MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Juliette Nadia Boulanger was a French composer and teacher. She is notable for having taught many of the leading musicians of the 20th century, she performed as a pianist and organist. From a musical family, she achieved early honours as a student at the Paris Conservatoire but, believing that she had no particular talent as a composer, she gave up writing music and became a teacher. In that capacity, she influenced generations of young composers those from the United States and other English-speaking countries. Among her students were those who became leading composers, soloists and conductors, including Aaron Copland, Roy Harris, Virgil Thomson, Darius Milhaud, Elliott Carter, David Diamond, Dinu Lipatti, Igor Markevitch, İdil Biret, Daniel Barenboim, John Eliot Gardiner, Philip Glass, Lalo Schifrin, Astor Piazzolla, Quincy Jones, Michel Legrand, her female students, whose chances in the 20th century for recognition were lower than that of the men, include notable American women composers, such as Louise Talma, Elaine Bearer, Eugenie Kuffler, Elise Grant Cieslak, Anne Robertson.
Boulanger taught in the US and England, working with music academies including the Juilliard School, the Yehudi Menuhin School, the Longy School, the Royal College of Music and the Royal Academy of Music, but her principal base for most of her life was her family's flat in Paris, where she taught for most of the seven decades from the start of her career until her death at the age of 92. Boulanger was the first woman to conduct many major orchestras in America and Europe, including the BBC Symphony, Boston Symphony, Hallé, New York Philharmonic and Philadelphia orchestras, she conducted several world premieres, including works by Stravinsky. Nadia Boulanger was born in Paris on 16 September 1887, to French composer and pianist Ernest Boulanger and his wife Raissa Myshetskaya, a Russian princess, who descended from St. Mikhail Tchernigovsky. Ernest Boulanger had studied at the Paris Conservatoire and, in 1835 at the age of 20, won the coveted Prix de Rome for composition, he wrote comic operas and incidental music for plays, but was most known for his choral music.
He achieved distinction as a director of choral groups, teacher of voice, a member of choral competition juries. After years of rejection, in 1872 he was appointed to the Paris Conservatoire as professor of singing. Raissa qualified as a home tutor in 1873. According to Ernest, he and Raissa met in Russia in 1873, she followed him back to Paris, she joined his voice class at the Conservatoire in 1876, they were married in Russia in 1877. Ernest and Raissa had a daughter who died as an infant before Nadia was born on her father's 72nd birthday. Through her early years, although both parents were active musically, Nadia would get upset by hearing music and hide until it stopped. In 1892, when Nadia was five, Raissa became pregnant again. During the pregnancy, Nadia's response to music changed drastically. "One day I heard a fire bell. Instead of crying out and hiding, I tried to reproduce the sounds. My parents were amazed." After this, Boulanger paid great attention to the singing lessons her father gave, began to study the rudiments of music.
Her sister, named Marie-Juliette Olga but known as Lili, was born in 1893. When Ernest brought Nadia home from their friends' house, before she was allowed to see her mother or Lili, he made her promise solemnly to be responsible for the new baby's welfare, he urged her to take part in her sister's care. From the age of seven, Nadia studied hard in preparation for her Conservatoire entrance exams, sitting in on their classes and having private lessons with its teachers. Lili stayed in the room for these lessons and listening. In 1896, the nine-year-old Nadia entered the Conservatoire, she studied there with others. She came in third in the 1897 solfège competition, subsequently worked hard to win first prize in 1898, she took private lessons from Alexandre Guilmant. During this period, she received religious instruction to become an observant Catholic, taking her First Communion on 4 May 1899; the Catholic religion remained important to her for the rest of her life. In 1900 her father Ernest died, money became a problem for the family.
Raissa had an extravagant lifestyle, the royalties she received from performances of Ernest's music were insufficient to live on permanently. Nadia continued to work hard at the Conservatoire to become a teacher and be able to contribute to her family's support. In 1903, Nadia won the Conservatoire's first prize in harmony, she studied composition with Gabriel Fauré and, in the 1904 competitions, she came first in three categories: organ, accompagnement au piano and fugue. At her accompagnement exam, Boulanger met Raoul Pugno, a renowned French pianist and composer, who subsequently took an interest in her career. In the autumn of 1904, Nadia began to teach from the family apartment at rue Ballu. In addition to the private lessons she held there, Boulanger started holding a Wednesday afternoon group class in analysis and sightsinging, she continued these to her death. This class was followed by her famous "at homes", salons at which students could mingle with professional musicians and Boulanger's other friends from the arts, such as Igor Stravinsky, Paul Valéry, Fauré, others.
After leaving the Conservatoire in 1904 and before her sister's death in 1918, Boulanger was a keen composer, encouraged
Hunter College is one of the constituent colleges of the City University of New York, an American public university. It is located in the Lenox Hill neighborhood of the Upper East Side of New York City; the college offers studies in more than one hundred undergraduate and postgraduate fields across five schools. It administers Hunter College High School and Hunter College Elementary School. Hunter was founded in 1870 as a women's college; the main campus has been located on Park Avenue since 1873. In 1943, Eleanor Roosevelt dedicated Franklin Delano Roosevelt's and her former townhouse to the college; the college is the only one in the nation whose roster of alumni includes two female Nobel laureates in medicine. Hunter College has its origins in the 19th-century movement for normal school training which swept across the United States. Hunter descends from the Female Normal and High School, established in New York City in 1870. Founded by Irish immigrant Thomas Hunter, president of the school during the first 37 years, it was a women's college for training teachers.
The school, housed in an armory and saddle store at Broadway and East Fourth Street in Manhattan, was open to all qualified women, irrespective of race, religion or ethnic background. At the time most women's colleges had ethno-religious admissions criteria. Created by the New York State Legislature, Hunter was deemed the only approved institution for those seeking to teach in New York City; the school incorporated an elementary and high school for gifted children, where students practiced teaching. In 1887, a kindergarten was established as well. During Thomas Hunter's tenure as president of the school, Hunter became known for its impartiality regarding race, ethnicity, financial or political favoritism; the first female professor at the school, Helen Gray Cone, was elected to the position in 1899. The college's student population expanded, the college subsequently moved uptown, in 1873, into a new Gothic structure, now known as Thomas Hunter Hall, on Lexington Avenue between 68th and 69th Streets.
The hall was designed by the architect Snyder. In 1888 the school was incorporated as a college under the statutes of New York State, with the power to confer the degree of A. B; this led to the separation of the school into two "camps": the "Normals", who pursued a four-year course of study to become licensed teachers, the "Academics", who sought non-teaching professions and the Bachelor of Arts degree. After 1902 when the "Normal" course of study was abolished, the "Academic" course became standard across the student body. In 1914 the Normal College became Hunter College in honor of its first president. At the same time, the college was experiencing a period of great expansion as increasing student enrollments necessitated more space; the college reacted by establishing branches in the boroughs of Brooklyn and Staten Island. By 1920, Hunter College had the largest enrollment of women of any municipally financed college in the United States. In 1930, Hunter's Brooklyn campus merged with City College's Brooklyn campus, the two were spun off to form Brooklyn College.
Between 1938 and 1939 the garden at Park Avenue was given up for the construction of the north building. The expansion destroyed a large part of the neo-gothic original structure, fusing them together. Only the back part facing Lexington Avenue between 68th and 69th street remain from the original building; the late 1930s saw the construction of Hunter College in the Bronx. During the Second World War, Hunter leased the Bronx Campus buildings to the United States Navy who used the facilities to train 95,000 women volunteers for military service as WAVES and SPARS; when the Navy vacated the campus, the site was occupied by the nascent United Nations, which held its first Security Council sessions at the Bronx Campus in 1946, giving the school an international profile. In 1943, Eleanor Roosevelt dedicated a town house at 47–49 East 65th Street in Manhattan to the college; the house had been a home for First Lady. Today it is known as The Roosevelt House of Public Policy and opened in fall 2010 as an academic center hosting prominent speakers.
Hunter became the women's college of the municipal system, in the 1950s, when City College became coeducational, Hunter started admitting men to its Bronx campus. In 1964, the Manhattan campus began admitting men also; the Bronx campus subsequently became Lehman College in 1968. In 1968–1969, Black and Puerto Rican students struggled to get a department that would teach about their history and experience; these and supportive students and faculty expressed this demand through building take-overs, etc. In Spring 1969, Hunter College established Puerto Rican Studies. An "open admissions" policy initiated in 1970 by the City University of New York opened the school's doors to underrepresented groups by guaranteeing a college education to any and all who graduated from NYC high schools. Many African Americans, Asian Americans, Puerto Ricans, students from the developing world made their presence felt at Hunter, after the end of "open admissions" still comprise a large part of the school's student body.
As a result of thi
Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City. Established in 1754, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, it is one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence, seven of which belong to the Ivy League. It has been ranked by numerous major education publications as among the top ten universities in the world. Columbia was established as King's College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain in reaction to the founding of Princeton University in New Jersey, it was renamed Columbia College in 1784 following the Revolutionary War and in 1787 was placed under a private board of trustees headed by former students Alexander Hamilton and John Jay. In 1896, the campus was moved from Madison Avenue to its current location in Morningside Heights and renamed Columbia University. Columbia scientists and scholars have played an important role in the development of notable scientific fields and breakthroughs including: brain-computer interface.
The Columbia University Physics Department has been affiliated with 33 Nobel Prize winners as alumni, faculty or research staff, the third most of any American institution behind MIT and Harvard. In addition, 22 Nobel Prize winners in Physiology and Medicine have been affiliated with Columbia, the third most of any American institution; the university's research efforts include the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Goddard Institute for Space Studies and accelerator laboratories with major technology firms such as IBM. Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the M. D. degree. The university administers the Pulitzer Prize annually. Columbia is organized into twenty schools, including three undergraduate schools and numerous graduate schools, it maintains research centers outside of the United States known as Columbia Global Centers. In 2018, Columbia's undergraduate acceptance rate was 5.1%, making it one of the most selective colleges in the United States, the second most selective in the Ivy League after Harvard.
Columbia is ranked as the 3rd best university in the United States by U. S. News & World Report behind Princeton and Harvard. In athletics, the Lions field varsity teams in 29 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference; the university's endowment stood at $10.9 billion in 2018, among the largest of any academic institution. As of 2018, Columbia's alumni and affiliates include: five Founding Fathers of the United States — among them an author of the United States Constitution and co-author of the Declaration of Independence. S. presidents. Discussions regarding the founding of a college in the Province of New York began as early as 1704, at which time Colonel Lewis Morris wrote to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, the missionary arm of the Church of England, persuading the society that New York City was an ideal community in which to establish a college. However, it was not until the founding of the College of New Jersey across the Hudson River in New Jersey that the City of New York considered founding a college.
In 1746, an act was passed by the general assembly of New York to raise funds for the foundation of a new college. In 1751, the assembly appointed a commission of ten New York residents, seven of whom were members of the Church of England, to direct the funds accrued by the state lottery towards the foundation of a college. Classes were held in July 1754 and were presided over by the college's first president, Dr. Samuel Johnson. Dr. Johnson was the only instructor of the college's first class, which consisted of a mere eight students. Instruction was held in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower Broadway in Manhattan; the college was founded on October 31, 1754, as King's College by royal charter of King George II, making it the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York and the fifth oldest in the United States. In 1763, Dr. Johnson was succeeded in the presidency by Myles Cooper, a graduate of The Queen's College, an ardent Tory. In the charged political climate of the American Revolution, his chief opponent in discussions at the college was an undergraduate of the class of 1777, Alexander Hamilton.
The American Revolutionary War broke out in 1776, was catastrophic for the operation of King's College, which suspended instruction for eight years beginning in 1776 with the arrival of the Continental Army. The suspension continued through the military occupation of New York City by British troops until their departure in 1783; the college's library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a military hospital first by American and British forces. Loyalists were forced to abandon their King's College in New York, seized by the rebels and renamed Columbia College; the Loyalists, led by Bishop Charles Inglis fled to Windsor, Nova Scotia, where the
Fontainebleau is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France. It is located 55.5 kilometres south-southeast of the centre of Paris. Fontainebleau is a sub-prefecture of the Seine-et-Marne department, it is the seat of the arrondissement of Fontainebleau; the commune has the largest land area in the Île-de-France region. Fontainebleau, together with the neighbouring commune of Avon and three other smaller communes, form an urban area of 39,713 inhabitants; this urban area is a satellite of Paris. Fontainebleau is renowned for the large and scenic forest of Fontainebleau, a favourite weekend getaway for Parisians, as well as for the historic Château de Fontainebleau, which once belonged to the kings of France, it is the home of INSEAD, one of the world's most elite business schools. Inhabitants of Fontainebleau are sometimes called Bellifontains. Fontainebleau has been recorded in different Latinised forms, such as, Fons Bleaudi, Fons Bliaudi, Fons Blaadi in the 12th and 13th centuries, with Fontem blahaud being recorded in 1137.
It became Fons Bellaqueus in the 17th century, which gave rise to the name of the inhabitants as Bellifontains. The name originates as a medieval composite of two words: Fontaine– meaning spring, or fountainhead, followed by a person’s Germanic name Blizwald; this hamlet was endowed with a royal hunting lodge and a chapel by Louis VII in the middle of the twelfth century. A century Louis IX called Saint Louis, who held Fontainebleau in high esteem and referred to it as "his wilderness", had a country house and a hospital constructed there. Philip the Fair was born there in 1268 and died there in 1314. In all, thirty-four sovereigns, from Louis VI, the Fat, to Napoleon III, spent time at Fontainebleau; the connection between the town of Fontainebleau and the French monarchy was reinforced with the transformation of the royal country house into a true royal palace, the Palace of Fontainebleau. This was accomplished by the great builder-king, Francis I, who, in the largest of his many construction projects, reconstructed and transformed the royal château at Fontainebleau into a residence that became his favourite, as well as the residence of his mistress, duchess of Étampes.
From the sixteenth to the eighteenth century, every monarch, from Francis I to Louis XV, made important renovations at the Palace of Fontainebleau, including demolitions, reconstructions and embellishments of various descriptions, all of which endowed it with a character, a bit heterogeneous, but harmonious nonetheless. On 18 October 1685, Louis XIV signed the Edict of Fontainebleau there. Known as the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, this royal fiat reversed the permission granted to the Huguenots in 1598 to worship publicly in specified locations and hold certain other privileges; the result was that a large number of Protestants were forced to convert to the Catholic faith, killed, or forced into exile in the Low Countries, Prussia and in England. The 1762 Treaty of Fontainebleau, a secret agreement between France and Spain concerning the Louisiana territory in North America, was concluded here. Preliminary negotiations, held before the 1763 Treaty of Paris was signed, ending the Seven Years' War, were at Fontainebleau.
During the French Revolution, Fontainebleau was temporarily renamed Fontaine-la-Montagne, meaning "Fountain by the Mountain". On 29 October 1807, Manuel Godoy, chancellor to the Spanish king, Charles IV and Napoleon signed the Treaty of Fontainebleau, which authorized the passage of French troops through Spanish territories so that they might invade Portugal. On 20 June 1812, Pope Pius VII arrived at the château of Fontainebleau, after a secret transfer from Savona, accompanied by his personal physician, Balthazard Claraz. In poor health, the Pope was the prisoner of Napoleon, he remained in his genteel prison at Fontainebleau for nineteen months. From June 1812 until 23 January 1814, the Pope never left his apartments. On 20 April 1814, Napoleon Bonaparte, shortly before his first abdication, bid farewell to the Old Guard, the renowned grognards who had served with him since his first campaigns, in the "White Horse Courtyard" at the Palace of Fontainebleau. According to contemporary sources, the occasion was moving.
The 1814 Treaty of Fontainebleau sent him into exile on Elba. Until the 19th century, Fontainebleau was a suburb of Avon, it developed as an independent residential city. For the 1924 Summer Olympics, the town played host to the riding portion of the modern pentathlon event; this event took place near a golf course. In July and August 1946, the town hosted the Franco-Vietnamese Conference, intended to find a solution to the long-contested struggle for Vietnam’s independence from France, but the conference ended in failure. Fontainebleau hosted the general staff of the Allied Forces in Central Europe and the land forces command; these facilities were in place from the inception of NATO until France’s partial withdrawal from NATO in 1967 when the United States returned those bases to French control. NATO moved AFCENT to Brunssum in the AIRCENT to Ramstein in West Germany. (Note that the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe known as SHAPE, was located
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
City University of New York
The City University of New York is the public university system of New York City, the largest urban university system in the United States. CUNY and the State University of New York are separate and independent university systems, despite the fact that both public institutions receive funding from New York State. CUNY, however, is located in only New York City, while SUNY is located in the entire state, including New York City. CUNY was founded in 1847 and comprises 25 institutions: eleven senior colleges, seven community colleges, one undergraduate honors college, seven post-graduate institutions; the University enrolls more than 275,000 students, counts thirteen Nobel Prize winners and twenty-four MacArthur Fellows among its alumni. CUNY is the third-largest university system in the United States, in terms of enrollment, behind the State University of New York, the California State University system. More than 274,000-degree-credit students and professional education students are enrolled at campuses located in all five New York City boroughs.
The university has one of the most diverse student bodies in the United States, with students hailing from 208 countries, but from New York City. The black and Hispanic undergraduate populations each comprise more than a quarter of the student body, Asian undergraduates make up 18 percent. Fifty-eight percent are female, 28 percent are 25 or older; the following table is'sortable'. CUNY employs over 10,000 adjunct faculty members. Faculty and staff are represented by the Professional Staff Congress, a labor union and chapter of the American Federation of Teachers. André Aciman, recipient of Whitting Award for emerging writers, Lambda Literary Award winner for his novel Call Me By Your Name Chantal Akerman, film director, Distinguished Lecturer, City College of New York Meena Alexander and writer, Distinguished Professor at the Graduate Center and Hunter College Talal Asad, Distinguished Professor at the Graduate Center William Bialek, Graduate Center Edwin G. Burrows and writer, Pulitzer Prize Winner, Distinguished Professor of History at Brooklyn College Ta-Nehisi Coates, writer and activist, CUNY Graduate School of Journalism Billy Collins, poet, U.
S. Poet Laureate, Lehman College Blanche Wiesen Cook, Distinguished Professor at John Jay College of Criminal Justice and Graduate Center John Corigliano, Graduate Center Michael Cunningham, Pulitzer Prize winner, Distinguished Professor at Brooklyn College Roy DeCarava and photographer, Hunter College Carolyn Eisele, Hunter College Ruth Wilson Gilmore, Professor, Graduate Center Allen Ginsberg, Distinguished Professor at Brooklyn College Kimiko Hahn, winner of PEN/Voelcker Award for Poetry, Queens College David Harvey, Graduate Center bell hooks, educator and critic, Distinguished Professor at City College of New York Tyehimba Jess, winner of the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry, College of Staten Island KC Johnson (born, Professor of History, known for his work exposing the facts about the Duke lacrosse case Michio Kaku, City College Jane Katz, Olympian swimmer, John Jay College of Criminal Justice Alfred Kazin and critic, Distinguished Professor at Hunter College and Graduate Center Saul Kripke, Graduate Center Irving Kristol, City College Paul Krugman, Distinguished Professor, Graduate Center Peter Kwong, filmmaker, Distinguished Professor of Asian American studies and Urban Affairs and Planning Professor at Hunter College, professor of sociology at Graduate Center Ben Lerner, MacArthur Fellow, Brooklyn College Audre Lorde and activist, City College, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Distinguished Thomas Hunter Chair at Hunter College Cate Marvin, Guggenheim Fellowship winner, College of Staten Island John Matteson and writer, Pulitzer Prize winner, John Jay College of Criminal Justice Stanley Milgram, social psychologist, Graduate Center June Nash, Distinguished Professor Emerita, Graduate Center Itzhak Perlman, Brooklyn College Frances Fox Piven, political scientist and educator, Graduate Center Graham Priest, Graduate Center Adrienne Rich and activist, City College of New York David M. Rosenthal, Graduate Center Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. historian and social critic, Graduate Center Flora Rheta Schreiber, John Jay College of Criminal Justice Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, literary critic, Distinguished Professor at the Graduate Center Betty Shabazz and activist, Medgar Evers College Dennis Sullivan, Graduate Center Katherine Verdery, Julien J. Studley and Distinguished Professor, Graduate Center Michele Wallace, Professor Emeritus of English, Women's Studies and Film Studies at the City College of New York and the Graduate Center Mike Wallace and writer, Distinguished Professor of History at John Jay College of Criminal Justice and Graduate Center Elie Wiesel, political activist, Distinguished Professor of Judaic Studies at City College Andrea Alu and physicist, Einstein Professor of Physics at CUNY Graduate Center CUNY was created in 1961, by New York State legislation, signed into law by Governor Nelson Rockefeller.
The legislation integrated existing institutions and a new graduate school into a coordinated system of higher education for the city, under the control of the "Board of Higher Education of the City of New York", created by New York State legisla