Dutch Low Saxon
Dutch Low Saxon are the Low Saxon dialects that are spoken in the northeastern Netherlands. The rest of the Netherlands speaks Dutch, Frisian or Low Franconian languages and they do not form a coherent language family. The classification of Dutch Low Saxon is not unanimous, from a diachronic point of view, the Dutch Low Saxon dialects are merely the West Low German dialects native to areas in the Netherlands, as opposed to areas beyond the national border with Germany. Some Dutch Low Saxon dialects like Tweants show features of Westphalian, from a strictly synchronic point of view, some linguists classify Dutch Low Saxon as a variety of Dutch. Also, as a matter, Dutch Low Saxon, since the 17th century, has been influenced by Standard Dutch. Recent studies have, shown that mutual intelligibility is not necessarily impaired, shortly after the Second World War, linguists claimed that speaking a dialect other than the standard language would impair childrens learning abilities. It brought about a general opinion among speakers of Low Saxon that having the slightest accent, in Dutch, would reduce job opportunities and social status.
Throughout the 1960s, the language inspired many to form dialect preservation circles and groups. Many of them were interested in preserving rather than promoting the language. The prevailing tone was one of melancholy and nostalgia and their focus was often on preserving cultural traits considered typical to speakers of the language, such as rural life and traditional practices and costumes. That merely confirmed many of the stereotypes about speakers of the language. Another tone was rather literary in nature, though well-intended, it caused even more estrangement with younger generations. At the same time, knowledge of and appreciation for related varieties was poor and that resulted in little co-operation and no nationwide coordination. Other attempts to unite the different dialect circles were met with cynicism, the conception prevailed that the dialects were too different to unite. In 1975, the rock n roll band Normaal boldly shook all perceptions of Low Saxon, until then, Low Saxon was mostly restricted to traditional folklore music.
Normaal openly denounced all Dutch disdain, praised farmers and local life and boldly used Achterhooks Low Saxon, voicing the opinion. Their hit song Oerend Hard, a song about two bikers who lose their lives in an accident, took the charts by storm, and it quickly garnered them a large fan base, even in non-Low Saxon areas, such as Fryslân and Limburg. In 1996, Dutch Low Saxon was added to the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, Dutch provinces now receive minor funds for preserving and promoting the use of Low Saxon
Eiderstedt Frisian was a dialect of the North Frisian language which was originally spoken on Eiderstedt, formerly part of the Danish Duchy of Schleswig. The Frisian language became extinct on Eiderstedt in mid-18th-Century, in contrast to the northern hundreds, Eiderstedt was economically strong and wealthy and was oriented towards the southern, Low German parts of Holstein. During the 16th century there was moreover a strong Dutch immigration, Eiderstedt Frisian is attributed to the insular dialects, but there are characteristics of the mainland dialects. The difference between the insular and the mainland dialects dates back to the Frisian immigrants during several different centuries, nils Århammar, Das Nordfriesische im Sprachkontakt In, Horst Haider Munske, Handbuch des Friesischen / Handbook of Frisian Studies. Tübingen 2001, ISBN 978-3-484-73048-9, S.328 f
The Upper Rhine is the section of the Rhine in the Upper Rhine Plain between Basle in Switzerland and Bingen in Germany. The river is marked by Rhine-kilometres 170 to 529, the Upper Rhine is one of four sections of the river between Lake Constance and the North Sea. The countries and states along the Upper Rhine are Switzerland, the largest cities along the river are Basle, Strasbourg, Mannheim and Mainz. The Upper Rhine was straightened between 1817 and 1876 by Johann Gottfried Tulla and made navigable between 1928 and 1977, the Treaty of Versailles allows France to use the Upper Rhine for hydroelectricity in the Grand Canal dAlsace. On the left bank are the French region of Alsace and the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate, on the bank are the German states of Baden-Württemberg. The first few kilometres are in the Swiss city of Basle, around 35 million years ago, a rift valley of about 300 kilometres long and 50 kilometres wide came into being between the present cities of Basle and Frankfurt.
This was due to stresses in the Earths crust and mantle. The moat has been filled up again by sedimentation. On the edges we find mountain ridges, the rift flanks. On the eastern side, they are the Black Forest and Odenwald mountains, in the west the Vosges, during the tertiary, the High Rhine continued west from Basle and flowed via the Doubs and the Saône, into the Rhône. The rift diverted the Rhine into the newly formed Upper Rhine Valley, the two largest tributaries come from the right, the Neckar in Mannheim, the Main across from Mainz. In 1685, Louis XIV started a project to move the Upper Rhine, change its course, by 1840, the river had been moved up to 1.5 kilometres to the east, taking territory away from Baden. Around 1790, large parts of the Rhine Valley were deforested, creating arable land, the length of the Upper Rhine was reduced by 81 kilometres. Some cut-off river arms and ox-bows remain, they are called the Old Rhine or Gießen. The Rhine between Basle and Iffezheim is almost entirely canalised, on a stretch of 180 kilometres, there are 10 dams, provided with hydropower stations and locks.
Only when there is a supply of water, the old river bed will receive more water than the canal. The straightening and channeling reduced the water table by up to 16 metres and thus had an effect on flora. Gravel is missing from the river, due to the dams and this has caused erosion below the dam at Iffezheim
Low German or Low Saxon is a West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands. It is descended from Old Saxon in its earliest form, as an Ingvaeonic language, Low German is quite distinct from the Irminonic languages like Standard German. It is closely related to Anglo-Frisian group of languages and more distantly to Dutch and this difference resulted from the High German consonant shift, with the Uerdingen and Benrath lines being two notable linguistic borders. Dialects of Low German are widely spoken in the area of the Netherlands and are written there with an orthography based on Standard Dutch orthography. Small portions of northern Hesse and northern Thuringia are traditionally Low Saxon-speaking too, Low German was spoken in formerly German parts of Poland as well as in East Prussia and the Baltic States of Estonia and Latvia. Under the name Low Saxon, there are speakers in the Dutch north-eastern provinces of Groningen, Stellingwerf, German speakers in this area fled the Red Army or were forcibly expelled after the border changes at the end of World War II.
Today, there are still speakers outside Germany and the Netherlands to be found in the areas of present-day Poland. In some of these countries, the language is part of the Mennonite religion, there are Mennonite communities in Ontario, Alberta, British Columbia and Minnesota which use Low German in their religious services and communities. The type of Low German spoken in communities and in the Midwest region of the United States has diverged since emigration. The survival of the language is tenuous in many places and has died out in places where assimilation has occurred. Mennonite colonies in Paraguay and Chihuahua, Mexico have made Low German a co-official language of the community, in Germany, native speakers of Low German call it Platt, Plattdüütsch or Nedderdüütsch. In the Netherlands, native speakers refer to their language as dialect, nedersaksies, or the name of their village, Low German is called Niederdeutsch by the German authorities and Nedersaksisch by the Dutch authorities. Plattdeutsch/Niederdeutsch and Platduits/Nedersaksisch are seen in texts from the German.
In Danish it is called Plattysk, Nedertysk or, Mennonite Low German is called Plautdietsch. Etymologically Platt meant clear in the sense of a language the people could understand. In Dutch, the word Plat can mean improper, or rude, the ISO 639-2 language code for Low German has been nds since May 2000. The question of whether Low German should be considered a separate language, linguistics offers no simple, generally accepted criterion to decide this question. Scholarly arguments have been put forward in favour of classifying Low German as a German dialect, as said, these arguments are not linguistic but rather socio-political and build mainly around the fact that Low German has no official standard form or use in sophisticated media
Alsace is a cultural and historical region in eastern France now located in the administrative region of Grand Est. Alsace is located on Frances eastern border and on the west bank of the upper Rhine adjacent to Germany, from 1982 until January 2016, Alsace was the smallest of 22 administrative regions in metropolitan France, consisting of the Bas-Rhin and Haut-Rhin departments. Territorial reform passed by the French legislature in 2014 resulted in the merger of the Alsace administrative region with Champagne-Ardenne and Lorraine to form Grand Est. The predominant historical language of Alsace is Alsatian, a Germanic dialect spoken across the Rhine, but today most Alsatians primarily speak French, the political status of Alsace has been heavily influenced by historical decisions and strategic politics. The economic and cultural capital as well as largest city of Alsace is Strasbourg, the city is the seat of several international organizations and bodies. The name Alsace can be traced to the Old High German Ali-saz or Elisaz, an alternative explanation is from a Germanic Ell-sass, meaning seated on the Ill, a river in Alsace.
In prehistoric times, Alsace was inhabited by nomadic hunters, by 1500 BC, Celts began to settle in Alsace and cultivating the land. It should be noted that Alsace is a surrounded by the Vosges mountains. It creates Foehn winds which, along with irrigation, contributes to the fertility of the soil. In a world of agriculture, Alsace has always been a region which explains why it suffered so many invasions and annexations in its history. By 58 BC, the Romans had invaded and established Alsace as a center of viticulture, to protect this highly valued industry, the Romans built fortifications and military camps that evolved into various communities which have been inhabited continuously to the present day. While part of the Roman Empire, Alsace was part of Germania Superior, with the decline of the Roman Empire, Alsace became the territory of the Germanic Alemanni. The Alemanni were agricultural people, and their Germanic language formed the basis of modern-day dialects spoken along the Upper Rhine and the Franks defeated the Alemanni during the 5th century AD, culminating with the Battle of Tolbiac, and Alsace became part of the Kingdom of Austrasia.
Under Clovis Merovingian successors the inhabitants were Christianized, Alsace formed part of the Middle Francia, which was ruled by the eldest grandson Lothar I. Lothar died early in 855 and his realm was divided into three parts, the part known as Lotharingia, or Lorraine, was given to Lothars son. The rest was shared between Lothars brothers Charles the Bald and Louis the German, the Kingdom of Lotharingia was short-lived, becoming the stem duchy of Lorraine in Eastern Francia after the Treaty of Ribemont in 880. Alsace was united with the other Alemanni east of the Rhine into the duchy of Swabia. Alsace experienced great prosperity during the 12th and 13th centuries under Hohenstaufen emperors, Frederick I set up Alsace as a province to be ruled by ministeriales, a non-noble class of civil servants
German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language, which is largely phonemic. However, it shows instances of spellings that are historic or analogous to other spellings rather than phonemic. The pronunciation of almost every word can be derived from its spelling once the rules are known. Today, German orthography is regulated by the Rat für deutsche Rechtschreibung, the modern German alphabet consists of the twenty-six letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet, ^ In the spelling alphabet, for ⟨ch⟩, Charlotte is used. For the trigraph ⟨sch⟩, Schule is used, German uses letter-diacritic combinations using the umlaut and one ligature, but they do not constitute distinct letters in the alphabet. Capital ẞ exists, but has limited use. In most cases, SS is used instead, in the past, long s was used as well, as in English and many other European languages. Although the diacritic letters represent distinct sounds in German phonology, they are almost universally not considered to be part of the alphabet, almost all German speakers consider the alphabet to have the 26 cardinal letters above and will name only those when asked to say the alphabet.
The diacritic letters ä, ö and ü are used to indicate the presence of umlauts, in German Kurrent writing, the superscripted e was simplified to two vertical dashes, which have further been reduced to dots in both handwriting and German typesetting. Although the two dots of umlaut look like those in the diaeresis, the two have different functions, such transcription should be avoided if possible, especially with names. Names often exist in different variants, such as Müller and Mueller, automatic back-transcribing is not only wrong for names. Consider, for example, das neue Buch and this should never be changed to das neü Buch, as the second e is completely separate from the u and does not even belong in the same syllable, neue is neu followed by an e, an inflection. The word neü does not exist in German, similar cases are Coesfeld and Bernkastel-Kues. To separate the au diphthong, as well as others, which are graphically composed of potentially umlaut-holding letters. Swiss typewriters and computer keyboards do not allow easy input of uppercase letters with umlauts because their positions are taken by the most frequent French diacritics, uppercase umlauts were dropped because they are less common than lowercase ones.
Geographical names in particular are supposed to be written with A, O, U plus e except Österreich, the omission can cause some inconvenience since the first letter of every noun is capitalized in German. Unlike in Hungarian, the shape of the umlaut diacritics – especially when handwritten – is not important. They will be whether they look like dots, acute accents, vertical bars, a horizontal bar, a breve, a tiny N or e, a tilde
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
Alsatian is a Low Alemannic German dialect spoken in most of Alsace, a region in eastern France which has passed between French and German control five times since 1681. A dialect of Alsatian German is spoken in the United States by so-called Swiss Amish, the approximately 7,000 speakers are mainly located in Allen County, Indiana but in daughter settlements elsewhere. Alsatian is closely related to other nearby Alemannic dialects, such as Swiss German, Swabian and it is often confused with Lorraine Franconian, a more distantly related Franconian dialect spoken in the northwest corner of Alsace and in neighbouring Lorraine. Like other dialects and languages, Alsatian has influenced by outside sources. Words of Yiddish origin can be found in Alsatian, and modern conversational Alsatian includes adaptations of French words and English words, many speakers of Alsatian could, if necessary, write in reasonable standard German. For most this would be rare and confined to those who have learned German at school or through work, as with other dialects, various factors determine when and with whom one might converse in Alsatian.
Some dialect speakers are unwilling to speak standard German, at times, to certain outsiders, some street names in Alsace may use Alsatian spellings. C, Q, and X are only used in loanwords, Y is used in native words such as Dytschi, but is more common in loanwords. Alsatian, like some German dialects, has lenited all obstruents and its lenes are, voiceless as in all Southern German varieties. Therefore, they are here transcribed /b̥/, /d̥/, /ɡ̊/, the phoneme /ç/ has a velar allophone after back vowels, and palatal elsewhere. In southern dialects, there is a tendency to pronounce it /x/ in all positions, short vowels, /ʊ/, /o/, /ɒ/, /a/, /ɛ/, /ɪ/, /i/, /y/. Long vowels, /ʊː/, /oː/, /ɒː/, /aː/, /ɛː/, /eː/, /iː/, /yː/ Since 1992, Alsatian, along with other regional languages, is recognized by the French government in the official list of languages of France. France is a signatory to the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages but has never ratified the law and has not given regional languages the support that would be required by the charter.
The policies of the Paris government have had the effect of greatly weakening the prevalence of native languages in France that are not French. As a result, the Alsatian dialect of German has gone from being the prevalent language of the region to one in decline, a 1999 INSEE survey counted 548,000 adult speakers of Alsatian in France, making it the second most-spoken regional language in the country. Like all regional languages in France, the transmission of Alsatian is on the decline, while 43% of the adult population of Alsace speaks Alsatian, its use has been largely declining amongst the youngest generations. La dynamique des langues en France au fil du XXe siècle, deuxième langue régionale de France Insee, Chiffres pour lAlsace no. Le dialecte à la portée de tous La Nuée Bleue,1999, ISBN 2-7165-0464-4 Matzen, and Léon Daul