Playboy is an American men's lifestyle and entertainment magazine. It was founded in Chicago in 1953, by Hugh Hefner and his associates, funded in part by a $1,000 loan from Hefner's mother. Notable for its centerfolds of nude and semi-nude models, Playboy played an important role in the sexual revolution and remains one of the world's best-known brands, having grown into Playboy Enterprises, Inc. with a presence in nearly every medium. In addition to the flagship magazine in the United States, special nation-specific versions of Playboy are published worldwide; the magazine has a long history of publishing short stories by novelists such as Arthur C. Clarke, Ian Fleming, Vladimir Nabokov, Saul Bellow, Chuck Palahniuk, P. G. Wodehouse, Roald Dahl, Haruki Murakami, Margaret Atwood. With a regular display of full-page color cartoons, it became a showcase for notable cartoonists, including Harvey Kurtzman, Jack Cole, Eldon Dedini, Jules Feiffer, Shel Silverstein, Erich Sokol, Roy Raymonde, Gahan Wilson, Rowland B. Wilson.
Playboy features monthly interviews of notable public figures, such as artists, economists, conductors, film directors, novelists, religious figures, politicians and race car drivers. The magazine reflects a liberal editorial stance, although it interviews conservative celebrities. After a year-long removal of most nude photos in Playboy magazine, the March–April 2017 issue brought back nudity. By spring 1953, Hugh Hefner—a 1949 University of Illinois psychology graduate who had worked in Chicago for Esquire magazine writing promotional copy, he formed HMH Publishing Corporation, recruited his friend Eldon Sellers to find investors. Hefner raised just over $8,000, including from his brother and mother. However, the publisher of an unrelated men's adventure magazine, contacted Hefner and informed him it would file suit to protect their trademark if he were to launch his magazine with that name. Hefner, his wife Millie, Sellers met to seek a new name, considering "Top Hat", "Gentleman", "Sir'", "Satyr", "Pan" and "Bachelor" before Sellers suggested "Playboy".
The first issue, in December 1953, was undated. He produced it in his Hyde Park kitchen; the first centerfold was Marilyn Monroe, although the picture used was taken for a calendar rather than for Playboy. Hefner chose what he deemed the "sexiest" image, a unused nude study of Marilyn stretched with an upraised arm on a red velvet background with closed eyes and mouth open; the heavy promotion centered around Marilyn's nudity on the already-famous calendar, together with the teasers in marketing, made the new Playboy magazine a success. The first issue sold out in weeks. Known circulation was 53,991; the cover price was 50¢. Copies of the first issue in mint to near mint condition sold for over $5,000 in 2002; the novel Fahrenheit 451, by Ray Bradbury, was published in 1953 and serialized in the March and May 1954 issues of Playboy. An urban legend started about Hefner and the Playmate of the Month because of markings on the front covers of the magazine. From 1955 to 1979, the "P" in Playboy had stars printed around the letter.
The legend stated that this was either a rating that Hefner gave to the Playmate according to how attractive she was, the number of times that Hefner had slept with her, or how good she was in bed. The stars, between zero and 12 indicated the domestic or international advertising region for that printing. From 1966 to 1976, Robie Macauley was the Fiction Editor at Playboy. During this period the magazine published fiction by Saul Bellow, Seán Ó Faoláin, John Updike, James Dickey, John Cheever, Doris Lessing, Joyce Carol Oates, Vladimir Nabokov, Michael Crichton, John le Carré, Irwin Shaw, Jean Shepherd, Arthur Koestler, Isaac Bashevis Singer, Bernard Malamud, John Irving, Anne Sexton, Nadine Gordimer, Kurt Vonnegut and J. P. Donleavy, as well as poetry by Yevgeny Yevtushenko. In 1968 at the feminist Miss America protest, protestors symbolically threw a number of feminine products into a "Freedom Trash Can." These included copies of Cosmopolitan magazines. One of the key pamphlets produced by the protesters was "No More Miss America!", by Robin Morgan which listed ten characteristics of the Miss America pageant that the authors believed degraded women.
Since reaching its peak in the 1970s, Playboy saw a decline in circulation and cultural relevance due to competition in the field it founded—first from Penthouse Oui and Gallery in the 1970s. In response, Playboy has attempted to re-assert its hold on the 18–35 male demographic through slight changes to content and focusing on issues and personalities more appropriate to its audience—such as hip-hop artists being featured in the "Playboy Interview". Christie Hefner, daughter of the founder Hugh Hefner, joined Playboy in 1975 and became head of the company in 1988, she announced in December 2008 that she would be stepping down from leading the company, effective in January 2009, said that the election of Barack Obama as the next President had inspired her to give more time to charitable work
The Harvard Lampoon
The Harvard Lampoon is an undergraduate humor publication founded in 1876 by seven undergraduates at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The Harvard Lampoon publication was founded in 1876 by seven undergraduates at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts who were inspired by popular magazines like Punch and Puck; the Harvard Lampoon is the world's second longest-running continually published humor magazine. It is the oldest continually published college humor magazine; the organization produces occasional humor books and parodies of national magazines such as Entertainment Weekly and Sports Illustrated. Much of the organization's capital is provided by the licensing of the "Lampoon" name to National Lampoon, begun by Harvard Lampoon graduates in 1970; the Lampoon publishes five issues annually. In 2006, the Lampoon began releasing content on its website, including pieces from the magazine and web-only content. In 2009, the Lampoon published a parody of Twilight called Nightlight, a New York Times bestseller.
In February 2012, the Lampoon released. It is a New York Times bestseller; the Lampoon is housed a few blocks from Harvard Square in a mock-Flemish castle, the Harvard Lampoon Building. It has been ranked as the fifth most phallic building in the world; the Lampoon is known for its bacchanalian parties. The Harvard Lampoon was first published in 1876 by seven founders including Ralph Wormeley Curtis, Edward Sandford Martin, Edmund March Wheelwright, Arthur Murray Sherwood; the first issue of the Lampoon was a single copy, nailed to a tree in Harvard Yard. In its earliest years the magazine focused on the satirization of Harvard and Boston Brahmin society; as the Lampoon began to gain notoriety on campus, the society moved from offices in Hollis Hall, to addresses on Holyoke and Plympton streets respectively. These collections of rooms rented by the trustees of the Lampoon were famous not only for their beer nights, but with the regularity that the Lampoon spent the profits made on each magazine for these beer nights.
"It was a good night when the Lampoon could afford coal and beer, they had to choose between one or the other." Pranks abounded in the early years, some more destructive than others." William Randolph Hearst was expelled from Harvard after sending a pudding pot used as a chamber pot to a professor. A Lampoon graduate from 1887, Archibald Cary Coolidge, professor of architecture at Harvard College, was chosen as the architect of Randolph Hall, one of the colleges newest dormitories. Legend has it that when designing Randolph, Coolidge purposefully made the dormitory recessed further back from Mt. Auburn Street than was at first designed, purchasing for himself the land the Castle now stands on; the design of the castle was given to Edmund March Wheelwright city architect of Boston. The Lampoon and its sensibility began to branch out away from the Harvard campus in the early 1960s, soon became an important expression and feeder system of American humor and comedy since that time. In 1961, Mademoiselle offered the Lampoon staff an honorarium to produce a parody of their own magazine for the traditionally lower-selling July issue.
The project boosted Mademoiselle's summer circulation along with the Lampoon's tenuous cash flow, the magazine renewed its association with the Lampoon for a follow-up parody in July 1962, a third parody issue in July 1963. The magazine produced a 70-page spoof of Ian Fleming's James Bond novels in 1962 titled Alligator, subsequently released by Random House; these projects proved popular, led to full, nationally-distributed parodies of Playboy and Life, Cosmopolitan in 1972 and Sports Illustrated. An important line of demarcation came when Lampoon editors Douglas Kenney and Henry Beard wrote the Tolkien parody Bored of the Rings; the success of this book and the attention it brought its authors led directly to the creation of the National Lampoon magazine, which spun off a live show Lemmings, a radio show in the early 1970s, The National Lampoon Radio Hour, which featured such performers as Christopher Guest, Harry Shearer and Chevy Chase. Writers from these shows were subsequently hired to help create Saturday Night Live.
This was the first in a line of many TV shows that Lampoon graduates went on to write for, including The Simpsons, Saturday Night Live, Late Night with David Letterman, Friends, The League, NewsRadio, The Office, 30 Rock and Recreation and dozens of others. An old copy of the magazine was shown in the fourth-season finale of NewsRadio, referred to as the "nefarious scandal sheet." Lampoon alumni include such comedians as Conan O'Brien, Andy Borowitz, B. J. Novak, Greg Daniels, Michael Schur, Colin Jost. Etan Cohen wrote for Butt-Head as an undergraduate member. In 1986 former editor Kurt Andersen co-founded the satirical magazine Spy, which employed Lampoon writers Paul Simms and Eric Kaplan, published the work of Lampoon alumni Patricia Marx, Lawrence O'Donnell and Mark O'Donnell; the Lampoon has graduated many noted authors such as George Plimpton, George Santayana, John Updike, William Gaddis. Actor Fred Gwynne was a president of the Lampoon. Famous Boston lawyer Bradley Palmer acted as treasurer for the Lampoon.
Celebrities visit the Lampoon to be inducted as honorary members of the organization. Honorary members include Tony Hawk, Bill Cosby, Robin Williams, Elon Musk, Tracey Ullman, John Cleese, Jay Leno
WFXT, virtual channel 25, is a Fox-affiliated television station licensed to Boston, United States. The station is owned by the Cox Media Group subsidiary of Atlanta-based Cox Enterprises. WFXT's studios are located on Fox Drive in Dedham, its transmitter is located on Cabot Street in Needham, it is one of six Boston television stations that are available in Canada through satellite provider Bell TV and cable provider EastLink. WFXT is the largest Fox affiliate by market size, not owned and operated by the network, although it was owned by Fox on two occasions; the station first signed on the air on October 10, 1977 as WXNE-TV. The station's early programming format was targeted at a family audience, consisting of older syndicated reruns and a decent amount of religious programming. Religious programs ran for about six hours a day during the week, throughout the day on Sundays; the station carried the daily and Sunday Mass from the Boston Catholic Television Center. Secular programming consisted of westerns, older movies, family-oriented drama series, old film shorts, classic television series.
By 1980, religious programs had been reduced on Sundays to 6:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. and 7:00 p.m. to midnight, to about four to five hours a day during the week. For several years under CBN ownership, Tim Robertson served as the station's program director, appointed by his father and CBN founder Pat Robertson; the station began adding more cartoons, made-for-TV movies, off-network sitcoms and family dramas during the early 1980s. Most notably, in 1980, WXNE took over production of the weekday bowling program Candlepins for Cash, which had just been canceled by CBS affiliate WNAC-TV after seven seasons. With new host Rico Petrocelli, the show moved production from WNAC's studios, in bowling lanes that were built in the basement of the facility, to the now-defunct Wal-Lex Lanes in Waltham. After only a few months as host, Petrocelli was ousted in favor of the program's original host when it aired on WNAC, Bob Gamere, who remained on Candlepins until it ended its run on WXNE in 1983. During this time, the station rebranded itself as "Boston 25", as it converted into a true independent.
While the station was carried only on cable providers in the Greater Boston market, WXNE held a solid third place among the area's independent stations, behind the longer-established WSBK-TV and WLVI-TV, sixth in the ratings among the market's commercial television stations. The station implemented two significant advertising campaigns, in a bid to compete with the other independents: Boston turn, New England turn, Everybody turn 25 today/tonight! from 1983 to 1985, followed by You Should See Us Now! from 1985 to 1987. In April 1986, WXNE and the other two CBN stations — KXTX-TV in Dallas–Fort Worth and WYAH-TV in Norfolk, Virginia — were put up for sale; that August, News Corporation announced that it would purchase WXNE, with plans to make it an owned-and-operated station of its new network, unable to secure an affiliation with WSBK or WLVI. Until the sale was completed, channel 25 did not air Fox's inaugural program and what was its lone offering, The Late Show Starring Joan Rivers, a late-night talk show that aired opposite The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson on NBC.
The outgoing CBN ownership believed. Fox instead contracted Boston radio station WMRE to carry the audio portion of The Late Show in the interim; when the sale to News Corporation was completed on December 31, 1986, the station—renamed WFXT on January 19, 1987, became the seventh Fox-owned property and the first to be acquired separately from Murdoch's 1986 purchase of Metromedia's six television stations that served as the foundation for the new network. Besides adding The Late Show to the schedule, airings of The 700 Club were cut to once a day, the daily broadcast of the Roman Catholic Mass was moved to an earlier timeslot; the station began airing the syndicated, Fox-produced tabloid magazine A Current Affair on weeknights. WXNE staff announcer Chris Clausen had been let go in late 1986 in favor of the services of Fox affiliate voiceover Beau Weaver, who would remain with both the station and Fox Television Stations for over a decade; the station's schedule, was unchanged at the outset, aside from the removal of several older sitcoms that soon resurfaced on WQTV.
The Sunday evening religious program block was discontinued on April 5, 1987, when Fox launched its primetime lineup, which aired only on Sundays before expanding to Saturdays that July. Over the next few years, WFXT, for the most part was unable to acquire the better sy
Lesley University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. It offers education, expressive therapies, creative writing and fine arts programs; the university is a member of the New England Association of Schools and Colleges, National Association of Schools of Art and Design, New England Collegiate Conference, the Association of Independent Colleges of Art and Design. The Lesley School was founded by Edith Lesley in 1909 at her home at Cambridge; the school began as a private women's institution. As such, it espoused the work of Friedrich Froebel, who invented the concept of kindergarten as a complement to the care given children by their mothers. Teacher and writer Elizabeth Peabody opened Boston's first Froebel-inspired kindergarten in 1860. Central to the Froeblian philosophy is the idea that individuals are important and unique, a focus that remains today at Lesley University. Edith Lesley, after having lived in Panama and Maine and studied in Freiburg, moved to Boston and became involved with public school teaching.
She completed kindergarten training, took courses at Radcliffe College, began to plan her own kindergarten training school. She wanted a school. Now married and her husband expanded the school by constructing an addition at the rear of their home, which today is known as Livingston Stebbins Hall. Around 1913, the Lesley School began training for elementary teachers. In 1941, the Lesley School reorganized under a board of trustees. In 1954, the college began to award graduate degrees; the School of Practical Art was founded by Roy Davidson in 1912. The school's early philosophy was based upon John Ruskin's words that it is "in art that the heart, the head, the hand of a man come together" and Davidson's own belief that "beauty comes from the use." The school embraced the fine arts and developed a growing liberal arts curriculum. In 1998, the Art Institute of Boston and Lesley College merged, became Lesley University in 2001; when university status was gained, the original colleges became the undergraduate units of the university.
Lesley College's two graduate schools rounded out the university's four main academic units. In 2005, Lesley College became coeducational. In 2006, the university acquired Prospect Hall, a former church listed on the National Register of Historic Places, with the goal of bringing the Art Institute of Boston to Cambridge. In 2007, Joseph B. Moore became president of Lesley; the following year, the university entered into a partnership with Episcopal Divinity School to jointly operate their Brattle Street campus and purchase several buildings. This move added dormitories, a dining hall, classrooms, as well as an expansion in library services and administrative space. In 2009, the university celebrated its Centennial and embarked on its first major construction since the 1970s. Dormitories at 1 and 3 Wendell street were added to the residential life offerings. Both buildings are LEED Gold–certified. In 2013, construction on the Lunder Arts Center began in Porter Square; the project was built on the former site of the North Prospect Church, moved to the south and repurposed.
In 2013, Lesley University's constituent colleges, the Art Institute of Boston and Lesley College, were renamed College of Art and Design and College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, respectively. In 2015, the College of Art and Design left Kenmore Square in Boston and joined the remainder of the university in Cambridge; this move marked the completion of the Lunder Arts Center as well as the first time in 17 years that the university was housed in Cambridge. The Lunder Arts Center was awarded a LEED Gold certification from the U. S. Green Building Council. Lesley won a prestigious Preservation Award from the Cambridge Historical Commission for the restoration of the historic former North Prospect Church as part o the Lunder Arts Center project. At the end of the 2014–15 academic year, President Joseph B. Moore announced that he would retired the following year. In 2016, Jeff A. Weiss resigned in 2018 due to personal health reasons. In 2018, Richard S. Hansen became interim president. In July of 2018, Lesley announced the purchase of the historic buildings owned by the Episcopal Divinity School, making Lesley the sole owner of the 4.4-acre Brattle Campus.
The purchase included five buildings - St. John’s Memorial Chapel, Wright Hall, Burnham Hall, Reed Hall and 4 Berkeley St. - and the remainder of Sherrill Hall. Since 2008, Lesley and EDS had jointly owned Sherrill Hall as part of the schools’ condominium agreement; the university, with its component undergraduate colleges, graduate schools, centers, offers more than 20 undergraduate majors and over 90 Adult Bachelor's, Master's, Certificates of Advanced Graduate Study, PhD programs at its Cambridge and Boston campuses, as well as off-campus and online. The Lesley Center for the Adult Learner offers an adult bachelor's degree program, includin
Emerson College is a private college in downtown Boston, Massachusetts. Founded in 1880 by Charles Wesley Emerson as a "school of oratory," the college offers more than three dozen degree programs in the area of Arts and Communication and is accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges. Located in Boston's Washington Street Theatre District on the edge of the Boston Common, the school maintains buildings in Los Angeles and the town of Well, The Netherlands. Charles Wesley Emerson founded the Boston Conservatory of Elocution and Dramatic Art in 1880, a year after Boston University closed its School of Oratory. Classes were held at Pemberton Square in Boston. Ten students enrolled in the conservatory's first class; the following year, the conservatory changed its name to the Monroe Conservatory of Oratory, in honor of Charles Emerson's teacher at Boston University's School of Oratory, Professor Lewis B. Monroe. In 1890, the name changed again to Emerson College of Oratory and was shortened to Emerson College in 1939.
The college expanded and rented space at 36 Bromfield Street, moved to Odd Fellows Hall on Berkeley and Tremont Streets in the South End of Boston. With the new location, the college's first library was established in 1892. Henry Lawrence Southwick, a faculty member and graduate, became a financial partner for the college with Emerson; this financial partnership led to the purchase of the Boston School of Oratory from Moses T. Brown in 1894. At the turn of the century, faculty members Henry and Jessie Eldridge Southwick and William H. Kenney purchased the college from Dr. Emerson. Soon after, the college rented a new location in Chickering Hall. Dr. Emerson retired in 1903 and William J. Rolfe, a Shakespearean scholar and actor, was named the second President of Emerson College of Oratory, his service as president lasted until his retirement in 1908. As the Student Government Association of the college held its first meeting in 1908, the third president of the college, Henry Lawrence Southwick, was inaugurated.
He introduced the study of stagecraft into the college curriculum. During his tenure, the college rented a new building at 30 Huntington Avenue; the college was granted the right to award Bachelor of Literary Interpretation degrees. In addition, Emerson became the first school with a collegiate-level program in children's theater in 1919; the school offered its first course in Journalism in 1924. The college purchased its first piece of real estate with a new women's dormitory building at 373 Commonwealth Ave. and started intramural sports in 1931 with the organization of volleyball games. In 1930, full charge and control of the college was transferred to the Board of Trustees by William H. Kenney, Henry Lawrence Southwick, Jessie Eldridge Southwick; when Harry Seymour Ross was appointed the fourth president of Emerson College in 1931, the first course in radio broadcasting was taught by the program director of WEEI, a Boston AM radio station. The purchase of buildings at 130 Beacon Street and 128 Beacon Street a year began the presence of Emerson College in Boston's Back Bay.
Emerson kept ownership of these buildings until summer 2003. In the following years, a professional training program in Speech Pathology and the first undergraduate program in broadcasting and broadcast journalism were offered for the first time in the United States. Construction of a theater behind 128–130 Beacon began, the institution was granted the right to award Master of Arts degrees. In the post-war era, the G. I. Bill of Rights and the Broadcasting curriculum contributed to the rebalancing of the student body from a primarily-female population to an equally-balanced population of men and women. Boylston Green, the first president to have no prior association with the college, used his background as a dean of students to enhance extracurricular activities, including the establishment of a student activities fee; these efforts led to the first publication of Emerson's student newspaper, The Berkeley Beacon, in 1947. It is still in production today. Emerson saw major development in its broadcasting program.
A one-year Certificate of Broadcasting was offered via evening classes. The FCC awarded the college a 10-watt license in 1949, WERS, the first educational FM radio station in New England, was born; the station's power was increased to 300 watts three years and 18,000 watts by 1953. At the start of the decade, In 1950 Emerson College became a member of the New England Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, an accreditation association for schools and colleges in New England. President Green left the college in 1949 after being selected as president of the University of the South, Godfrey Dewey served as Acting President until 1951. At that time, Jonathon French was appointed as Acting President, he became President in December of that year, despite never being formally inaugurated; the college suffered from a severe financial crisis in 1952, sought $50,000 in emergency funding. At the time, the Chairman of the Corporation stated that without these funds, the college had three alternatives: go broke, sell out, or join up with another institution.
Led by the National Alumni Council, a grassroots campaign was launched to improve the financial situation of the college. The efforts led to the resignation of the Council of Trustees, replaced by alumni; the new board elected a former Emerson history professor, S. Justus McKinley, as the fifth President of Emerson College. Pulling out of its financial crisis, the college started to develop its programs with new facilities. In 1953, Emerson opened the Robbins Speech and Hearing Clinic at 145 Beacon Street, furthering the Communication Sciences and Disorders Program. A television studio was
Combat Zone, Boston
The Combat Zone was the name given in the 1960s to the adult entertainment district in downtown Boston, Massachusetts. Centered on Washington Street between Boylston Street and Kneeland Street, the area was once the site of many strip clubs, peep shows, X-rated movie theaters, adult bookstores, it had a reputation for crime, including prostitution. In 1974, in an attempt to contain the spread of adult businesses, the Boston Redevelopment Authority designated the Combat Zone as the city's adult entertainment district. For a variety of reasons, such as rising property values and the introduction of home video technology, most of the adult businesses in the area have since closed, the "Combat Zone" moniker has become obsolete. Today, the area features extensive recent redevelopment. Between Boylston Street and Lagrange Street are several 2000s-era residential highrise buildings, while south of Lagrange Street are a wide variety of Asian cuisine restaurants and other small shops that occupy historic storefronts.
The name "Combat Zone" was popularized through a series of exposé articles on the area written by Jean Cole in the 1960s for the Boston Daily Record. The name had a double meaning: not only was the area known for crime and violence, but many soldiers and sailors on shore leave from the Charlestown Navy Yard would frequent the many strip clubs and brothels in uniform, giving the streets the appearance of a war zone; the Combat Zone began to form in the early 1960s, when city officials razed the West End and former red light district at Scollay Square, near Faneuil Hall, to build the Government Center urban renewal project. Displaced Scollay Square denizens relocated to the lower Washington Street area because it was only half a mile away, the rents were low, the residents of nearby Chinatown lacked the political power to keep them out. There was an attempt to name the area Liberty Tree Neighborhood after the Liberty Tree that once stood in the area, but the name did not catch on. Lower Washington Street was part of Boston's entertainment district with a number of movie theaters, bars and restaurants that catered to night life.
It was located between the classic, studio-built movie palaces such as the RKO-Keith and Paramount theaters and the stage theaters such as the Colonial on Boylston Street. With the closing of the burlesque theaters in Scollay Square, many of the bars began to feature go-go dancers and nude dancers. During the 1970s, when laws against obscenity were relaxed, many of the movie theaters showing second-run films began showing adult movies. During the Combat Zone's heyday, some of the larger strip clubs were the Teddy Bear Lounge, the Two O'Clock Club, Club 66 and the Naked i Cabaret. Besides the strip clubs and X-rated movie theaters, numerous peep shows and adult bookstores lined most of Washington Street between Boylston Street and Kneeland Street. In 1976, the Wall Street Journal called the area "a sexual Disneyland."The prevailing attitude towards homosexuality at the time was one of intolerance. Lower Washington Street, by contrast, was known for many years as the "Gay Times Square"; as the area changed, that nickname fell out of circulation, but the Combat Zone's open atmosphere still attracted many LGBT people.
Popular gathering spots included the Playland Café on Essex Street, the Stuart Theater on Washington Street, many others. Nearby Park Square and Bay Village were home to several gay and drag bars, such as the Punch Bowl and Jacques Cabaret; the Combat Zone's detractors grouped homosexuals, prostitutes, purveyors of adult books and films, drug dealers together under an umbrella of perceived immorality. Jeremiah Murphy wrote in a 1973 Boston Globe article about the Combat Zone, "Now it is 3 a.m. and the gay bars have closed and the fags and hookers and pimps and pushers roam the streets." In a 1974 Boston Herald article, representatives of the Sack Theater Chain called the Combat Zone "Satan's playground" and "a malignancy comprised of pimps, prostitutes and merchants of immorality" whose growth had to be removed. As late as 1984 the Globe was referring to certain theaters in the Zone as "notorious gathering places for homosexuals."The Combat Zone was racially diverse at a time when other Boston neighborhoods were segregated.
In his memoir, Jonathan Tudan recalls the tension in his Tremont Street building over news of an impending police raid in 1969. Along with the drug dealers and prostitutes, he writes, "mixed-race couples shacking up have begun to nervously doubt their freedom." LaGrange Street, a small one-way street which runs between Washington and Tremont Streets, was the principal gathering spot for street prostitutes. Most congregated near "Good Time Charlie's" at 25 LaGrange Street; the Pilgrim Theater, one of the last old time burlesque houses, was the site of a political scandal in December 1974 when the Chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee, Wilbur Mills inebriated, appeared on stage with stripper Fanne Foxe, "The Argentine Firecracker". The Pilgrim ceased to feature live shows, instead focusing on X-rated movies, became a cruising site for men to have sex with men. State Representative Barney Frank made a name for himself in the mid-1970s as a political defender of the Combat Zone. Frank took a libertarian view on vice, bucking the consensus that the area needed to be "cleaned up."
At the same time he wanted to prevent the Zone's adult businesses from spreading into the affluent Beacon Hill and Back Bay neighborhoods where they might disturb his constituents. In
Plympton is a town in Plymouth County, United States. The population was 2,820 at the 2010 census; the United States senator William Bradford was born here. Plympton was first settled in 1662 as the western parish of Plymouth. Lands of the original town included all of Carver and Halifax, as well as small portions of Kingston and Middleborough; the town was incorporated in 1707 and named for Plympton, England. In 1734, the town of Halifax separated and incorporated, Carver did the same in 1790; the current boundaries of the town were set in 1862. Early residents of Plympton were farmers, living off the land. Founded by Justin P. Daley; the Industrial Revolution brought about factories, which made shoes and shovels, as well as lumber and cotton mills. Today, the town is rural and residential, with little industry, it is one of the least developed towns in the southeastern part of the state. The town's most famous resident was Deborah Sampson, born in the town in 1760, she is best known for pretending to be a man to fight in the American Revolution.
The town's newest addition is a Sysco distribution plant located near U. S. Route 44. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 15.1 square miles, of which 14.8 square miles are land and 0.3-square-mile is water. Plympton is bordered by Halifax to the northwest, Pembroke to the north, Kingston to the northeast, Carver to the southeast, Middleborough to the southwest. Plympton is 35 mi south of Boston and east of Providence, Rhode Island. Plympton is rural, with much of the land covered by forests; the northern tip of town lies along Silver Lake, which extends into Kingston and along the Halifax border. The Winnetuxet River and many other brooks, as well as several smaller ponds, lie within the town. Plympton has its own town forest and conservation area; the new highway portion of U. S. Route 44 clips the southeastern corner of the town. Routes 58 and 106 pass through the town, Route 106 passing across the northern portion of town, Route 58 passing from southeast to northwest.
Just south of Silver Lake, the Kingston/Plymouth Line of the MBTA's Commuter Rail service to Boston passes through the town, with the nearest stop being in Halifax. The nearest regional airport is Plymouth Municipal Airport; as of the census of 2000, there were 2,637 people, 854 households, 737 families residing in the town. The population density was 178.3 people per square mile. There were 872 housing units at an average density of 59.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.85% White, 0.99% African American, 0.61% Native American, 0.34% Asian, 0.53% from other races, 0.68% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.42% of the population. There were 854 households out of which 43.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 76.5% were married couples living together, 7.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 13.7% were non-families. 10.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 3.09 and the average family size was 3.32. In the town, the population was spread out with 28.6% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 29.5% from 25 to 44, 28.9% from 45 to 64, 6.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.3 males. The median income for a household in the town was $70,045, the median income for a family was $75,000. Males had a median income of $45,531 versus $34,000 for females; the per capita income for the town was $24,344. About 0.8% of families and 2.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.7% of those under age 18 and 3.4% of those age 65 or over. Plympton is represented in the Massachusetts House of Representatives as a part of the Twelfth Plymouth District, which includes Kingston and portions of Duxbury, Halifax and Plymouth; the town is represented in the Massachusetts Senate as a part of the Plymouth and Barnstable District, which includes Bourne, Kingston, Plymouth and portions of Barnstable.
The town is patrolled by its own full service Police department. On the national level, Plympton is a part of Massachusetts's 9th congressional district, is represented by William R. Keating; the state's senior member of the United States Senate, elected in 2012, is Elizabeth Warren. The junior senator, elected in a special election replacing John Kerry in 2013, is Ed Markey. Plympton is governed by the open town meeting form of government, led by a board of selectmen; the Town has its own police and fire departments, both of which are headquartered next to the town hall at the center of town. The town's post office is just south of the center of town along Route 58. Adjacent to the town hall on its southern side is the Plympton Public Library, a member of the SAILS Library Network. Plympton is a member of the Silver Lake Regional School District, which includes the towns of Kingston and Halifax; each town is responsible for its own elementary school, with a middle and high school shared between all three towns.
Plympton operates the Dennett Elementary School for students from kindergarten through sixth grade. Both the Silver Lake Regional Middle School and the Silver Lake Regional High School are located in neighboring Kingston. T