Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States. With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union; the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia; the state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation; the Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center of the state into the Mississippi River, which makes up Missouri's eastern border. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years; the Mississippian culture built mounds, before declining in the 14th century. When European explorers arrived in the 17th century they encountered the Osage and Missouria nations; the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764. After a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory.
Missouri was admitted as a slave state as part of the Missouri Compromise. Many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland. Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch; the Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, California Trail all began in Missouri. As a border state, Missouri's role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business. Today, the state is divided into the independent city of St. Louis. Missouri's culture blends elements from Southern United States; the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, St. Louis Blues developed in Missouri; the well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, lesser-known St. Louis-style barbecue, can be found across the state and beyond. Missouri is a major center of beer brewing.
Missouri wine is produced in Ozarks. Missouri's alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the state's major cities, popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, Table Rock Lake, Branson. Well-known Missourians include U. S. President Harry S. Truman, Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, Nelly; some of the largest companies based in the state include Cerner, Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, H&R Block, Wells Fargo Advisors, O'Reilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the "Mother of the West" and the "Cave State"; the state is named for the Missouri River, named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe. It is said that they were called the ouemessourita, meaning "those who have dugout canoes", by the Miami-Illinois language speakers; this appears to be folk etymology—the Illinois spoke an Algonquian language and the closest approximation that can be made in that of their close neighbors, the Ojibwe, is "You Ought to Go Downriver & Visit Those People."
This would be an odd occurrence, as the French who first explored and attempted to settle the Mississippi River got their translations during that time accurate giving things French names that were exact translations of the native tongue. Assuming Missouri were deriving from the Siouan language, it would translate as "It connects to the side of it," in reference to the river itself; this is not likely either, as this would be coming out as "Maya Sunni" Most though, the name Missouri comes from Chiwere, a Siouan language spoken by people who resided in the modern day states of Wisconsin, South Dakota, Missouri & Nebraska. The name "Missouri" has several different pronunciations among its present-day natives, the two most common being and. Further pronunciations exist in Missouri or elsewhere in the United States, involving the realization of the first syllable as either or. Any combination of these phonetic realizations may be observed coming from speakers of American English; the linguistic history was treated definitively by Donald M. Lance, who acknowledged that the question is sociologically complex, but that no pronunciation could be declared "correct", nor could any be defined as native or outsider, rural or urban, southern or northern, educated or otherwise.
Politicians employ multiple pronunciations during a single speech, to appeal to a greater number of listeners. Informal respellings of the state's name, such as "Missour-ee" or "Missour-uh", are used informally to phonetically distinguish pronunciations. There is no official state nickname. However, Missouri's unofficial nickname is the "Show Me State"; this phrase has several origins. One is popularly ascribed to a speech by Congressman Willard Vandiver in 1899, who declared that "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton and Democrats, frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, you have got to show me." This is in keeping with the saying "I'm from Missouri" which means "I'm skeptical of the matter and not convinced." However, according to researchers, the phrase "show me" was in use
New Orleans Mint
The New Orleans Mint operated in New Orleans, Louisiana, as a branch mint of the United States Mint from 1838 to 1861 and from 1879 to 1909. During its years of operation, it produced over 427 million gold and silver coins of nearly every American denomination, with a total face value of over US$307 million, it was closed during most of the American Civil Reconstruction. After it was decommissioned as a mint, the building has served a variety of purposes, including as an assay office, a United States Coast Guard storage facility, a fallout shelter. Since 1981 it has served as a branch of the Louisiana State Museum. Damaged by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, after over two years of repairs and renovations, the museum reopened in October 2007. Exhibits include instruments used by some of New Orleans' notable jazz musicians and posters, now part of the New Orleans Jazz Museum; the site is a performance venue for jazz concerts, in partnership with the New Orleans Jazz National Historical Park and the private Music at the Mint organization.
The Louisiana Historical Center is located on the third floor of the building. The center includes collections of colonial-era manuscripts and maps, primary and secondary source materials in a wide range of media, it is open to anyone with an interest in Louisiana culture. The New Orleans Mint has been designated a National Historic Landmark, it is the oldest extant structure to have served as a U. S. Mint. Along with the Charlotte Mint, it is one of two former mint facilities in the U. S. to house an art gallery. The growing United States in the early 1830s experienced a shortage of coins, it is estimated. Production of silver dollars was suspended in 1804 because they were being exchanged for underweight Spanish coins in the West Indies; that left the half-dollar as the largest denomination of circulating coin being minted in the U. S. Foreign coins were being circulated in the U. S. to alleviate the shortage. The Philadelphia Mint had been the only U. S. mint until 1838, when operations began at the first branch mints.
In 1832 President Andrew Jackson had vetoed a rechartering of the Second Bank of the United States, an institution which he felt extended credit to northeastern commercial tycoons at the expense of the ordinary frontiersmen of the Old Southwest, a region with which Jackson, a Tennessean identified. In 1836 Jackson had issued an executive order called the Specie Circular which demanded that all land transactions in the United States be conducted in cash. Both of these actions, combined with the economic depression following the Panic of 1837 increased the domestic need for minted money; as a result, in 1835 the U. S. Federal Government established three branch mints: the Charlotte Mint in North Carolina, the Dahlonega Mint in Georgia and the New Orleans Mint. Dahlonega and Charlotte were in gold mining regions and these mints produced only gold coins. New Orleans was selected because of the city's strategic location along the Mississippi River which made it a vitally important center for commercial activity, including the export of cotton from the area's plantations.
Large quantities of gold from Mexico passed through its port annually. In the early 19th century, New Orleans, the fifth-largest city in the United States until the Civil War, conducted more foreign trade than any other city in the nation, it was located near to gold deposits discovered in Alabama. While the Philadelphia Mint produced a substantial quantity of coinage, in the early 19th century it could not disperse the money swiftly to the far regions of the new nation the South and West. In contrast to the other two Southern branch mints, which only minted gold coinage, the New Orleans Mint produced both gold and silver coins, in much greater quantities and total value, which marked it as the most important branch mint in the country until the San Francisco Mint began minting a large monetary value of gold coins in the mid 1850s; the Mint's location occupies a prominent place in civic history. It sits at one of the two River corners of the French Quarter, the entire city, or Vieux Carré, of New Orleans.
Under French and Spanish rule this location was home to one of the city's defensive fortifications. In 1792 the Spanish governor, Francisco Luis Héctor de Carondelet, erected Fort San Carlos here; the fort was demolished in 1821. As a general in the United States Army, Jackson's leadership had saved the city from invading British forces during December 1814 and through January 8, 1815, the date of the famous Battle of New Orleans, the last significant battle of the War of 1812; the Mint building, constructed in red brick, was designed by architect William Strickland in the Greek Revival style, like most 19th-century public buildings in the United States. Strickland was a student of the architect Benjamin Latrobe, a disciple of Neoclassicism who had helped design the United States Capitol building in Washington, D. C. Strickland himself, based in Philadelphia, had designed the Philadelphia Mint building and the Second Bank of the United States, would design the Charlotte and Dahlonega facilities, making him the architect of the first four U.
S. mint buildings. Martin Gordon supervised the building's construction, undertaken by Benjamin F. Fox, the master carpenter and joiner, John Mitchell, the master stonemason and builder. On the north façade the mint building features a central projecting Ionic portico, supported by four monum
Battle of New Orleans
The Battle of New Orleans was fought on January 8, 1815, between the British Army under Major General Sir Edward Pakenham, the United States Army under Brevet Major General Andrew Jackson. It took place 5 miles east-southeast of the city of New Orleans, close to the present-day town of Chalmette and was a U. S. victory. The battle took place directly after the signing of the Treaty of Ghent on December 24, 1814, before news of the treaty could reach the United States. U. S. troops defeated a poorly executed British assault on New Orleans, despite the British having a large advantage in training and fielded troops. In just over a half-hour, the U. S. suffered just over 60 casualties, while the British suffered 2,000 casualties. On October 24, 1814, in Pakenham's Secret Orders the Secretary of War and the Colonies, Henry Bathurst wrote: War Department 24th October 1814 M Genl The Hon Sir E. Pakenham Secret Sir: It has occurred to me that one case may arise affecting your situation upon the Coasts of America for which the Instructions addressed to the late Major General Ross have not provided.
You may hear whilst engaged in active operations that the Preliminaries of Peace between His Majesty and the United States have been signed in Europe and that they have been sent to America in order to receive the Ratification of The President. As the Treaty would not be binding until it shall have received such Ratification in which we may be disappointed by the refusal of the Government of the United States, it is advisable that Hostilities should not be suspended until you shall have official information that The President has ratified the Treaty and a Person will be duly authorized to apprise you of this event; as during this interval, judging from the experience we have had, the termination of the war must be considered as doubtful, you will regulate your proceedings accordingly, neither omitting an opportunity of obtaining signal success, nor exposing the troops to hazard or serious loss for an inconsiderable advantage. And you will take special care not so to act under the expectation of hearing that the Treaty of Peace has been ratified, as to endanger the safety of His Majesty's Forces, should that expectation be unhappily disappointed.
I have etc. Bathurst By December 14, 1814, sixty British ships with 14,450 soldiers and sailors aboard, under the command of Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane, had anchored in the Gulf of Mexico to the east of Lake Pontchartrain and Lake Borgne. Preventing access to the lakes was an American flotilla, commanded by Lieutenant Thomas ap Catesby Jones, consisting of five gunboats. On December 14, around 1,200 British sailors and Royal Marines under Captain Nicholas Lockyer set out to attack Jones' force. Lockyer's men sailed in 42 longboats, each armed with a small carronade. Lockyer captured Jones' vessels in a brief engagement known as the Battle of Lake Borgne. 17 British sailors were killed and 77 wounded, while 6 Americans were killed, 35 wounded, 86 captured. The wounded included both Lockyer. Now free to navigate Lake Borgne, thousands of British soldiers, under the command of General John Keane, were rowed to Pea Island where they established a garrison, about 30 miles east of New Orleans. On the morning of December 23, Keane and a vanguard of 1,800 British soldiers reached the east bank of the Mississippi River, 9 miles south of New Orleans.
Keane could have attacked the city by advancing for a few hours up the river road, undefended all the way to New Orleans, but he made the fateful decision to encamp at Lacoste's Plantation and wait for the arrival of reinforcements. Meanwhile, General Jackson learned of the advances and position of the British encampment from Colonel Pierre Denis de La Ronde and his son-in-law, Gabriel Villeré, son of Colonel Jacques Villeré; the young major had escaped through a window after capture, when the advancing British invaded his family home. At the close of Major Villere's narrative the General drew up his figure, bowed with disease and weakness, to its full height, with an eye of fire and an emphatic blow upon the table with his clenched fist, exclaimed:'By the Eternal, they shall not sleep on our soil! That evening, attacking from the north, led 2,131 men in a brief three-pronged assault on the unsuspecting British troops, who were resting in their camp. Jackson pulled his forces back to the Rodriguez Canal, about 4 miles south of the city.
The Americans suffered 24 killed, 115 wounded, 74 missing, while the British reported their losses as 46 killed, 167 wounded, 64 missing. Historian Robert Quimby says, "The British did win a tactical victory, which enabled them to maintain their position." However, Quimby goes on to say, "It is not too much to say that it was the battle of December 23 that saved New Orleans. The British were disabused of their expectation of an easy conquest; the unexpected and severe attack made Keane more cautious... he made no effort to advance on the twenty-fourth or twenty-fifth." As a consequence, the Americans were given time to begin the transformation of the canal into a fortified earthwork. On Christmas Day, General Edward Pakenham arrived on the battlefield and ordered a reconnaissance-in-force on December 28 against the American earthworks protecting the advance to New Orleans; that evening, General Pakenham, angry with the position in which the army had been placed, met with General Keane and Admiral Cochrane for an update on the situation.
General Pakenham wanted to use Chef Menteur Road as the invasion route, but he was overruled by Admiral Cochrane, who insisted that
Louisiana Sports Hall of Fame & Northwest Louisiana History Museum – Natchitoches
The Louisiana Sports Hall of Fame & Northwest Louisiana History Museum, located in Natchitoches, Louisiana, is a branch of the Louisiana State Museum. The Louisiana Sports Hall of Fame is dedicated to the history of sports in Louisiana, including the achievements of over 300 Louisiana athletes and other sports figures; the Northwest Louisiana History Museum examines the area's cultural traditions and history from early native-American civilizations to the present. The museum opened in 2013 in a new facility located on Cane River Lake. Built for $23 million, the building was designed by the firm of Trahan Architects of New Orleans and features sinuous molded stone interiors and earth-colored exterior sheathing in order to evoke the river; the Louisiana Sports Hall of Fame was first founded by the Louisiana Sports Writers Association in 1958, but it did not have a physical structure until the city Natchitoches and Northwestern State University addressed the issue in 1971 with an offer of space on the campus.
The growing archive of memorabilia was shelved in Prather Coliseum for 40 years until the opening of the new $23 million Hall of Fame on June 28, 2013. North Louisiana Historical Association Stahls, Paul F. Jr. "Honoring Athletes at the Louisiana Sports Hall of Fame," Louisiana Life. Sept.–Oct. 2013. Louisiana Sports Hall of Fame & Northwest Louisiana History Museum - official site Louisiana Sports Hall of Fame website Louisiana Sports Hall of Fame- Facebook page
Wedell-Williams Aviation & Cypress Sawmill Museum - Patterson
The Wedell-Williams Aviation & Cypress Sawmill Museum – Patterson is a branch of the Louisiana State Museum located at 118 Cotten Road, Louisiana, United States. It covers the aviation and industrial history of Louisiana This collection is named after Jimmie Wedell and Harry Williams from the interwar period, it has a number of early racing memorabilia. The industrial history of the Patterson lumberyards is illustrated by the items in this collection. Louisiana State Museum - Patterson
Jackson Square (New Orleans)
Jackson Square is a historic park in the French Quarter of New Orleans, Louisiana. It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1960, for its central role in the city's history, as the site where in 1803 Louisiana was made United States territory pursuant to the Louisiana Purchase. In 2012 the American Planning Association designated Jackson Square as one of America's Great Public Spaces. Jackson Square was designed after the famous 17th-century Place des Vosges in Paris, France, by the architect and landscape architect Louis H. Pilié. Jackson Square is the size of a city block. Sculptor Clark Mills' equestrian statue of Andrew Jackson, hero of the Battle of New Orleans and seventh U. S. President for whom the former military parade ground was named, was erected in 1856. Iron fences, walkways and Parisian-style landscaping remain intact from the original design by Micaela Almonester, Baroness de Pontalba, in 1851, she built the Pontalba Buildings, which flank the old square. The flagpole, symbolizing the 1803 ceremonial transfers from Spain to France and from France to the United States, reflects Louisiana's rich colonial history.
During the 1930s, the Works Progress Administration repainted façades, renovated buildings, improved landscaping in and around the park. In 1971, the pedestrian zone in the vicinity of Jackson Square was created, when three surrounding streets were closed to vehicular traffic — Chartres, St. Peter, St. Ann. Early French colonial New Orleans was centered on what was called the Place d'Armes. Under Spanish colonial administration in the second half of the 18th century, the name was Plaza de Armas. Following the Great New Orleans Fire of 1788, the Spanish officials rebuilt the St. Louis Church in 1789 and the town hall in 1795. Following the 1815 Battle of New Orleans, during the first half of the 19th century, the former military plaza was renamed Jackson Square, for the battle's victorious General Jackson. In the center of the park stands an equestrian statue of Andrew Jackson erected in 1856, one of four identical statues in the U. S. by the sculptor Clark Mills. The statue was dedicated in a grand ceremony on Saturday, February 9, 1856.
The square has 4 older statues, neoclassical representations of personifications of the 4 Seasons, one near each corner of the square. The square overlooked the Mississippi River across Decatur Street, but the view was blocked in the 19th century by the construction of higher levees; the riverfront was long devoted to shipping docks. The 20th-century administration of Mayor Moon Landrieu installed a scenic boardwalk on top of the levee to reconnect the city to the river; the space between Decatur Street and the "Moon Walk" is designated as "Washington Artillery Park". On the north side of the square are three 18th-century historic buildings, which were the city's heart in the colonial era; the center of the three is St. Louis Cathedral; the cathedral was designated as a minor Basilica by Pope Paul VI. To its left is the Cabildo, the old city hall, now a museum, where the final version of the Louisiana Purchase was signed. To the cathedral's right is the Presbytère, built to match the Cabildo; the Presbytère was planned for housing the city's Roman Catholic priests and other church officials.
At the start of the 19th century, it was adapted as a courthouse, in the 20th century it became a museum. The Place d'Armes was the site for public execution of criminals and rebellious slaves during the 18th and early 19th centuries. After the 1811 German Coast Uprising, three slaves were hanged here; the heads of some of the executed rebels were put on the city's gates. In the Reconstruction Era, Jackson Square served as an arsenal. During the insurrection following the disputed 1872 gubernatorial election, in March 1873, it was the site of the Battle of Jackson Square. A several-thousand-man militia under John McEnery, the Democratic claimant to the office of the Governor, defeated the New Orleans militia, seizing control of the state's buildings and armory for a few days, they retreated before the arrival of Federal forces. From the 1920s through the 1980s the square was famous as a gathering place of painters of varying talents, including proficient professionals, talented young art students and caricaturists.
The 1960s and 1970s saw the beginnings of the Square as a place of business for New Age and pagan devotees telling fortunes and reading palms and tarot cards. They sit alongside of the park. Chartres St. in front of Saint Louis Cathedral, the Presbytère, the Cabildo, is shared by visitors and artists and varied street performers, such as jugglers and magicians. The performers work for tips. On the other two sides of the square are the Pontalba Buildings, matching red-brick, block-long, 4‑story buildings built in the 1840s; the ground floors house restaurants. Diagonally across Decatur Street upriver from Jackson Square is the Jax Brewery building, the original home of a favorite local beer. After the company ceased to operate independently, the building was converted into several businesses, including restaurants and specialty shops. In recent years, some retail space has been converted into luxury condominiums. Diagonally across Decatur Street downriver from the s
The Arsenal (New Orleans)
The Old Louisiana State Armory referred to as the Arsenal, faces St. Peter Street in the French Quarter only a few yards from historic Jackson Square in New Orleans, Louisiana. Since 1914 it has served as a Louisiana State Museum site. Built in 1839, the Arsenal stands adjacent to the Cabildo on the site of the old Spanish Arsenal built in 1762. Designed by James H. Dakin, the building is an example of Greek Revival style, it housed the Orleans Artillery up until the American Civil War, when it was used by Confederate troops to store supplies. After occupation by Union forces, the Arsenal came under Federal control and was used as a military prison. During Reconstruction, the building was turned over to the state and was used to house the New Orleans Metropolitan Police, giving it an important role in the Battle of Liberty Place in 1874. Violence between the pro-integration Metropolitan Police and the white supremacist Crescent City White League erupted over a contentious gubernatorial election.
The White League prevailed at first, occupying the Cabildo and Arsenal for three days — until President Ulysses S. Grant sent in Federal troops to restore order. In 1914, the Arsenal was transferred to the Louisiana State Museum to exhibit military objects. Although the Arsenal faces St. Peter Street, it is only accessible via the adjacent Cabildo museum. Though the structure once served as an arsenal or armory, there is nothing on display inside, related to this history; the second floor houses changing exhibits. The first floor serves as an education classroom for visiting school groups, while the third floor serves as meeting space; the Cabildo Louisiana State Museum The Arsenal - Louisiana State Museum