-22 and the YF-23. The YF-22 was designed to meet USAF requirements for survivability, supercruise and ease of maintenance; because Lockheed's submission was selected as one of the winners, the company, through its Skunk Works division, assumed leadership of the program partners. It would be responsible for the forward cockpit and fuselage, as well as final assembly at Palmdale, California. Meanwhile, the wings and aft fuselage would be built by Boeing, with the center fuselage, weapons bays and landing gear built by General Dynamics. Compared with its Northrop/McDonnell Douglas counterpart, the YF-22 has a more conventional design – its wings have larger control surfaces, such as full-span trailing edge, whereas the YF-23 had two tail surfaces, the YF-22 had four, which made it more maneuverable than its counterpart.

Two examples of each prototype air vehicle were built for the Demonstration-Validation phase: one with General Electric YF120 engines, the other with Pratt & Whitney YF119 engines. The YF-22 was given the unofficial name "Lightning II" after Lockheed's World War II-era fighter, the P-38 Lightning, which persisted until the mid-1990s when the USAF named the aircraft "Raptor"; the F-35 received the Lightning II name in 2006. The first YF-22, with the GE YF120, was rolled out on 29 August 1990 and first flew on 29 September 1990, taking off from Palmdale piloted by David L. Ferguson. During the 18-minute flight, PAV-1 reached a maximum speed of 250 knots and a height of 12,500 feet, before landing at Edwards AFB. Following the flight, Ferguson said that the remainder of the YF-22 test program would be concentrated on "...the manoeuvrability of the aeroplane, both supersonic and subsonic". The second YF-22 with the P&W YF119 made its maiden flight on 30 October at the hands of Tom Morgenfeld. During the flight test program, unlike the YF-23, weapon firings and high angle of attack flights were carried out on the YF-22.

Though not a requirement, the aircraft fired AIM-9 Sidewinder and AIM-120 AMRAAM missiles from internal weapon bays. Flight testing demonstrated that the YF-22 with its thrust vectoring nozzles achieved pitch rates more than double that of the F-16 at low-speed maneuvering; the first prototype, PAV-1, achieved Mach 1.58 in supercruise, while PAV-2 reached a maximum supercruise speed of Mach 1.43. Flight testing continued until 28 December 1990, by which time 74 flights were completed and 91.6 airborne hours were accumulated. Following flight testing, the contractor teams submitted proposals for ATF production. On 23 April 1991, the YF-22 was announced by Secretary of the Air Force Donald Rice as the winner of the ATF competition; the YF-23 design was stealthier and faster. It was speculated in the aviation press that the YF-22 was seen as more adaptable to the Navy's Navalized Advanced Tactical Fighter, but the US Navy abandoned NATF by 1992. Instead of being retired, as with the case of PAV-1, PAV-2 subsequently flew sorties following the competition – it amassed another 61.6 flying hours during 39 flights.

On 25 April 1992, the aircraft sustained serious damage during a landing attempt as a result of pilot-induced oscillations. It was repaired but never flew again, instead served as a static test vehicle thereafter. In 1991, it was anticipated; as the Lock

Where the Sidewalk Ends (film)

Where the Sidewalk Ends is a 1950 American film noir directed and produced by Otto Preminger. The screenplay for the film was written by Ben Hecht, adapted by Robert E. Kent, Frank P. Rosenberg, Victor Trivas; the screenplay and adaptations were based on the novel Night Cry by William L. Stuart; the film stars Gene Tierney. The film narrative concerns ruthless and cynical Mark Dixon, a metropolitan police detective, who despises all criminals because his father had been one. Considered a classic of the film noir genre, the film displays a brand of violence, "lurking below urban society", an important noir motif. At a floating crap game in New York City run by gangster Tommy Scalisi, the beautiful Morgan Taylor decides to leave for the night, Texas tycoon Morrison offers to escort her home. Scalisi is upset, as Morrison is up $19,000 at this point. Morrison just says he is in town all week and "you'll get it back another night", but Scalisi's associate Ken Paine tells Morgan she has to stay, she realizes he only brought her to the game so Morrison would follow, now is determined to leave.

Paine slaps Morgan, whereupon Morrison starts a fistfight with Paine. Morrison is knocked out. One of the police detectives is Mark Dixon, just demoted over his heavy use of violence, he hates criminals. Two years ago he arrested Scalisi for murder. Scalisi tells several lies about the crime, implicates Paine. Dixon goes to Paine's apartment and questions him. But, unknown to Dixon, a war injury has left Paine with a metal plate in his skull; when he falls, he dies. After his recent reprimand, Dixon does not dare report. Borrowing Paine's coat and putting on a bandage where Paine had one on, he lays a false trail suggesting that Paine has left town. Back at Paine's apartment, he is seen by Morgan's father, cab driver Jiggs Taylor, who arrives and noisily threatens Paine leaves when there is no answer. Dixon takes the body and dumps it in the river, it is soon found. As the case develops, the detectives talk to Jiggs Taylor. Morgan is Paine's estranged wife, she and Dixon begin to fall in love. But although Dixon insists that Scalisi is the killer, Jiggs was seen at Paine's apartment and he is arrested.

Dixon cannot bear to tell Morgan the truth, but he arranges to pay for a top lawyer for Jiggs, one who has never lost a murder case. After a fruitless confrontation with Scalisi, Dixon writes a confession, addressing the envelope to Inspector Foley and marking it "to be opened in the event of my death", he arranges to meet with Scalisi again expecting to be murdered but reasoning that this time Scalisi will be caught for it. He refuses to kill Dixon. One of Scalisi's men arrives with the news that the police have beaten the truth about Morrison out of another gang member; as the gang try to escape in a car elevator, Dixon manages to delay them by stalling it until the police arrive. Back at the 16th Precinct, Foley offers Dixon the unopened letter. Foley arrestes Dixon. Morgan asks why, Dixon asks Foley to show her the letter. Knowing the truth, she still loves him, declares confidently that he will not be punished for the accidental death. Dana Andrews as Detective Sgt. Mark Dixon Gene Tierney as Morgan Taylor-Paine Gary Merrill as Tommy Scalisi Bert Freed as Detective Sgt.

Paul Klein Tom Tully as Jiggs Taylor, Morgan's father Karl Malden as Detective Lt. Thomas Ruth Donnelly as Martha, owner of Martha's Cafe Craig Stevens as Kenneth Paine Where the Sidewalk Ends is the last film that Otto Preminger would make as a director-for-hire for Twentieth Century Fox in the 1940s; the series includes Laura, which stars Gene Tierney and Dana Andrews and Fallen Angel. Filming locations The film was shot on a studio set, but the filmmakers shot a few scenes at actual New York City locations. Most critics compare the film unfavorably to Preminger's earlier film Laura which used much of the same talent as this film. According to film writers, this film, a grittier noir, does succeed in showing a darker side of police similar to the film noirs that follow it; the New York Times film critic, Bosley Crowther, while thinking the script was too far-fetched, liked the way the dialogue was written, the acting as well. He wrote, "...the plausibility of the script by Ben Hecht, an old hand with station houses and sleazy underworldlings, is open to question on several counts.

Not so, his pungent dialogue and unfolding of the plot, which Otto Preminger, who guided the same stars through Laura several seasons back, has taken to like a duck to water and kept clipping along crisply till the fadeout."The staff at Variety magazine praised the direction of the film. They wrote, "Otto Preminger, does an excellent job of pacing the story and of building sympathy for Andrews." Harrison's Reports called the film "one of the most taut and absorbing crime melodramas produced in many a moon," with "exceptionally good" dialogue. John McCarten of The New Yorker, only deemed it to be "a fair-to-middling-melodrama." According to Boris Trbic and media instructor, Where the Sidewalk Ends reflects a specific phase in the