The "Stand By Your Ad" provision of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act, enacted in 2002, requires candidates in the United States for federal political office, as well as interest groups and political parties supporting or opposing a candidate, to include in political advertisements on television and radio "a statement by the candidate that identifies the candidate and states that the candidate has approved the communication". The provision was intended to force political candidates running any campaign for office in the United States to associate themselves with their television and radio advertising, thereby discouraging them from making controversial claims or attack ads. In American politics, "I approve this message" is a phrase said by candidates for federal office to comply with this provision; the DISCLOSE Act, proposed by Democrats in a response to the Supreme Court decision in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, would have required the heads of non-campaign organizations funding political advertisements to appear on-camera and follow the "stand by your ad" requirement.
Although the bill passed the House of Representatives, it failed in the Senate and did not become law. Attack ads that criticize an opponent's political platform rose to popularity in United States since the 1960s. In more recent times these ads became ad hominem attacks, some of them appearing to be anonymous, that discouraged voters. Proponents of the Stand By Your Ad provision, such as Senator Ron Wyden who sponsored the provision in the BCRA, advocate that by forcing candidates to associate themselves with their attacks in the ads, voters would be more inclined to punish them for using such a strategy, thus discouraging candidates from campaigning in such a manner; the earliest roots of the provision can be traced to the 1996 Senate election in Minnesota, where a grassroots movement known as "Minnesota Compact" attempted to combat negative campaigning, rampant in the state, though what was proposed remained voluntary. In 1999, the "Stand By Your Ad" provision was brought up again, this time in the 1999 North Carolina General Assembly.
The "Campaign Reform Act" S.881 was ratified and signed into state law on July 21, 1999. This required candidates or its campaign committee to: include a disclosure statement spoken by the candidate and containing at least the following words:'I am, candidate for, I sponsored this ad.' This subdivision applies only to an advertisement that mentions the name of, shows the picture of, transmits the voice of, or otherwise refers to an opposing candidate for the same office as the sponsoring candidate. Following the perceived success of the "Stand By Your Ad" provision in North Carolina state law in reducing negative campaigning, similar measures were introduced into other state legislatures. Two years a bill was introduced in Congress to extend this provision to Federal law, it was absorbed into the BCRA, which addressed the issue of financing of political campaigns, signed into law by George W. Bush on March 27, 2002. Under Section 311 of the BCRA, Section 318 the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 was amended to include the "Stand By Your Ad" provision.
Representative David Price of North Carolina proposed the amendment, modeling after the North Carolina law. Price stated that "The American people are sick of the relentlessly negative tone of campaigns in presidential races. "Stand by your ad" isn't just about restoring civility to campaigns. It's about restoring people's faith in our political process."The most prominent effect was on television ads, which now required candidates to provide: a statement that identifies the candidate and states that the candidate has approved the communication. Such statement-- shall be conveyed by-- an unobscured, full-screen view of the candidate making the statement, or the candidate in voice-over, accompanied by a identifiable photographic or similar image of the candidate; the phrase can be said at any point during the ad, but is inserted at the beginning or the end. The provision covers radio advertising, in which the voice of the candidate approving the communication is required. If the advertisement is not in English, the phrase is given in the same language.
Failure to comply may result in penalties from the Federal Election Commission, but more loss of the "lowest rate" status for political ads, for the entire duration of the campaign. However, this rule is enforced at the discretion of the station manager, only through legal action by the opposing candidate. For example, in the 2008 Minnesota senate election, challenger Al Franken accused Senator Norm Coleman of omitting 1.1 seconds of the required visual of the candidate, a mistake that could double the advertising rates and costs millions to Coleman's campaign. Including Coleman at the same duration of campaigning, Republicans in four Senate state races were subject to investigation by
Riccardo Cocuzza is an Italian footballer who plays for A. C. Legnano. Born in Vizzolo Predabissi, the Province of Milan, Cocuzza started his career at F. C. Internazionale Milano, he was the member of the youth teams from 2002 until January 2010. Cocuzza scored 5 goals for Inter U-17 team in the first half of 2009–10 season, which he scored 4 goals in a single game against Pavia. In January 2010 he was signed by fellow Serie A club Parma F. C. which Cocuzza was a member of the under-17 team in the first season. Cocuzza was a member of the reserve team from 2010–11 season to January 2013, which he had a cruciate ligament injury in 2011–12 season. On 1 February 2013 Cocuzza was farmed to Gubbio. In 2013–14 season the loan was extended, which Cocuzza played for Gubbio in the first pre-season friendly along with other former Parma team-mate. On 31 January 2014 Cocuzza and Mohamed Traoré left for South Tyrol, with Andrea Molinelli moved to Gubbio. On 8 July 2014 he was farmed to Renate. AIC profile Riccardo Cocuzza at TuttoCalciatori.net