The Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit academic medical center based in Rochester, focused on integrated clinical practice and research. It employs more than 4,500 physicians and scientists, along with another 58,400 administrative and allied health staff; the practice specializes in treating difficult cases through tertiary destination medicine. It is home to the ranked Mayo Clinic Alix School of Medicine in addition to many of the largest, best regarded residency education programs in the United States, it has more than 3,000 full-time research personnel. William Worrall Mayo settled his family in Rochester in 1864 and opened a sole proprietorship medical practice that evolved under his sons and Charlie Mayo, into Mayo Clinic. Today, in addition to its flagship hospital in Rochester, Mayo Clinic has major campuses in Arizona and Florida; the Mayo Clinic Health System operates affiliated facilities throughout Minnesota and Iowa. Mayo Clinic is ranked number 1 in the United States on the 2018–2019 U. S. News & World Report Best Hospitals Honor Roll, maintaining a position at or near the top for more than 27 years.
It has been on the list of "100 Best Companies to Work For" published by Fortune magazine for fourteen consecutive years, has continued to achieve this ranking through 2017. In 1863, William Worrall Mayo came to Rochester, from Salford in Lancashire, England, as part of his appointment as an examining surgeon for the military draft board during the American Civil War; the city was to his liking, his wife and children joined him in early 1864. On January 27, 1864, William Worrall Mayo advertised in the Rochester City Post the opening of a private medical partnership "over the Union Drug Store on Third Street" with "all calls answered by day or night". Both of W. W. Mayo's sons, William James Mayo and Charles Horace Mayo grew up in Rochester and, when old enough, both attended medical school. William graduated in 1883 and joined his father's practice, with Charles joining after he completed his training in 1888. On August 21, 1883, a tornado struck Rochester, causing at least 37 deaths in the area and over 200 injuries.
One-third of the town was destroyed. The relief efforts began with a temporary hospital being established at Rommell's Hall, the doctors Mayo as well as other local doctors, were extensively involved in treating the injured who were brought there for help. Mother Alfred Moes and the Sisters of Saint Francis were called in to act as nurses despite having been trained as teachers and with little if any medical experience. After the crisis subsided, Moes approached W. W. Mayo about establishing a hospital in Rochester. Mayo agreed to work in the hospital and soon other local doctors agreed as well. On September 30, 1889, Saint Mary's Hospital was opened by the Sisters. W. W. Mayo, 70 years old, was one of the consulting physicians at the hospital, his two sons began performing surgeries at the hospital. In 1892, W. W. Mayo asked Augustus Stinchfield, whom he considered to be the best doctor in the area, to join the practice. After Stinchfield agreed, W. W. Mayo retired at the age of 73 and the practice continued to grow.
The founders of Mayo Clinic are the Mayo brothers Will and Charlie, Graham, Henry Plummer, Millet and Balfour. These early founders and partners shared in the profits of the private group practice, while other staff hired by the partners were salaried. W. W. Mayo died in 1911 and in 1919 the remaining founders, with the exception of Graham, created the Mayo Properties Association, their private practice became a not-for-profit entity; the founders gave the Clinic furnishings to this newly formed association. The integrated practice model developed by Plummer created a foundation for what would grow into Mayo Clinic; as the private practice grew, it required additional space. In 1914, the partners planned and built a new clinic building. Ellerbe Architects are the architect of record for the 1914 Mayo "Red" building, as well as for the 1922 Mayo Institute of Experimental Medicine, the 1927 Plummer building, the 1954 Mayo Clinic building, the 2002 Gonda building. In 1914, under the guidance of Henry Plummer, the new building allowed the integrated group medical practice concept to be expressed.
Many innovative medical systems and equipment were incorporated into the building design. Plummer worked with Frederic Maass, of Maass & McAndrew, to design and fabricate many of the building systems innovations like the steam sterilization rooms, metal surgical tools and equipment, pneumatic tube system, knee operated sinks, a state of the art HVAC system; the air exchange rate for the building was three minutes. One intriguing innovation was the Rookwood fountain in the main lobby, designed to clean and humidify air from the outside, it heated and humidified air in the winter, provided cool air in the summer. To fight infection, steam sterilizer rooms were designed to hold much of the operating rooms metal surgical furniture and equipment; these and other aseptic procedures helped bring the overall patient infection rates down. Until 1919 the Mayo Clinic was operated as a for-profit medical practice. In 1919, the Mayo brothers donated the clinic property and significant amounts of their wealth to develop the Mayo Properties Association.
The Association became the Mayo Clinic Foundation. The result of this was that the Mayo Clinic became a non-profit medical practice in 1920. In 1928, the Plummer Building was completed wit
In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. The word diet implies the use of specific intake of nutrition for health or weight-management reasons. Although humans are omnivores, each culture and each person holds some food preferences or some food taboos; this may be due to ethical reasons. Individual dietary choices may be less healthy. Complete nutrition requires ingestion and absorption of vitamins, essential amino acids from protein and essential fatty acids from fat-containing food food energy in the form of carbohydrate and fat. Dietary habits and choices play a significant role in the quality of life and longevity; some cultures and religions have restrictions concerning. For example, only Kosher foods are permitted by Judaism, Halal foods by Islam. Although Buddhists are vegetarians, the practice varies and meat-eating may be permitted depending on the sects. In Hinduism, vegetarianism is the ideal. Jains are vegetarian and consumption of roots is not permitted.
Many people choose to forgo food from animal sources to varying degrees for health reasons, issues surrounding morality, or to reduce their personal impact on the environment, although some of the public assumptions about which diets have lower impacts are known to be incorrect. Raw foodism is another contemporary trend; these diets may require tuning or supplementation such as vitamins to meet ordinary nutritional needs. A particular diet may be chosen to seek weight gain. Changing a subject's dietary intake, or "going on a diet", can change the energy balance and increase or decrease the amount of fat stored by the body; some foods are recommended, or altered, for conformity to the requirements of a particular diet. These diets are recommended in conjunction with exercise. Specific weight loss programs can be harmful to health, while others may be beneficial and can thus be coined as healthy diets; the terms "healthy diet" and "diet for weight management" are related, as the two promote healthy weight management.
Having a healthy diet is a way to prevent health problems, will provide the body with the right balance of vitamins and other nutrients. An eating disorder is a mental disorder, it is defined by abnormal eating habits that may involve either excessive diet. A healthy diet may maintain optimal health. In developed countries, affluence enables unconstrained caloric intake and inappropriate food choices. Health agencies recommend that people maintain a normal weight by limiting consumption of energy-dense foods and sugary drinks, eating plant-based food, limiting consumption of red and processed meat, limiting alcohol intake; the Dietary Guidelines for Americans is an evidence-based information source that policy makers and health professionals use to advise the general public about healthy nutrition. Diet food Dieting Dessert crop Nutrition psychology The dictionary definition of diet at Wiktionary
Half and half
Half and half is the name of various beverages and foods made of an equal-parts mixture of two substances, including dairy products, alcoholic beverages, soft drinks. In some cafés in Brussels, a "half en half", Dutch for "half and half", is a mixture of white wine and champagne." It was a mixture of two different typical beer types from Brussels: 50% lambic and 50% faro." If you order a "half and half" in a Copenhagen bar, you will get a mixture of dark pilsner. The dark beer is a Danish version of an Imperial stout-type beer - in Denmark called "porter", a little sweeter than a Guinness. In Britain, a half and half may mean a mixture of mild ale and bitter. In the North East of England, a request for a half and half would more produce a combination of Scotch ale and India pale ale; this drink fell from favour when the Scottish & Newcastle brewery were obliged to sell many of their tied public houses and McEwan's Scotch and IPA disappeared from public bars across the North East. In Canada and the United States, capitalized Half & Half is Bass Pale Ale.
A lower case half & half is a generic Guinness draught. Black and Tan is any lager or ale that will support the Guinness draught, although some Irish-themed bars shun the term for its association with the Black and Tans. In the U. S. the terms are not interchangeable. All of the versions start with Guinness Stout. "Black and Tan" refers to Bass. "Half and Half" is Harp. Guinness and Smithwick's is a Blacksmith. In Scotland, a "hauf an a hauf" is a half-pint of beer as a chaser. "Pola pola" is a slang term for the drink spritzer, made out of equal parts of white wine or rosé wine and carbonated water. Different ratios of wine and carbonated water are named with various slang terms, depending on the region. "Pola pola" is known as "litra i voda", as well as "Litar-litar" and "Gemišt". In Switzerland, more in Valais, a half & half is a mixture of dry and sweet liquor of the same fruit. In the canton of Geneva, a "moitié-moitié" refers to a digestif containing one half Williamine liqueur and one half Williamine eau-de-vie.
In the canton of Ticino, a mezz e mezz refers to a mixture of one half local Merlot wine and one half gazosa. In Uruguay there's a beverage called "Medio y Medio" that consists of sweet sparkling wine and dry white wine in equal parts. "Medio y medio" comes in Red, Rosé and White varieties, the latter being the original and most popular. It is massively consumed during the holidays but it can be found in certain places throughout the year as well; the most common "Medio y Medio" is the one produced by Roldós, a local restaurant that claims having invented the mixture. "Medio y medio" is the name for another cocktail, made with White Vermouth and "Caña", a 35%-50% alcoholic beverage distilled from sugar cane. This name, however, is used not in the majority of bars but only in the most traditional ones due to the existence of Roldós' "Medio y Medio"; the Arnold Palmer known as a half and half, is popular in the Northeastern United States. The drink consists of 1 part iced tea; some coffee shops in colder climates serve a half and half drink consisting of half coffee and half hot chocolate, similar to caffè mocha.
Half & Half might refer to a flavor of soda which combines the flavors of grapefruit and lemon. In Canada and the United States and half always refers to a light cream used in coffee; the name refers to the liquid's content of half half cream. Its butterfat content is 12.5%. It is available in the United States, both in individual-serving containers and in bulk, it is used to make ice cream. Non-fat versions of the product are available, containing corn syrup and other ingredients. In the Romandy, a moitié-moitié can refer to coffee mixed with an equal amount of milk.. In the German-speaking part of Switzerland in the north-eastern part, a mixture of apple and orange juice is known as "halb halb". "Half and half" or "Half-and-half" is a mixture of milk and cream, used in coffee. In the United States and half is a common liquid product produced by dairy companies in premixed form. In the United States, half-and-half must contain between 18 percent milkfat, it is pasteurized or ultra-pasteurized, may be homogenized.
The following optional ingredients may be used: Emulsifiers Stabilizers Nutritive sweeteners Characterizing flavoring ingredients as follows: Fruit and fruit juice. Natural and artificial food flavoring. A milkette, is a single serving of milk or cream in 12 millilitres or 15 millilitres containers used for coffee and tea, they are a common condiment at coffee shops, cafeterias and on airlines in Canada and the United States. The single cup of milk is stored in a sealed plastic cup of milk or cream with long shelf life but must be refrigerated, they are sold in bulk amounts of 100s. They are bought for commercial use, but individual consumers can purchase bulk
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20. As an alkaline earth metal, calcium is a reactive metal that forms a dark oxide-nitride layer when exposed to air, its physical and chemical properties are most similar to its heavier homologues strontium and barium. It is the fifth most abundant element in Earth's crust and the third most abundant metal, after iron and aluminium; the most common calcium compound on Earth is calcium carbonate, found in limestone and the fossilised remnants of early sea life. The name derives from Latin calx "lime", obtained from heating limestone; some calcium compounds were known to the ancients, though their chemistry was unknown until the seventeenth century. Pure calcium was isolated in 1808 via electrolysis of its oxide by Humphry Davy, who named the element. Calcium compounds are used in many industries: in foods and pharmaceuticals for calcium supplementation, in the paper industry as bleaches, as components in cement and electrical insulators, in the manufacture of soaps.
On the other hand, the metal in pure form has few applications due to its high reactivity. Calcium is the fifth-most abundant element in the human body; as electrolytes, calcium ions play a vital role in the physiological and biochemical processes of organisms and cells: in signal transduction pathways where they act as a second messenger. Calcium ions outside cells are important for maintaining the potential difference across excitable cell membranes as well as proper bone formation. Calcium is a ductile silvery metal whose properties are similar to the heavier elements in its group, strontium and radium. A calcium atom has twenty electrons, arranged in the electron configuration 4s2. Like the other elements placed in group 2 of the periodic table, calcium has two valence electrons in the outermost s-orbital, which are easily lost in chemical reactions to form a dipositive ion with the stable electron configuration of a noble gas, in this case argon. Hence, calcium is always divalent in its compounds, which are ionic.
Hypothetical univalent salts of calcium would be stable with respect to their elements, but not to disproportionation to the divalent salts and calcium metal, because the enthalpy of formation of MX2 is much higher than those of the hypothetical MX. This occurs because of the much greater lattice energy afforded by the more charged Ca2+ cation compared to the hypothetical Ca+ cation. Calcium, strontium and radium are always considered to be alkaline earth metals. Beryllium and magnesium are different from the other members of the group in their physical and chemical behaviour: they behave more like aluminium and zinc and have some of the weaker metallic character of the post-transition metals, why the traditional definition of the term "alkaline earth metal" excludes them; this classification is obsolete in English-language sources, but is still used in other countries such as Japan. As a result, comparisons with strontium and barium are more germane to calcium chemistry than comparisons with magnesium.
Calcium metal melts at 842 °C and boils at 1494 °C. It crystallises in the face-centered cubic arrangement like strontium, its density of 1.55 g/cm3 is the lowest in its group. Calcium can be cut with a knife with effort. While calcium is a poorer conductor of electricity than copper or aluminium by volume, it is a better conductor by mass than both due to its low density. While calcium is infeasible as a conductor for most terrestrial applications as it reacts with atmospheric oxygen, its use as such in space has been considered; the chemistry of calcium is that of a typical heavy alkaline earth metal. For example, calcium spontaneously reacts with water more than magnesium and less than strontium to produce calcium hydroxide and hydrogen gas, it reacts with the oxygen and nitrogen in the air to form a mixture of calcium oxide and calcium nitride. When finely divided, it spontaneously burns in air to produce the nitride. In bulk, calcium is less reactive: it forms a hydration coating in moist air, but below 30% relative humidity it may be stored indefinitely at room temperature.
Besides the simple oxide CaO, the peroxide CaO2 can be made by direct oxidation of calcium metal under a high pressure of oxygen, there is some evidence for a yellow superoxide Ca2. Calcium hydroxide, Ca2, is a strong base, though it is not as strong as the hydroxides of strontium, barium or the alkali metals. All four dihalides of calcium are known. Calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate are abundant minerals. Like strontium and barium, as well as the alkali metals and the divalent lanthanides europium and ytterbium, calcium metal dissolves directly in liquid ammonia to give a dark blue solution. Due to the large size of the Ca2+ ion, high coordination numbers are common, up to 24 in some intermetallic compounds such as CaZn13. Calcium is complexed by oxygen chelates such as EDTA and polyphosphates, which are useful in an
Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird
The Lockheed SR-71 "Blackbird" is a long-range, Mach 3+ strategic reconnaissance aircraft, operated by the United States Air Force. It was developed as a black project from the Lockheed A-12 reconnaissance aircraft in the 1960s by Lockheed and its Skunk Works division. American aerospace engineer Clarence "Kelly" Johnson was responsible for many of the design's innovative concepts. During aerial reconnaissance missions, the SR-71 operated at high speeds and altitudes to allow it to outrace threats. If a surface-to-air missile launch were detected, the standard evasive action was to accelerate and outfly the missile; the shape of the SR-71 was based on the A-12, one of the first aircraft to be designed with a reduced radar cross-section. The SR-71 served with the U. S. Air Force from 1964 to 1998. A total of 32 aircraft were built; the SR-71 has been given several nicknames, including "Blackbird" and "Habu". Since 1976, it has held the world record for the fastest air-breathing manned aircraft, a record held by the related Lockheed YF-12.
Lockheed's previous reconnaissance aircraft was the slow U-2, designed for the Central Intelligence Agency. In late 1957, the CIA approached the defense contractor Lockheed to build an undetectable spy plane; the project, named Archangel, was led by Kelly Johnson, head of Lockheed's Skunk Works unit in Burbank, California. The work on project Archangel began in the second quarter of 1958, with aim of flying higher and faster than the U-2. Of 11 successive designs drafted in a span of 10 months, "A-10" was the frontrunner. Despite this, its shape made it vulnerable to radar detection. After a meeting with the CIA in March 1959, the design was modified to have a 90% reduction in radar cross-section; the CIA approved a US$96 million contract for Skunk Works to build a dozen spy planes, named "A-12" on 11 February 1960. The 1960 downing of Francis Gary Powers's U-2 underscored its vulnerability and the need for faster reconnaissance aircraft such as the A-12; the A-12 first flew at Groom Lake, Nevada, on 25 April 1962.
Thirteen were built. The aircraft was meant to be powered by the Pratt & Whitney J58 engine, but development ran over schedule, it was equipped instead with the less powerful Pratt & Whitney J75 initially; the J58s were retrofitted as they became available, became the standard powerplant for all subsequent aircraft in the series, as well as the SR-71. The A-12 flew missions over Vietnam and North Korea before its retirement in 1968; the program's cancellation was announced on 28 December 1966, due both to budget concerns and because of the forthcoming SR-71, a derivative of the A-12. The SR-71 designation is a continuation of the pre-1962 bomber series. However, a bomber variant of the Blackbird was given the B-71 designator, retained when the type was changed to SR-71. During the stages of its testing, the B-70 was proposed for a reconnaissance/strike role, with an "RS-70" designation; when the A-12 performance potential was found to be much greater, the Air Force ordered a variant of the A-12 in December 1962.
Named R-12 by Lockheed, the Air Force version was longer and heavier than the A-12, with a longer fuselage to hold more fuel, two seats in the cockpit, reshaped chines. Reconnaissance equipment included signals intelligence sensors, a side-looking airborne radar, a photo camera; the CIA's A-12 was a better photo-reconnaissance platform than the Air Force's R-12, since the A-12 flew somewhat higher and faster, with only one pilot, it had room to carry a superior camera and more instruments. During the 1964 campaign, Republican presidential nominee Barry Goldwater criticized President Lyndon B. Johnson and his administration for falling behind the Soviet Union in developing new weapons. Johnson decided to counter this criticism by revealing the existence of the YF-12A Air Force interceptor, which served as cover for the still-secret A-12 and the Air Force reconnaissance model since July 1964. Air Force Chief of Staff General Curtis LeMay preferred the SR designation and wanted the RS-71 to be named SR-71.
Before the July speech, LeMay lobbied to modify Johnson's speech to read SR-71 instead of RS-71. The media transcript given to the press at the time still had the earlier RS-71 designation in places, creating the story that the president had misread the aircraft's designation. Johnson only referred to the A-11 to conceal the A-12, while revealing that there was a high speed, high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. In 1968, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara cancelled the F-12 interceptor program. Production of the SR-71 totaled 32 aircraft with 29 SR-71As, two SR-71Bs, the single SR-71C; the SR-71 was designed for flight at over Mach 3 with a flight crew of two in tandem cockpits, with the pilot in the forward cockpit and the reconnaissance systems officer operating the surveillance systems and equipment from the rear cockpit, directing navigation on the mission flight path. The SR-71 was designed to minimize an early attempt at stealth design. Finished aircraft were painted a dark blue black, to increase the emission of internal heat and to act as camouflage against the night sky.
The dark color led to the aircraft's nickname "Blackbird". While the SR-71 carried radar countermeasures to evade interception efforts, its greatest protection was its combination of hig