Pacific Grove, California
Pacific Grove is a coastal city in Monterey County, California in the United States. The United States Census Bureau estimated its 2013 population at 15,504, Pacific Grove is located between Point Pinos and Monterey. Pacific Grove is known for its Victorian homes, Asilomar State Beach, the city is endowed with more historical houses per capita than anywhere else in California. Seventy-five percent of the homes in Pacific Grove are considered historical, some of them have been turned into bed and breakfast inns. The city is known as the location of the Point Pinos Lighthouse. The Pacific Grove Museum of Natural History and Pacific Grove Art Center are located in the historic downtown, Pacific Grove was the main filming location for Roger Spottiswoodes 1989 film Turner & Hooch as well as A Summer Place, starring Sandra Dee. In prehistoric times the Rumsen were one of the linguistically distinct Ohlone groups of the Monterey Bay Area who inhabited the area now known as Pacific Grove and this tribe subsisted with hunting and gathering in what has been deduced as a biologically rich Monterey Peninsula.
In time, the butterflies, fragrant pines and fresh sea air brought others to the Pacific Grove Retreat to rest, the initial camp meeting of the Pacific Coast branch of the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle was held in Pacific Grove in June 1879. Modeled after the Methodist Sunday school teachers training camp established in 1874 at Chautauqua Lake, New York, in November 1879, after the summer campers returned home, Robert Louis Stevenson wandered into the deserted campgrounds, I have never been in any place so dreamlike. Indeed, it was not so much like a town as like a scene upon the stage by daylight. The Pacific Grove post office opened in 1886, closed that year, Pacific Grove, like Carmel-by-the-Sea and Monterey, became an artists haven in the 1890s and subsequent period. Artists of the En plein air school in both Europe and the United States were seeking a venue which had natural beauty, so that Pacific Grove was a magnet for this movement. William Adam was an English painter who first moved to Monterey, at about the same time Eugen Neuhaus, a German painter, arrived in Pacific Grove with his new bride.
The Asilomar Conference Grounds are located at the edge of Pacific Grove. Asilomar opened in 1913 as a YWCA summer retreat it now belongs to the California State Park System, thirteen buildings on these grounds were designed by the architect Julia Morgan, who designed Hearst Castle. For a number of years, John Steinbeck lived in a cottage in Pacific Grove owned by his father, the cottage still stands on a quiet side street at 147 11th St. without any plaque or special sign, virtually overlooked by most Steinbeck fans. Another Steinbeck related house is at 222 Central Ave, which was his grandmothers house, a golden statue of Steinbeck in the front yard stood for years before it was removed. In Steinbecks book Sweet Thursday, a chapter is dedicated to describing a rivalry that arose among the residents over the game of roque
Monterey Bay is a bay of the Pacific Ocean located on the coast of the U. S. state of California. The bay is south of the cities of San Francisco. The county-seat city of Santa Cruz is located at the end of the bay. The city of Monterey is on the Monterey Peninsula at the south end, the Monterey Bay Area is a local colloquialism sometimes used to describe the whole of the Central Coast communities of Santa Cruz and Monterey counties. The first European to discover Monterey Bay was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo on November 16,1542 while sailing northward along the coast on a Spanish naval expedition. He named the bay Bahía de los Pinos, probably because of the forest of pine trees first encountered while rounding the peninsula at the end of the bay. Cabrillos name for the bay was lost, but the westernmost point of the peninsula is known as Point Pinos. On December 10,1595, Sebastián Rodríguez Cermeño crossed the bay, the present name for the bay was documented in 1602 by Sebastián Vizcaíno, who had been tasked by the Spanish government to complete a detailed chart of the coast.
He anchored in what is now the Monterey harbor on December 16, Monterrey is an alternate spelling of Monterrei, a municipality in the Galicia region of Spain from which the viceroy and his father originated. All other place names in the vicinity containing Monterey were so named because of their proximity to the bay and this includes the Presidio of Monterey, City of Monterey, County of Monterey and Monterey Canyon. The Monterey Canyon, one of the largest underwater canyons in the world, begins off the coast of Moss Landing, killer whales are found along the coast, especially when Gray whales migrate, as they hunt the whales during their migration north. Many species of fish, mollusks such as abalone and squid, several varieties of kelp grow in the bay, some becoming as tall as trees, forming what is known as a kelp forest. Ricketts State Marine Conservation Area and Asilomar State Marine Reserve are marine protected areas in Monterey Bay, like underwater parks, these marine protected areas help conserve ocean wildlife and marine ecosystems.
Clockwise around the bay, generally north to south
Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary
The Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary is a US Federally protected marine area offshore of Californias central coast. It is the largest US national marine sanctuary and has a length of 276 miles stretching from just north of the Golden Gate Bridge at San Francisco to Cambria in San Luis Obispo County. Supporting one of the world’s most diverse ecosystems, it is home to numerous mammals, fishes, invertebrates. The MBNMS was established in 1992 for the purpose of protection, education. Its seaward Boundary is an average of 30 miles offshore, and its area is 6,094 square statute miles or 4,024 square nautical miles. The deepest point is 10,663 feet in the Monterey Submarine Canyon, the average ocean surface temperature is 55 °F. The sanctuary provides habitat for 34 species of mammals,94 species of seabirds,345 species of fish,4 of turtles,31 phyla of invertebrates. Historical sites include 1,276 reported shipwrecks and 718 prehistoric sites, the Monterey Bay Marine Sanctuary Exploration Center opened on July 23,2012 at 35 Pacific Ave.
in Santa Cruz, CA. Members are appointed competitively by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Advisory Council meets bi-monthly in open sessions located throughout the almost 300-mile boundary of the Sanctuary. Areas with overlapping jurisdiction include, See the MBNMS event calendar for a list of meetings, as well as events such as Snapshot Day, Urban Watch, First Flush. The Sanctuary Integrated Monitoring Network website was launched in 2003 to collect metadata for their various monitoring projects, in 2012, this information was released as an iOS application to allow visitors better access to the over 4,200 photos that have been collected. A Marine Sanctuaries Study Bill was first proposed in 1967, with lobbying efforts by the Sierra Club, the Marine Protection and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 authorized the United States Environmental Protection Agency to monitor off-shore dumping. In 1975, the California Coastal Zone Conservation Commission recommended a marine sanctuary, in 1983 the Ronald Reagan administration dropped the area for consideration as a sanctuary.
In 1988 congress re-authorized the Sanctuaries Act and proposed a sanctuary in Monterey Bay, public hearings, with the memory of the 1969 Santa Barbara oil spill, brought protests demanding a larger size. The first Draft Environmental Impact Statement was released in 1990, on September 20,1992 the MBNMS was authorized by legislation proposed by congressman Leon Panetta. It was the largest federal marine sanctuary, there have been five Superintendents of the MBNMS since its inception, Terry Jackson, Jackson was a NOAA Corps officer that was assigned to the MBNMS as its first manager in 1992. As a NOAA Corps officer, Jacksons land-based assignment ended in 1997, over the next year, Jackson hired the first MBNMS staffers. Jackson retired from the NOAA Corps in 1998, Carol Fairfield, A call for Superintendent applicants went out in the spring of 1997
Monterey Bay Aquarium
The Monterey Bay Aquarium is a non-profit public aquarium located in Monterey, United States. The aquarium was founded in 1984 and is located on the site of a sardine cannery on Cannery Row. It has an attendance of around two million visitors. It holds thousands of plants and animals, representing more than 600 species on display, the aquarium benefits from a high circulation of fresh ocean water which is obtained through pipes which pump it in continuously from Monterey Bay. The centerpiece of the Oceans Edge Wing, is a 28-foot-high,333, in this exhibit, the aquarium was the first in the world to grow live California Giant Kelp. Visitors are able to inspect the creatures of the kelp forest at several levels in the building, the largest exhibit in the aquarium is a 1,200, 000-U. S. -gallon the Open Sea exhibit, which features one of the worlds largest single-paned windows. It is one of the few aquariums to successfully care for the ocean sunfish in captivity, Sea life on exhibit includes stingrays, sea otters, sea horses, and numerous other native marine species, which can be viewed above and below the waterline.
The Monterey Bay Aquarium is one of few in the world to exhibit both bluefin and yellowfin tuna. For displaying jellyfish, it uses a Kreisel tank, which creates a flow to support. The aquarium does not house mammals other than sea otters that were rescued through its Sea Otter Program, there had been a number of attempts to build an aquarium in the Monterey area dating back almost 100 years. In 1914 an aquarium was proposed to the city council by Frank Booth with a cost of $10,000. A bond issue was sponsored in an attempt to place an aquarium in the basement of the Pacific Grove Museum by Knut Hovden in 1925 and in 1944 an aquarium is suggested for Point Lobos State Reserve. This building was dismantled in 1980, but beginning in 2002 the Monterey Bay Aquarium has blown the original Hovden Cannery steam whistle at each day to commemorate it. The aquariums original building was designed by the architectural firm Esherick Homsey Dodge & Davis, the aquariums mission is to inspire conservation of the oceans.
The aquariums initial financial backing was provided by David Packard, co-founder of Hewlett-Packard, Packard, an avid blacksmith, personally designed and created several exhibit elements for the aquarium at his forge in Big Sur, including the wave machines in the Kelp Forest and aviary. His daughter, marine biologist Julie Packard, is currently Executive Director of the aquarium, whose life was an inspiration for the eventual building of the aquarium, is famous as the Doc of John Steinbecks Cannery Row and Sweet Thursday. The aquarium itself contains a display of Ricketts items, including some of his personal library, the shop sells a variety of Steinbeck books. The basic design of the aquarium pumps 7,570 litres of seawater from the Monterey Bay per minute and night, during the day the water is filtered for viewing clarity
Monterey was founded in 1770 by missionary Junípero Serra and explorer Gaspar de Portolà. Portolà erected the Presidio of Monterey to defend the port against an expected Russian trading, at the same time, Serra founded Mission San Carlos Borromeo, second in the chain of Spanish Missions of California. Originally near the presidio, the moved a few miles south to its current location in Carmel. Monterey served as the capital of upper Las Californias and Alta California from 1777 to 1848, under the flags of Spain, independent Mexico, the city was originally the only port of entry for taxable goods in California. All shipments into California by sea were required to go through the Custom House, the oldest governmental building in the state, and Californias Historic Landmark Number One. Built in 3 phases, construction on the Custom House began in 1814 under the Spanish, Monterey was the site of the July 7,1846, Battle of Monterey during the Mexican-American War. It was on this date that John D. Sloat, Commodore in the United States Navy, raised the U. S.
flag over the Monterey Custom House, in addition, many California firsts occurred in Monterey. These include Californias first theater, brick house, publicly funded school, public building, public library, and printing press, which printed The Californian, Colton Hall, built in 1849 by Walter Colton, was originally a public school and government meeting place. It hosted Californias first constitutional convention, today it houses a museum, while adjacent buildings serve as the seat of local government. The Monterey post office opened in 1849, the city has a noteworthy history as a center for California painters in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Such painters as Arthur Frank Mathews, Armin Hansen, Xavier Martinez, Rowena Meeks Abdy, in November 1995, California Governor Pete Wilson proclaimed Monterey as The Language Capital of the World. Pacific Grove was founded in 1875 by a group of Methodists who modeled the town after Ocean Grove, in time, the butterflies, fragrant pines and fresh sea air brought others to the Pacific Grove Retreat to rest and meditate.
The initial meeting of the Pacific Coast branch of the Chautauqua Literary, modelled after the Methodist Sunday school teachers’ training camp established in 1874 at Lake Chautauqua, N. Y. this location became part of a nationwide educational network. In November 1879, after the summer campers returned home, Robert Louis Stevenson wandered into the deserted campgrounds, indeed, it was not so much like a deserted town as like a scene upon the stage by daylight, and with no one on the boards. Today, Stevenson School in nearby Pebble Beach is named after the author, the Pacific Grove post office opened in 1886, closed that year, and was re-opened in 1887. Pacific Grove, like Carmel-by-the-Sea and Monterey, became a haven in the 1890s. Artists of the En plein air school in both Europe and the United States were seeking a venue which had natural beauty, so that Pacific Grove was a magnet for this movement. English painter William Adam and other artists moved to Pacific Grove in the early 1900s, for a number of years, John Steinbeck lived in a cottage in Pacific Grove owned by his father, who was Monterey County Treasurer
Edward F. Ricketts State Marine Conservation Area
The four areas together encompass 2.96 square miles. The two State Marine Conservation Areas were established in September 2007 by the California Department of Fish & Game, click here for a virtual tour Edward F. Ricketts State Marine Conservation Area is located off the coast of the Monterey Peninsula, at the southern end of Monterey Bay. It covers an area of.22 sq. miles, the reserve is directly offshore from the Monterey Bay Aquarium and Cannery Row. It was named for Edward F. Ricketts who founded the Pacific Biological Laboratories in Monterey and it is the easternmost of four marine protected areas bordering the Monterey Peninsula. The Lovers Point State Marine Reserve is adjacent to the west of Ricketts SMCA, farther south and west is the Asilomar State Marine Reserve. All four areas are included within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, the Monterey Peninsula includes extensive tidepools brimming with life. Its sandy beaches are used by pupping harbor seals, and dense kelp beds offshore provide shelter for sea otters, sMCAs provide habitat for a variety of marine life, and includes kelp forest, rocky intertidal, and soft and hard bottom.
In addition to diving and visiting the aquarium, people enjoy the Monterey Bay by kayaking, whale watching, charter fishing, california’s marine protected areas encourage recreational and educational uses of the ocean. Activities such as kayaking, diving and swimming are allowed unless otherwise restricted, similar studies in marine protected areas located off of the Santa Barbara Channel Islands have already detected gradual improvements in fish size and number. Research methods include hook-and-line sampling, scuba diver surveys, and the use of Remote Operated Vehicle submarines, californias MPAs Marine Life Protection Act Initiative CalOceans
Marine life, or sea life or ocean life, refers to the plants and other organisms that live in the salt water of the sea or ocean, or the brackish water of coastal estuaries. At a fundamental level, marine life helps determine the nature of our planet. Marine organisms produce much of the oxygen we breathe, shorelines are in part shaped and protected by marine life, and some marine organisms even help create new land. Most life forms evolved initially in marine habitats, oceans provide about 99 percent of the living space on the planet. The earliest vertebrates appeared in the form of fish, which live exclusively in water, some of these evolved into amphibians which spend portions of their lives in water and portions on land. Other fish evolved into mammals and subsequently returned to the ocean as seals. Plant forms such as kelp and algae grow in the water and are the basis for some underwater ecosystems and particularly phytoplankton, are key primary producers forming the general foundation of the ocean food chain.
Marine vertebrates must obtain oxygen to survive, and they do so in various ways, fish have gills instead of lungs, although some species of fish, such as the lungfish, have both. Marine mammals, such as dolphins, otters, some amphibians are able to absorb oxygen through their skin. Invertebrates exhibit a range of modifications to survive in poorly oxygenated waters including breathing tubes. However, as invertebrate life evolved in an aquatic habitat most have little or no specialisation for respiration in water. Altogether there are 230,000 documented marine species, including over 16,000 species of fish, there is no life without water, which has been characterised as the solvent of life. The Nobel prize winner Albert Szent-Györgyi referred to water as the mater und matrix, the abundance of water on earths surface is a unique feature that distinguishes earth from other planets in the Solar System. Earths hydrosphere consists chiefly of the oceans, but technically includes all surfaces in the world, including inland seas, rivers.
The deepest underwater location is Challenger Deep of the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean with a depth of 10,911.4 m, the mass of the oceans is approximately 1. 35×1018 metric tons, or about 1/4400 of Earths total mass. The oceans cover an area of 3. 618×108 km2 with a depth of 3682 m. If all of Earths crustal surface was at the elevation as a smooth sphere. About 97. 5% of the water is saline, the remaining 2. 5% is fresh water, Most fresh water, about 68. 7%, is present as ice in ice caps and glaciers
California Department of Fish and Wildlife
The California Department of Fish and Wildlife, formerly known as the California Department of Fish and Game, is a state agency under the California Natural Resources Agency. The Department of Fish and Wildlife manages and protects the fish, plant. It is responsible for related recreational, scientific, and it works to prevent illegal poaching. The Game Act was passed in 1852 by the California State Legislature, the Game Act closed seasons in 12 counties for quail, partridge and wood ducks, elk and antelope. A second legislative action enacted the same year protected salmon runs, in 1854, the Legislature extended the act to include all counties of California. In 1860, protection controls were extended for trout, Lake Merritt was made the first game refuge of California in 1869, believed to be the first in the United States. In 1870, the Legislature, with the support of Governor Henry Huntly Haight, the Board stipulated that fish ladders were now required at state dams. The Board outlawed explosives or other substances, and created a $500 fine for violations.
In 1870, the first fish ladder in the state was built on a tributary of the Truckee River, over the next 30 years, the Board of Fish Commissioners were given authority over game in the state as well as establishing hunting and fishing licenses. In 1909, the Board of Fish Commissioners changed its name to the Fish, the Division of Fish and Game was established in 1927, set up within the Department of Natural Resources. In 1951, the Reorganization Act elevated the Division of Fish and Game to the Department of Fish, California Fish and Game collaborated with the indigenous Native American Tribes to ensure their proper fishing rights. The Yurok tribe has collaborated with them as recently as 2011, the Department helped figure out the official count of fish killed in the 2002 Fish Kill on the Klamath River. The Klamath river is important to the tribes that live along that river. By 2012, California was one of only 13 states still using Game in the title of their wildlife agency, the State Legislature changed the Departments name to Fish and Wildlife on January 1,2013.
The legislation followed recommendations of a 51-member stakeholder advisory group,18 other states use the term wildlife, while the others generally use natural resources or conservation, in the titles of their Departments. This change reflects the trend toward expansion of the Agencies missions from sport fishing and hunting alone, to protection of non-game wildlife, in June 2015, the CDFW phased out lead ammunition for hunting on state land in order to keep lead out of backcountry ecosystems. The Department of Fish and Wildlife divides the State of California into seven management regions whose boundaries mostly correspond to county borders, northern Region, Del Norte, Lassen, Modoc, Siskiyou and Trinity counties. North Central Region, Amador, Calaveras, Colusa, El Dorado, Lake, Placer, Sacramento, San Joaquin, Sutter and Yuba counties
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Asilomar State Marine Reserve
Asilomar State Marine Reserve is one of four small marine protected areas located near the cities of Monterey and Pacific Grove, at the southern end of Monterey Bay on California’s central coast. The four MPAs together encompass 2.96 square miles, the SMR protects all marine life within its boundaries. Fishing and take of all living marine resources is prohibited, the Asilomar State Marine Reserve was established in September 2007 by the California Department of Fish and Game. The reserve helps protect some of the central coast’s most heavily used, Asilomar SMR is located off the coast of the Monterey Peninsula, at the southern end of Monterey Bay. It covers an area of 1.51 square miles, the reserve is directly offshore from Asilomar State Beach. Asilomar SMR is the westernmost of four protected areas bordering the Monterey Peninsula. It is adjacent to the Pacific Grove Marine Gardens State Marine Conservation Area, further east are the Lovers Point State Marine Reserve and the Edward F. Ricketts State Marine Conservation Area.
All four areas are included within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, click here for a virtual tour The Monterey Peninsula includes extensive tidepools brimming with life. Its sandy beaches are used by pupping harbor seals, and dense kelp beds offshore provide shelter for sea otters, the Asilomar SMR provides habitat for a variety of marine life, and includes kelp forest, rocky intertidal, and soft and hard bottom. The exhibit includes many of the native to the nearby marine protected areas. The aquarium houses sea otters, intertidal wildlife, and occasionally sea turtles, in addition to diving and visiting the aquarium, people enjoy the Monterey Bay by kayaking, whale watching, charter fishing, bird watching and walking on the beach. Asilomar State Beach, adjacent to the reserve, offers a.75 mile walking trail, California’s marine protected areas encourage recreational and educational uses of the ocean. Activities such as kayaking, diving and swimming are allowed unless otherwise restricted, similar studies in marine protected areas located off of the Santa Barbara Channel Islands have already detected gradual improvements in fish size and number.
Local scientific and educational institutions involved in the include the Hopkins Marine Station, the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. Research methods include hook-and-line sampling, scuba diver surveys, and the use of Remote Operated Vehicle submarines, californias MPAs Asilomar State Beach Partnership for Interdisciplinary Studies of Coastal Oceans
The City of Monterey in Monterey County is located on the southern edge of Monterey Bay, in the Northern Portion of Californias Central Coast. It stands at an elevation of 26 feet above sea level, the 2010 census recorded a population of 27,810. Monterey was the capital of Alta California under both Spain and Mexico and it was the only port of entry for taxable goods in California. In 1846 the U. S. flag was raised over the Customs House, the city had Californias first theater, public building, public library, publicly funded school, printing press, and newspaper. The city and surrounding area have attracted artists since the late 19th century, until the 1950s, there was an abundant fishery. Among Montereys notable present-day attractions are the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Cannery Row, Fishermans Wharf, long before the arrival of Spanish explorers, the Rumsen Ohlone tribe, one of seven linguistically distinct Ohlone groups in California, inhabited the area now known as Monterey. They subsisted by hunting and gathering food on and around the biologically rich Monterey Peninsula, researchers have found a number of shell middens in the area and, based on the archaeological evidence, concluded the Ohlones primary marine food consisted at various times of mussels and abalone.
A number of sites have been located along about 12 miles of rocky coast on the Monterey Peninsula from the current site of Fishermans Wharf in Monterey to Carmel. In 1602, Spanish maritime explorer Sebastian Vizcaino recorded the name Bahía de Monterrey, Vizcaino landed at the southern end of the bay and described a great port, suitable for use as an anchorage by southbound Manila galleons. Vizcaino noted and named the Point of Pines, all other uses of the name Monterey derive from Vizcainos name for the bay. Variants of the name are recorded as Monte Rey and Montery. In 1769, the first European land exploration of Alta California, for some reason, the explorers failed to recognize the place when they came to it on October 1,1769. The party continued north as far as San Francisco Bay before turning back, on the return journey, they camped near one of Montereys lagoons on November 27, still not convinced they had found the place Vizcaino had described. Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí noted in his diary, We halted in sight of the Point of Pines and camped near a lagoon which has rather muddy water.
Portolá returned by land to Monterey the next year, having concluded that he must have been at Vizcainos Port of Monterey after all, the land party was met at Monterey by Junípero Serra who traveled by sea. Portolá erected the Presidio of Monterey to defend the port and, on June 3,1770, Portolá returned to Mexico, replaced in Monterey by Captain Pedro Fages, who had been third in command on the exploratory expeditions. Fages became the governor of Alta California, serving from 1770 to 1774. Serras missionary aims soon came into conflict with Fages and the soldiers, the existing wood and adobe building became the chapel for the Presidio