Bruce Frederick Joseph Springsteen is an American singer-songwriter and leader of the E Street Band. Nicknamed "The Boss," he is recognized for his poetic lyrics, his Jersey Shore roots, his distinctive voice, lengthy, energetic stage performances. Springsteen has recorded more somber folk-oriented works, his most successful studio albums, Born to Run and Born in the U. S. A. find pleasures in the struggles of daily American life. He has sold more than 135 million records worldwide and more than 64 million records in the United States, making him one of the world's best-selling artists, he has earned numerous awards for his work, including 20 Grammy Awards, two Golden Globes, an Academy Award, a Tony Award. Springsteen was inducted into both the Songwriters Hall of Fame and the Rock And Roll Hall Of Fame in 1999, received Kennedy Center Honors in 2009, was named MusiCares person of the year in 2013, was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2016. Married to actress Julianne Phillips, Springsteen married musician Patti Scialfa in 1991.
Their three children are Evan James Springsteen, Jessica Rae Springsteen, Sam Ryan Springsteen. Bruce Frederick Joseph Springsteen was born on September 23, 1949, at Monmouth Medical Center in Long Branch, New Jersey, he was brought home from the hospital to Freehold Borough. He attended Freehold Borough High School, his father, Douglas Frederick "Dutch" Springsteen, was of Dutch and Irish ancestry, worked as a bus driver, among other jobs, but was unemployed most of the time. Springsteen said his mother, Adele Ann, a legal secretary and of Italian ancestry, was the main breadwinner, his maternal grandfather was born in a town near Naples. He has two younger sisters and Pamela. Pamela left acting to pursue still photography full-time. Douglas Springsteen, Bruce's father, suffered from mental health issues through his life which worsened in his years. Springsteen's last name is topographic and of Dutch origin translating to "jumping stone" but more meaning a kind of stone used as a stepping stone in unpaved streets or between two houses.
The Springsteens are among the early Dutch families who settled in the colony of New Netherland in the 1600s. Raised a Catholic, Springsteen attended the St. Rose of Lima Catholic school in Freehold Borough, where he was at odds with the nuns and rejected the strictures imposed upon him though some of his music reflects a Catholic ethos and includes a few rock-influenced, traditional Irish-Catholic hymns. In a 2012 interview, he explained that it was his Catholic upbringing rather than political ideology that most influenced his music, he noted in the interview that his faith had given him a "very active spiritual life", although he joked that this "made it difficult sexually." He added: "Once a Catholic, always a Catholic."In ninth grade, Springsteen began attending the public Freehold High School, but did not fit in there either. Former teachers have said he was a "loner, who wanted nothing more than to play his guitar." He felt so uncomfortable that he skipped the ceremony. He attended Ocean County College, but dropped out.
Springsteen grew up hearing fellow New Jersey singer Frank Sinatra on the radio. He became interested in being involved in music himself when, in 1956 and 1957, at the age of seven, he saw Elvis Presley on The Ed Sullivan Show. Soon after this his mother rented him a guitar from Mike Diehl's Music in Freehold for $6 a week but it failed to provide him with the'instant gratification' he desired. In 1964, Springsteen saw the Beatles appearances on The Ed Sullivan Show and, inspired, he bought his first guitar for $18.95 at the Western Auto Appliance Store. Thereafter he started playing for audiences with a band called the Rogues at local venues such as the Elks Lodge in Freehold. In late 1964, Springsteen's mother took out a loan to buy her 16-year-old son a $60 Kent guitar, an act he subsequently memorialized in his song "The Wish"; the following year, he went to the house of Tex and Marion Vinyard, who sponsored young bands in town. They helped, his first gig with the Castiles was at a trailer park on New Jersey Route 34.
The Castiles recorded two original songs at a public recording studio in Brick Township and played a variety of venues, including Cafe Wha? in Greenwich Village. Marion Vinyard said. Called for conscription in the United States Army when he was 18, Springsteen failed the physical examination and did not serve in the Vietnam War, he had suffered a concussion in a motorcycle accident when he was 17, this together with his "crazy" behavior at induction gave him a classification of 4F, which made him unacceptable for service. In the late-1960s, Springsteen performed in a power trio known as Earth, playing in clubs in New Jersey, with one major show at the Hotel Diplomat in New York City. Earth consisted of John Graham on bass, Mike Burke on drums. Bob Alfano was added on organ was replaced for two gigs by Frank'Flash' Craig. From 1969 through early 1971, Springsteen performed with Steel Mill, which included Danny Federici, Vini Lopez, Vinnie Roslin and Steve Van Zandt and Robbin Thompson. During this time he performed at venues on the Jersey Shore, in Richmond, Nashville, a set of gigs in California gatheri
The Erie Canal is a canal in New York, United States, part of the east–west, cross-state route of the New York State Canal System. It ran 363 miles from where Albany meets the Hudson River to where Buffalo meets Lake Erie, it was built to create a navigable water route from New York City and the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes. When completed in 1825, it was the second longest canal in the world and affected the development and economy of New York, New York City, the United States; the canal was first proposed in the 1780s re-proposed in 1807. A survey was authorized and executed in 1808. Proponents of the project wore down opponents; the canal has 34 numbered locks starting with Black Rock Lock and ending downstream with the Troy Federal Lock. Both are owned by the federal government, it has an elevation difference of about 565 feet. It opened on October 26, 1825. In a time when bulk goods were limited to pack animals, there were no railways, water was the most cost-effective way to ship bulk goods.
The canal was denigrated by its political opponents as "Clinton's Folly" or "Clinton's Big Ditch". It was the first transportation system between the Eastern Seaboard and the western interior of the United States that did not require portage, it was faster than carts pulled by draft animals and cut transport costs by about 95%. The canal gave New York City's port an incomparable advantage over all other U. S. ushered in the state's 19th century political and cultural ascendancy. The canal fostered a population surge in western New York and opened regions farther west to settlement, it was enlarged between 1834 and 1862. The canal's peak year was 1855. In 1918, the western part of the canal was enlarged to become part of the New York State Barge Canal, which extended to the Hudson River running parallel to the eastern half of the Erie Canal. In 2000, the United States Congress designated the Erie Canalway National Heritage Corridor to recognize the national significance of the canal system as the most successful and influential human-built waterway and one of the most important works of civil engineering and construction in North America.
The canal has been used by recreational watercraft since the retirement of the last large commercial ship, Day Peckinpaugh, in 1994. The canal saw a recovery in commercial traffic in 2008. From the first days of the expansion of the British colonies from the coast of North America into the heartland of the continent, a recurring problem was that of transportation between the coastal ports and the interior; this was not unique to the Americas, the problem still exists in those parts of the world where muscle power provides a primary means of transportation within a region. An ancient solution was implemented in many cultures — floating vessels move more than land vehicles since friction becomes less. Close to the seacoast, rivers provided adequate waterways, but the Appalachian Mountains, 400 miles inland, running over 1,500 miles long as a barrier range with just five places where mule trains or wagon roads could be routed, presented a great challenge. Passengers and freight had to travel overland, a journey made more difficult by the rough condition of the roads.
In 1800, it took 2-1/2 weeks to travel overland from New York to Cleveland, Ohio. The principal exportable product of the Ohio Valley was grain, a high-volume, low-priced commodity, bolstered by supplies from the coast, it was not worth the cost of transporting it to far-away population centers. This was a factor leading to farmers in the west turning their grains into whiskey for easier transport and higher sales, the Whiskey Rebellion. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, it became clear to coastal residents that the city or state that succeeded in developing a cheap, reliable route to the West would enjoy economic success, the port at the seaward end of such a route would see business increase greatly. In time, projects were devised in Virginia, Maryland and deep into the coastal states; the successes of the Canal du Midi in France, Bridgewater Canal in Britain, Eider Canal in Denmark spurred on what was called in Britain "canal mania". The idea of a canal to tie the East Coast to the new western settlements was discussed as early as 1724: New York provincial official Cadwallader Colden made a passing reference to improving the natural waterways of western New York.
Gouverneur Morris and Elkanah Watson were early proponents of a canal along the Mohawk River. Their efforts led to the creation of the "Western and Northern Inland Lock Navigation Companies" in 1792, which took the first steps to improve navigation on the Mohawk and construct a canal between the Mohawk and Lake Ontario, but it was soon discovered that private financing was insufficient. Christopher Colles surveyed the Mohawk Valley, made a presentation to the New York state legislature in 1784, proposing a shorter canal from Lake Ontario; the proposal was never implemented. Jesse Hawley had envisioned encouraging the growing of large quantities of grain on the western New York plains for sale on the Eastern seaboard. However, he went bankrupt trying to ship grain to the coast. While in Canandaigua debtors' prison, Hawley began pressing for the construction of a canal along the 90-mile (140 km
Daniel Edgerly Zanes is an American former member of the popular 1980s band The Del Fuegos and is now the front man of the Grammy-winning group Dan Zanes and Friends. Zanes was born in Exeter, New Hampshire, in 1961, spent his childhood in Texas and in Fredericton, New Brunswick, his father was a teacher, as well as a writer. He started playing guitar when he was eight and began taking Lead Belly records out of the public library as soon as he was old enough to get a library card. Zanes attended Phillips Academy in Massachusetts for two years. Zanes ended up living on the outskirts of New Hampshire. In 1981, Zanes went to Oberlin College in Ohio, where he was determined to start a cool band. In the breakfast line on the first day at Oberlin, he met up with former high school classmate Tom Lloyd. Zanes and Lloyd took their breakfast back to the dorm and started a band and soon left school and headed to Boston, where they became known as The Del Fuegos; the Del Fuegos played in lofts, warehouses, small art galleries, barns, college dining halls, fraternity houses, gymnasiums and big theaters.
Rolling Stone named the Del Fuegos "Best New Band" in 1984. Once, Bruce Springsteen jumped on stage to play "Hang On Sloopy" with them. With the Del Fuegos, Zanes made several records — The Longest Day, Mass, Stand Up, Smoking in the Fields — and had a hit single, Don't Run Wild. In 1987, Zanes married Paula Greif, the director of the video for the Del Fuegos song, I Still Want You. After Dan Zanes and his wife at the time, Paula Greif, had a baby, Anna Zanes, they moved to New York City. Zanes subsequently began playing music with a group of other fathers that he had met in West Village playgrounds who were there with their kids; these fathers playing music together became The Wonderland String Band, which played at parks and parties and on a tape of songs that Zanes recorded at his home. The tape was a hit locally—i.e. On the playgrounds where he and his daughter played—and Zanes realized that he liked making music that families could enjoy together, as opposed to music, just for children or just for adults.
So, he added a small number of women to his band, renamed it the Rocket Ship Revue, began making a full-length homemade album, enlisting the help of some people he had met when he was a Del Fuego--Sheryl Crow, Suzanne Vega, Simon Kirke, the drummer for Bad Company. The album, Rocket Ship Beach, was a hit; the New York Times Magazine called it "cool", added, "Mostly, Zanes' kids music works because it is not kids music. Sheryl Crow and Suzanne Vega made guest appearances on the album; the second album, Family Dance is composed of dance songs from a wide variety of musical traditions and features Loudon Wainwright III and Rosanne Cash. The third recording, the more mellow Night Time!, features collaborations with Aimee Mann, Lou Reed, John Doe, Dar Williams, other established musicians. In 2003, he played himself on Dragon Tales Let's Start a Band on TV film; the fourth album in the family series is House Party, a rambunctious 20-song collection with a diverse instrumentation that, in addition to the usual guitars, upright bass and drums, includes such instruments as tuba, pump organ and saw.
House Party was nominated for a Grammy in the Musical Album for Children category. Music video selections from the House Party album played during the Disney Channel's morning program suite known as Playhouse Disney from 2005-2007. New music video selections play on Nickelodeon's Noggin. In 2007, Zanes received the Grammy Award for Best Musical Album for Children for Catch That Train! and produced a children's reggae CD with Father Goose called "Its a Bam Bam Diddly", which features songs performed by Sister Carol and Sheryl Crow. In early 2009, Zanes' ¡Nueva York! won in The 8th Annual Independent Music Awards for Best Children's Music Album. His seventh album 76 Trombones was a Broadway/Showtune themed album, featuring guest vocalists Matthew Broderick, Carol Channing, Brian Stokes Mitchell. Through the late afternoon of July 7, 2012, Zanes performed at a free public concert at the L. L. Bean flagship store in Freeport, Maine, in celebration of the 100th anniversary of the famous Maine retailer.
Dan Zanes performs at L. L. Bean, Maine. July 7, 2012 Performing with his band, he entertained children and adults alike with several sets prior to Chris Isaak's headlining performance and monumental fireworks display that evening. Zanes is a public supporter of several charities. Zanes donates some of the proceeds from Family Dance and Night Time! to the non-profit world hunger organization Heifer International. The Longest Day Boston, Mass. Spin Radio Concert Stand Up Smoking in the Fields Silver Star Cool Down Time Rocket Ship Beach Family Dance Night Time! House Party All Around the Kitchen! Catch That Train! The Welcome Table ¡Nueva York! 76 Trombones The Fine Friends Are Here! Little Nut Tree Turn Turn Turn with Elizabeth Mitchell Get Loose and Get Together!: The Best of Dan Zanes Lead Belly, Baby! Sea Music including "Oh Shenandoah", "Sloop John B", "The John B. Sails", "Deep Blue Sea" Parades and Panoramas: 25 Songs Collected by Carl Sandburg for the American Songbag including "The Midnight Train", "Hallelujah, I'm a Bum", "Lord Lovel" 2
Peter Seeger was an American folk singer and social activist. A fixture on nationwide radio in the 1940s, he had a string of hit records during the early 1950s as a member of the Weavers, most notably their recording of Lead Belly's "Goodnight, Irene", which topped the charts for 13 weeks in 1950. Members of the Weavers were blacklisted during the McCarthy Era. In the 1960s, Seeger re-emerged on the public scene as a prominent singer of protest music in support of international disarmament, civil rights and environmental causes. A prolific songwriter, his best-known songs include "Where Have All the Flowers Gone?", "If I Had a Hammer", "Turn! Turn! Turn!", which have been recorded by many artists both in and outside the folk revival movement. "Flowers" was a hit recording for the Kingston Trio. "If I Had a Hammer" was a hit for Peter and Mary and Trini Lopez while the Byrds had a number one hit with "Turn! Turn! Turn!" in 1965. Seeger was one of the folk singers responsible for popularizing the spiritual "We Shall Overcome" that became the acknowledged anthem of the Civil Rights Movement, soon after folk singer and activist Guy Carawan introduced it at the founding meeting of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee in 1960.
In the PBS American Masters episode "Pete Seeger: The Power of Song", Seeger said it was he who changed the lyric from the traditional "We will overcome" to the more singable "We shall overcome". Seeger was born on May 1919, at the French Hospital, Midtown Manhattan, his family, which Seeger called "enormously Christian, in the Puritan, Calvinist New England tradition", traced its genealogy back over 200 years. A paternal ancestor, Karl Ludwig Seeger, a doctor from Württemberg, had emigrated to America during the American Revolution and married into the old New England family of Parsons in the 1780s. Seeger's father, the Harvard-trained composer and musicologist Charles Louis Seeger, Jr. was born in Mexico City, Mexico, to American parents. Charles established the first musicology curriculum in the U. S. at the University of California in 1913, helped found the American Musicological Society, was a key founder of the academic discipline of ethnomusicology. Pete's mother, Constance de Clyver, raised in Tunisia and trained at the Paris Conservatory of Music, was a concert violinist and a teacher at the Juilliard School.
In 1912, his father Charles Seeger was hired to establish the music department at the University of California, but was forced to resign in 1918 because of his outspoken pacifism during World War I. Charles and Constance moved back east, making Charles' parents' estate in Patterson, New York, northeast of New York City, their base of operations; when baby Pete was eighteen months old, they set out with him and his two older brothers in a homemade trailer to bring musical uplift to the working people in the American South. Upon their return, Constance taught violin and Charles taught composition at the New York Institute of Musical Art, whose president, family friend Frank Damrosch, was Constance's adoptive "uncle". Charles taught part-time at the New School for Social Research. Career and money tensions led to quarrels and reconciliations, but when Charles discovered Constance had opened a secret bank account in her own name, they separated, Charles took custody of their three sons. Beginning in 1936, Charles held various administrative positions in the federal government's Farm Resettlement program, the WPA's Federal Music Project and the wartime Pan American Union.
After World War II, he taught ethnomusicology at the University of Yale University. Charles and Constance divorced when Pete was seven and in 1932 Charles married his composition student and assistant, Ruth Crawford, now considered by many to be one of the most important modernist composers of the 20th century. Interested in folk music, Ruth had contributed musical arrangements to Carl Sandburg's influential folk song anthology the American Songbag and created significant original settings for eight of Sandburg's poems. Pete's eldest brother, Charles Seeger III, was a radio astronomer, his next older brother, John Seeger, taught in the 1950s at the Dalton School in Manhattan and was the principal from 1960 to 1976 at Fieldston Lower School in the Bronx. Pete's uncle, Alan Seeger, a noted poet, had been one of the first American soldiers to be killed in World War I. All four of Pete's half-siblings from his father's second marriage – Margaret, Mike and Penelope – became folk singers. Peggy Seeger, a well-known performer in her own right, married British folk singer and activist Ewan MacColl.
Mike Seeger was a founder of the New Lost City Ramblers, one of whose members, John Cohen, married Pete's half-sister Penny – a talented singer who died young. Barbara Seeger joined her siblings in recording folk songs for children. In 1935, Pete attended Camp Rising Sun, an international leadership camp held every summer in upstate New York that influenced his life's work, he visited it most in 2012. In 1943, Pete married Toshi Aline Ota, whom he credited with being the support that helped make the rest of his life possible; the couple remained married until Toshi's death in July 2013. Their first child, Peter Ōta Seeger, was born in 1944 and died at six months, while Pete was deployed overseas. Pete never saw him, they went on to have three more children: Daniel (an accomplished p
Animaniacs is an American animated comedy television series created by Tom Ruegger. It is the second animated series produced by Amblin Entertainment in association with Warner Bros. Animation; the show first aired on the Fox Network as part of its Fox Kids block from 1993 to 1995 before moving to The WB in 1995 until the series ended in 1998 as part of its Kids' WB afternoon programming block. It ran a total of 99 episodes and one film, Wakko's Wish. Animaniacs is a variety show, with short skits featuring a large cast of characters. While the show had no set format, the majority of episodes were composed of three short mini-episodes, each starring a different set of characters, bridging segments. Hallmarks of the series included its music, character catchphrases, humor directed at an adult audience. A reboot of the series was announced by Hulu in January 2018, with two seasons to be produced in conjunction with Amblin Entertainment and Warner Bros. Animation, expected to air starting in 2020.
The Warner siblings live in the water tower on the Warner Bros. studio lot in California. However, characters from the series had episodes in various periods of time; the Animaniacs characters interacted with famous people and creators of the past and present as well as mythological characters and characters from contemporary pop culture and television. Andrea Romano, the casting and recording director of Animaniacs, said that the Warner siblings functioned to "tie the show together," by appearing in and introducing other characters' segments; each Animaniacs episode consisted of two or three cartoon shorts. Animaniacs segments ranged in time, from bridging segments less than a minute long to episodes spanning the entire show length. Animaniacs had a large cast of characters, separated into individual segments, with each pair or set of characters acting in its own plot; the Warner kids, Yakko and Dot, were three cartoon stars from the 1930s that were locked away in the Warner Bros. Water Tower until the 1990s, when they escaped.
After their escape, they interacted with Warner Bros. studio workers, including Ralph the Security Guard. Pinky and the Brain are two genetically altered laboratory mice who continuously plot and attempt to take over the world. Slappy Squirrel is an octogenarian cartoon star who can outwit antagonists and uses her wiles to educate her nephew, Skippy Squirrel, about cartoon techniques. Additional principal characters included Rita and Runt and Mindy, Chicken Boo and Marita, Katie Ka-Boom, a trio of pigeons known as The Goodfeathers; the Animaniacs cast of characters had a variety of inspiration, from celebrities to writers' family members to other writers. Executive producer Steven Spielberg said that the irreverence in Looney Tunes cartoons inspired the Animaniacs cast. Tom Ruegger created Pinky and the Brain, a series Sherri Stoner had written for, after being inspired by the personalities of two of his Tiny Toon Adventures colleagues, Eddie Fitzgerald and Tom Minton. Ruegger thought of the premise for Pinky and the Brain when wondering what would happen if Minton and Fitzgerald tried to take over the world.
Deanna Oliver contributed The Goodfeathers scripts and the character Chicken Boo, while Nicholas Hollander based Katie Kaboom on his teenage daughter. Ruegger modeled the Warners' personalities after his three sons; because the Warners were portrayed as cartoon stars from the early 1930s, Ruegger and other artists for Animaniacs made the images of the Warners similar to cartoon characters of the early 1930s. Simple black and white drawings were common in cartoons of the 1920s and 1930s, such as Buddy, Felix the Cat, Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, the early versions of Mickey Mouse and Minnie Mouse. Sherri Stoner created Slappy the Squirrel when another writer and friend of Stoner, John McCann, made fun of Stoner's career in TV movies playing troubled teenagers; when McCann joked that Sherri would be playing troubled teenagers when she was fifty years old, the latter developed the idea of Slappy's characteristics as an older person acting like a teenager. Stoner liked the idea of an aged cartoon character because an aged cartoon star would know the secrets of other cartoons and "have the dirt on ".
Steven Spielberg served under his Amblin Television label. Showrunner and senior producer Tom Ruegger lead writer's room. Producers Peter Hastings, Sherri Stoner, Rusty Mills, Rich Arons contributed scripts for many of the episodes and had an active role during group discussions in the writer's room as well; the writers and animators of Animaniacs used the experience gained from the previous series to create new animated characters that were cast in the mold of Chuck Jones and Tex Avery's creations. Additional writers for the series included Liz Holzman, Paul Rugg, Deanna Oliver, John McCann, Nicholas Hollander, Charlie Howell, Gordon Bressack, Jeff Kwitny, Earl Kress, Tom Minton, Randy Rogel. Hastings, Stoner, McCann and Bressack were involved in writing sketch comedy while others, including Kress and Rogel, came from cartoon backgrounds. Made-up stories did not comprise Animaniacs writing, as Hastings remarked: "We weren't there to tell compelling stories... you could do a real story, you could recite the Star-Spangled Banner, or you could parody a commercial... you could do all these kinds of things, we had this tremendous freedom and a talent to back it up."
Writers for the series wrote into Animaniacs stories.
Buffalo, New York
Buffalo is the second largest city in the U. S. state of New York and the largest city in Western New York. As of 2017, the population was 258,612; the city is the county seat of Erie County and a major gateway for commerce and travel across the Canada–United States border, forming part of the bi-national Buffalo Niagara Region. The Buffalo area was inhabited before the 17th century by the Native American Iroquois tribe and by French settlers; the city grew in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of immigration, the construction of the Erie Canal and rail transportation, its close proximity to Lake Erie. This growth provided an abundance of fresh water and an ample trade route to the Midwestern United States while grooming its economy for the grain and automobile industries that dominated the city's economy in the 20th century. Since the city's economy relied on manufacturing, deindustrialization in the latter half of the 20th century led to a steady decline in population. While some manufacturing activity remains, Buffalo's economy has transitioned to service industries with a greater emphasis on healthcare and higher education, which emerged following the Great Recession.
Buffalo is on the eastern shore of Lake Erie, at the head of the Niagara River, 16 miles south of Niagara Falls. Its early embrace of electric power led to the nickname "The City of Light"; the city is famous for its urban planning and layout by Joseph Ellicott, an extensive system of parks designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, as well as significant architectural works. Its culture blends Northeastern and Midwestern traditions, with annual festivals including Taste of Buffalo and Allentown Art Festival, two professional sports teams, a music and arts scene; the city of Buffalo received its name from a nearby creek called Buffalo Creek. British military engineer Captain John Montresor made reference to "Buffalo Creek" in his 1764 journal, which may be the earliest recorded appearance of the name. There are several theories regarding. While it is possible its name originated from French fur traders and Native Americans calling the creek Beau Fleuve, it is possible Buffalo Creek was named after the American buffalo, whose historical range may have extended into western New York.
The first inhabitants of the State of New York are believed to have been nomadic Paleo-Indians, who migrated after the disappearance of Pleistocene glaciers during or before 7000 BCE. Around 1000 CE, 1,000 years ago, the Woodland period began, marked by the rise of the Iroquois Confederacy and its tribes throughout the state. During French exploration of the region in 1620, the region was occupied by the agrarian Erie people, a tribe outside of the Five Nations of the Iroquois southwest of Buffalo Creek, the Wenro people or Wenrohronon, an Iroquoian-speaking tribal offshoot of the large Neutral Nation who lived along the inland south shore of Lake Ontario and at the east end of Lake Erie and a bit of its northern shore. For trading, the Neutral people made a living by growing tobacco and hemp to trade with the Iroquois, utilizing animal paths or warpaths to travel and move goods across the state; these paths were paved, now function as major roads. During the Beaver Wars of the 1640s-1650s, the combined warriors of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy conquered the populous Neutrals and their peninsular territory, while the Senecas alone took out the Wenro and their territory, c.
1651–1653. Soon after, the Erie nation and territory was destroyed by the Iroquois over their assistance to Huron people during the Beaver Wars, it was Louis Hennepin and Sieur de La Salle who made the earliest European discoveries of the upper Niagara and Ontario regions in the late 1600s. On August 7, 1679, La Salle launched a vessel, Le Griffon, that became the first full-sized ship to sail across the Great Lakes disappearing in Green Bay, Wisconsin. After the American Revolution, the colony of New York—now a state—began westward expansion, looking for habitable land by following trends of the Iroquois. Land near fresh water was of considerable importance. New York and Massachusetts were fighting for the territory Buffalo lies on, Massachusetts had the right to purchase all but a one-mile wide portion of land; the rights to the Massachusetts' territories were sold to Robert Morris in 1791, two years to the Holland Land Company. As a result of the war, in which the Iroquois tribe sided with the British Army, Iroquois territory was whittled away in the mid-to-late-1700s by white settlers through successive treaties statewide, such as the Treaty of Fort Stanwix, the First Treaty of Buffalo Creek, the Treaty of Geneseo.
The Iroquois were corralled onto reservations, including Buffalo Creek. By the end of the 18th century, only 338 square miles of reservation territory remained. Early settlers along the mouth of Buffalo Creek were former slave Joseph "Black Joe" Hodges, Cornelius Winney, a Dutch trader from Albany who arrived in 1789; the first white settlers along the creek were prisoners captured during the Revolutionary War. The first resident and landowner of Buffalo with a permanent presence was Captain William Johnston, a white Iroquois interpreter, present in the area since the days after the Revolutionary War and was granted creekside land by the Senecas as a gift of appreciation, his house was built at present-day Seneca streets. On July 20, 1793, the Holland Land Purchase was completed, containing the land of present-day Buffalo, brokered by Dutch investors from Holland; the Treaty of Big Tree removed Iroquois title to lan
Rochester, New York
Rochester is a city on the southern shore of Lake Ontario in western New York. With a population of 208,046 residents, Rochester is the seat of Monroe County and the third most populous city in New York state, after New York City and Buffalo; the metropolitan area has a population of just over 1 million people. It is about 73 miles east of Buffalo and 87 miles west of Syracuse. Rochester was one of America's first boomtowns due to the fertile Genesee River Valley, which gave rise to numerous flour mills, as a manufacturing hub. Several of the region's universities have renowned research programs. Rochester is the site of many important innovations in consumer products; the Rochester area has been the birthplace to Kodak, Western Union, French's, Bausch & Lomb and Xerox, which conduct extensive research and manufacturing of industrial and consumer products. Until 2010, the Rochester metropolitan area was the second-largest regional economy in New York State, after the New York City metropolitan area.
Rochester's GMP has since ranked just below Buffalo, New York, while exceeding it in per-capita income. The 25th edition of the Places Rated Almanac rated Rochester as the "most livable city" in 2007, among 379 U. S. metropolitan areas. In 2010 Forbes rated Rochester as the third-best place to raise a family in the United States. In 2012 Kiplinger rated Rochester as the fifth-best city in the United States for families, citing low cost of living, top public schools, a low jobless rate. Rochester is a Global city with Sufficiency status; the Seneca tribe of Native Americans lived in and around Rochester until they lost their claim to most of this land in the Treaty of Big Tree in 1797. Settlement before the Seneca tribe is unknown. Development of Rochester followed the American Revolution, forced cession of their territory by the Iroquois after the defeat of Great Britain. Allied with the British, four major Iroquois tribes were forced out of New York; as a reward for their loyalty to the British Crown, they were given a large land grant on the Grand River in Canada.
Rochester was founded shortly after the American Revolution by a wave of English-Puritan descended immigrants from New England who were looking for new agricultural land. They would be the dominant cultural group in Rochester for over a century. On November 8, 1803, Col. Nathaniel Rochester, Maj. Charles Carroll, Col. William Fitzhugh, Jr. all of Hagerstown, purchased a 100-acre tract from the state in Western New York along the Genesee River. They chose the site because its three cataracts on the Genesee offered great potential for water power. Beginning in 1811, with a population of 15, the three founders surveyed the land and laid out streets and tracts. In 1817, the Brown brothers and other landowners joined their lands with the Hundred Acre Tract to form the village of Rochesterville. By 1821, Rochesterville was the seat of Monroe County. In 1823, Rochesterville consisted of 1,012 acres and 2,500 residents, the Village of Rochesterville became known as Rochester. In 1823, the Erie Canal aqueduct over the Genesee River was completed, the Erie Canal east to the Hudson River was opened.
In the early 20th century, after the advent of railroads, the presence of the canal in the center city was an obstacle. By 1830, Rochester's population was 9,200 and in 1834, it was re-chartered as a city. Rochester was first known as "the Young Lion of the West", as the "Flour City". By 1838, Rochester was the largest flour-producing city in the United States. Having doubled its population in only 10 years, Rochester became America's first "boomtown". In 1830-31, Rochester experienced one of the nation's biggest Protestant revivalist movements, led by Charles Finney; the revival has been noted as inspiring other revivals of the Second Great Awakening. A leading pastor in New York, converted in the Rochester meetings gave the following account of the effects of Finney's meetings in that city: "The whole community was stirred. Religion was the topic of conversation in the house, in the office and on the street; the only theater in the city was converted into a livery stable. Grog shops were closed.
Nurseries ringed the city, the most famous of, started in 1840 by immigrants Georg Ellwanger from Germany and Patrick Barry from Ireland. In 1847, Frederick Douglass founded the abolitionist newspaper The North Star in Rochester. Douglass, a former slave and an antislavery speaker and writer, gained a circulation of over 4,000 readers in the United States and the Caribbean; the North Star served as a forum for abolitionist views. The Douglass home burnt down in 1872, but a marker for it is found in Highland Park off South Avenue. Susan B. Anthony, a national leader of the women's suffrage movement, was from Rochester; the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which guaranteed the right of women to vote in 1920, was known as the Susan B. Anthony Amendment because of her work toward its passage, which she did not live to see. Anthony's home is a National Historic Landmark known as the National Susan B. Anthony Museum and House. At the end of the 19th century, anarchi