Digital art is an artistic work or practice that uses digital technology as part of the creative or presentation process. Since the 1970s, various names have been used to describe the process, including computer art and multimedia art. Digital art is itself placed under the larger umbrella term new media art. After some initial resistance, the impact of digital technology has transformed activities such as painting, drawing and music/sound art, while new forms, such as net art, digital installation art, virtual reality, have become recognized artistic practices. More the term digital artist is used to describe an artist who makes use of digital technologies in the production of art. In an expanded sense, "digital art" is contemporary art that uses the methods of mass production or digital media; the techniques of digital art are used extensively by the mainstream media in advertisements, by film-makers to produce visual effects. Desktop publishing has had a huge impact on the publishing world, although, more related to graphic design.
Both digital and traditional artists use many sources of electronic information and programs to create their work. Given the parallels between visual and musical arts, it is possible that general acceptance of the value of digital visual art will progress in much the same way as the increased acceptance of electronically produced music over the last three decades. Digital art can be purely computer-generated or taken from other sources, such as a scanned photograph or an image drawn using vector graphics software using a mouse or graphics tablet. Though technically the term may be applied to art done using other media or processes and scanned in, it is reserved for art, non-trivially modified by a computing process. Artworks are considered digital painting when created in similar fashion to non-digital paintings but using software on a computer platform and digitally outputting the resulting image as painted on canvas. Andy Warhol created digital art using a Commodore Amiga where the computer was publicly introduced at the Lincoln Center, New York in July 1985.
An image of Debbie Harry was captured in monochrome from a video camera and digitized into a graphics program called ProPaint. Warhol manipulated the image adding colour by using flood fills. Digital visual art consists of either 2D visual information displayed on an electronic visual display or information mathematically translated into 3D information, viewed through perspective projection on an electronic visual display; the simplest is 2D computer graphics which reflect how you might draw using a pencil and a piece of paper. In this case, the image is on the computer screen and the instrument you draw with might be a tablet stylus or a mouse. What is generated on your screen might appear to be drawn with a pencil, pen or paintbrush; the second kind is 3D computer graphics, where the screen becomes a window into a virtual environment, where you arrange objects to be "photographed" by the computer. A 2D computer graphics use raster graphics as their primary means of source data representations, whereas 3D computer graphics use vector graphics in the creation of immersive virtual reality installations.
A possible third paradigm is to generate art in 2D or 3D through the execution of algorithms coded into computer programs and could be considered the native art form of the computer. That is, it cannot be produced without the computer. Fractal art, algorithmic art and real-time generative art are examples. 3D graphics are created via the process of designing imagery from geometric shapes, polygons or NURBS curves to create three-dimensional objects and scenes for use in various media such as film, print, rapid prototyping, games/simulations and special visual effects. There are many software programs for doing this; the technology can enable collaboration, lending itself to sharing and augmenting by a creative effort similar to the open source movement, the creative commons in which users can collaborate in a project to create art. Pop surrealist artist Ray Caesar works in Maya, using it to create his figures as well as the virtual realms in which they exist. Computer-generated animations are animations created with a computer, from digital models created by the 3D artists or procedurally generated.
The term is applied to works created with a computer. Movies make heavy use of computer-generated graphics. In the 1990s, early 2000s CGI advanced enough so that for the first time it was possible to create realistic 3D computer animation, although films had been using extensive computer images since the mid-70s. A number of modern films have been noted for their heavy use of photo realistic CGI. Digital installation art incorporates many forms; some resemble video installations large scale works involving projections and live video capture. By using projection techniques that enhance an audience’s impression of sensory envelopment, many digital installations attempt to create immersive environments. Others go further and attempt to facilitate a complete immersion in virtual realms; this type of installation is site-specific and without fixed dimensionality, meaning it can be reconfigured to accommodate different presentation spa
Pre-Romanesque art and architecture
Pre-Romanesque art and architecture is the period in European art from either the emergence of the Merovingian kingdom in about AD 500 or from the Carolingian Renaissance in the late 8th century, to the beginning of the 11th century Romanesque period. The term is used in English only for architecture and monumental sculpture, but here all the arts of the period are described; the primary theme during this period is the introduction and absorption of classical Mediterranean and Early Christian forms with Germanic ones, which fostered innovative new forms. This in turn led to the rise of Romanesque art in the 11th century. In the outline of Medieval art it was preceded by what is called the Migration Period art of the "barbarian" peoples: Hiberno-Saxon in the British Isles and predominantly Merovingian on the Continent. In most of western Europe, the Roman architectural tradition survived the collapse of the empire; the Merovingians continued to build large stone buildings like monastery palaces.
The unification of the Frankish kingdom under Clovis I and his successors, corresponded with the need for the building of churches, monastery churches, as these were now the power-houses of the Merovingian church. Two hundred monasteries existed south of the Loire when St Columbanus, an Irish missionary, arrived in Europe in 585. Only 100 years by the end of the 7th century, over 400 flourished in the Merovingian kingdom alone; the building plans continued the Roman basilica tradition. Many Merovingian plans have been reconstructed from archaeology; the description in Bishop Gregory of Tours' History of the Franks of the basilica of Saint-Martin, built at Tours by Saint Perpetuus at the beginning of the period and at the time on the edge of Frankish territory, gives cause to regret the disappearance of this building, one of the most beautiful Merovingian churches, which he says had 120 marble columns, towers at the East end, several mosaics: "Saint-Martin displayed the vertical emphasis, the combination of block-units forming a complex internal space and the correspondingly rich external silhouette, which were to be the hallmarks of the Romanesque".
The Merovingian dynasty were replaced by the Carolingian dynasty in AD 752, which led to Carolingian architecture from 780 to 900, Ottonian architecture in the Holy Roman Empire from the mid-10th century until the mid-11th century. These successive Frankish dynasties were large contributors to Romanesque architecture. Merovingian and Ottonian Baptistère de Riez built in the 4th, 5th and 7th centuries Fréjus Cathedral circa AD 450 Crypt of Saint-Laurent Grenoble circa 500 Aix Cathedral circa 500, baptistery built by the Merovingians Baptistère Saint-Jean 507 Baptistère de Venasque circa 500 Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés circa 540 Radegonde de Poitiers Tomb of St. Radegunda 587 Jouarre Abbey 630, Merovingian crypt Kloster Reichenau 724 Benedictine Convent of Saint John, Müstair 780 Granusturm 788, 20 meter tall tower in Aarchen Lorsch Abbey, Palatine Chapel in Aachen Imperial Palace, Ingelheim 800 Oratory of Bishop Theodulf of Orleans in Germigny-des-Prés 806 St. Ursmar's Collegiate church, in Lobbes, Belgium St. Michael, Fulda and crypt Einhard's Basilica, Steinbach Saint Justinus' church, Frankfurt-Höchst Hildesheim Cathedral, original build Schloss Broich 883–884, Carolingian fortress Broich Castle, Muelheim on the Ruhr Abbey of Corvey St. George, Oberzell in Reichenau Island St. Georg 900 St. Johannis 910 Church of St Philibert, Tournus 950 St. Cyriakus, Gernrode 969Ottonian and Holy Roman Empire Mainz Cathedral begun 991 and 994 and retains some structure of this period.
St. Michael's Church Hildesheim, 1031 Carolingian art is the 120-year period from about 780 to 900, during Charlemagne's and his immediate heirs' rule, popularly known as the Carolingian Renaissance. Although brief, it was influential. Carolingian churches are basilican, like the Early Christian churches of Rome, incorporated westworks, arguably the precedent for the western facades of medieval cathedrals. An original westwork survives today at the Abbey of Corvey, built in 885. After a rather chaotic interval following the Carolingian period, the new Ottonian dynasty revived Imperial art from about 950, building on and further developing Carolingian style in Ottonian art. Germanic pre-Romanesque art during the 120-year period from 936 to 1056 is called Ottonian art after the three Saxon emperors named Otto who ruled the Holy Roman Empire from 936 to 1001. After the decline of the Carolingian Empire, the Holy Roman Empire was re-established under the Saxon dynasty. From this emerged a renewed faith in the idea of Empire and a reformed Church, creating a period of heightened cultural and artistic fervour.
It was in this atmosphere that masterpieces were created that fused the traditions from which Ottonian artists derived their inspiration: models of Late Antique and Byzantine origin. Much Ottonian art reflected the dynasty's desire to establish visually a link to the Christian rulers of Late Antiquity, such as Constantine and Justinian as well as to their Carolingian predecessors Charlemagne. Ottonian monasteries produced some of the most magnificent medieval illuminated manuscripts, they were a major art form of the time, monasteries received direct sponsorship from e
Stuckism is an international art movement founded in 1999 by Billy Childish and Charles Thomson to promote figurative painting as opposed to conceptual art. By May 2017 the initial group of 13 British artists had expanded to 236 groups in 52 countries. Childish and Thomson have issued several manifestos; the first one was The Stuckists, consisting of 20 points starting with "Stuckism is a quest for authenticity". Remodernism, the other well-known manifesto of the movement, is a criticism of postmodernism. In another manifesto they define themselves as anti-anti-art, against anti-art and for art. After exhibiting in small galleries in Shoreditch, the Stuckists' first show in a major public museum was held in 2004 at the Walker Art Gallery, as part of the Liverpool Biennial; the group has demonstrated annually at Tate Britain against the Turner Prize since 2000, sometimes dressed in clown costumes. They have come out in opposition to the Charles Saatchi-patronised Young British Artists. Although painting is the dominant artistic form of Stuckism, artists using other media such as photography, sculpture and collage have joined, share the Stuckist opposition to conceptualism and "ego-art."
The name "Stuckism" was coined in January 1999 by Charles Thomson in response to a poem read to him several times by Billy Childish. In it, Childish recites that his former girlfriend, Tracey Emin had said he was "stuck! Stuck! Stuck!" with his art and music. That month, Thomson approached Childish with a view to co-founding an art group called Stuckism, which Childish agreed to, on the basis that Thomson would do the work for the group, as Childish had a full schedule. There were eleven other founding members: Philip Absolon, Frances Castle, Sheila Clark, Eamon Everall, Ella Guru, Wolf Howard, Bill Lewis, Sanchia Lewis, Joe Machine, Sexton Ming, Charles Williams; the membership has evolved since its founding through creative collaborations: the group was promoted as working in paint, but members have since worked in various other media, including poetry, performance, photography and music. In 1979, Childish, Bill Lewis and Ming were members of The Medway Poets performance group, to which Absolon and Sanchia Lewis had earlier contributed.
Peter Waite's Rochester Pottery staged a series of solo painting shows. In 1982, TVS broadcast a documentary on the poets; that year, Emin a fashion student, Childish started a relationship. Group members published dozens of works; the poetry group dispersed after two years, reconvening in 1987 to record The Medway Poets LP. Clark and Machine became involved over the following years. Thomson got to know Williams, a local art student and whose girlfriend was a friend of Emin. During the foundation of the group, Ming brought in his girlfriend, who in turn invited Castle. In August 1999, Childish and Thomson wrote The Stuckists manifesto which stress the value of painting as a medium, its use for communication, the expression of emotion and experience – as opposed to what Stuckists see as the superficial novelty and irony of conceptual art and postmodernism; the most contentious statement in the manifesto is: "Artists who don't paint aren't artists". The second and third manifestos, An Open Letter to Sir Nicholas Serota and Remodernism were sent to the director of the Tate, Nicholas Serota.
He sent a brief reply: "Thank you for your open letter dated 6 March. You will not be surprised to learn that I have no comment to make on your letter, or your manifesto'Remodernism'."In the Remodernism manifesto, the Stuckists declared that they aimed to replace postmodernism with remodernism, a period of renewed spiritual values in art and society. Other manifestos have included Handy Hints, Anti-anti-art, The Cappuccino writer and the Idiocy of Contemporary Writing, The Turner Prize, The Decreptitude of the Critic and Stuckist critique of Damien Hirst. In Anti-anti-art, the Stuckists outlined their opposition to what is known as "anti-art". Stuckists claim that conceptual art is justified by the work of Marcel Duchamp, but that Duchamp's work is "anti-art by intent and effect"; the Stuckists feel that "Duchamp's work was a protest against the stale, unthinking artistic establishment of his day", while "the great irony of postmodernism is that it is a direct equivalent of the conformist, unoriginal establishment that Duchamp attacked in the first place".
Manifestos have been written including the Students for Stuckism group. An "Underage Stuckists" group was founded in 2006 with a manifesto for teenagers written by two 16-year-olds, Liv Soul and Rebekah Maybury, on MySpace. In July 1999, the Stuckists were first mentioned in the media, in an article in The Evening Standard and soon gained other coverage, helped by press interest in Tracey Emin, nominated for the Turner Prize; the first Stuckist show was Stuck! Stuck! Stuck! in September 1999 in Joe Crompton's in Shoreditch Gallery 108, followed by The Resignation of Sir Nicholas Serota. In 2000 they staged The Real Turner Prize Show at the same time as the Tate Gallery's Turner Prize exhibition. A "Students for Stuckism" group was founded in 2000 by students from Camberwell College of Arts, who staged their own exhibition. S. P. Howarth was expelled from the painting degree course at Camberwell college for his paintings, had the first solo exhibit at the Stuckism International Gallery in 2002, named I Don't Want a Painting Degree if i
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Visigothic art and architecture
The Visigoths entered Hispania in 415, they rose to be the dominant people there until the Moorish invasion of 711 brought their kingdom to an end. This period in Iberian art is dominated by their style. Visigothic art is considered in the English-speaking world to be a strain of Migration art, while the Portuguese and Spanish-speaking worlds classify it as Pre-Romanesque. Branches of Visigothic art include their architecture, their crafts, their script; the only remaining examples of their architecture from the 6th century are the church of San Cugat del Vallés in Barcelona, the hermitage and church of Santa Maria de Lara in Burgos, Saint Frutuoso Chapel in, the church of São Gião in and the few remnants of the church at Cabeza de Griego, Cuenca. However, their style developed over the next centuries, though the prime remaining examples of it are rural and run-down; some of the characteristics of their architecture are: Generally basilican in layout, sometimes a Greek cross plan or, more a combination of the two.
The spaces are compartmentalised. Horseshoe arches without keystones. A rectangular, exterior apse. Use of columns and pillars with Corinthian capitals of unique design. Barrel vaults with cupolas at the crosses. Walls of ashlar blocks alternating with Roman brickwork. Decoration of animal or plant motifs. Exemplars include: Church of San Juan Bautista in Baños de Cerrato Crypt of San Antolín in the cathedral of Palencia Church of San Pedro de la Nave in San Pedro de la Nave-Almendra Church of Santa Comba in Bande Chapel of San Xes de Francelos in Ribadavia Church of San Pedro de la Mata in Sonseca Church of Santa María de Melque in San Martín de Montalbán Suso monastery at San Millán de la Cogolla, La Rioja Basilica of Santa María de Batres in Carranque Hermitage of Santa María in Quintanilla de las Viñas Church of Santa Lucía del Trampal near Alcuéscar crypt of the monastery of San Salvador de Leyre, Navarre Head of the Church of San Miguel de los Fresnos in Fregenal de la Sierra Saint Frutuoso Chapel in Braga Church of São Gião in Nazaré Treasure of Guarrazar Visigothic script Verona Orational "Visigothic art".
In Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Age of spirituality: late antique and early Christian art, third to seventh century from The Metropolitan Museum of Art El portal del Arte Románico.
Pop art is an art movement that emerged in the United Kingdom and the United States during the mid- to late-1950s. The movement presented a challenge to traditions of fine art by including imagery from popular and mass culture, such as advertising, comic books and mundane cultural objects. One of its aims is to use images of popular culture in art, emphasizing the banal or kitschy elements of any culture, most through the use of irony, it is associated with the artists' use of mechanical means of reproduction or rendering techniques. In pop art, material is sometimes visually removed from its known context, isolated, or combined with unrelated material. Among the early artists that shaped the pop art movement were Eduardo Paolozzi and Richard Hamilton in Britain, Larry Rivers, Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns among others in the United States. Pop art is interpreted as a reaction to the then-dominant ideas of abstract expressionism, as well as an expansion of those ideas. Due to its utilization of found objects and images, it is similar to Dada.
Pop art and minimalism are considered to be art movements that precede postmodern art, or are some of the earliest examples of postmodern art themselves. Pop art takes imagery, in use in advertising. Product labeling and logos figure prominently in the imagery chosen by pop artists, seen in the labels of Campbell's Soup Cans, by Andy Warhol; the labeling on the outside of a shipping box containing food items for retail has been used as subject matter in pop art, as demonstrated by Warhol's Campbell's Tomato Juice Box, 1964. The origins of pop art in North America developed differently from Great Britain. In the United States, pop art was a response by artists, they used impersonal, mundane reality and parody to "defuse" the personal symbolism and "painterly looseness" of abstract expressionism. In the U. S. some artwork by Larry Rivers, Alex Katz and Man Ray anticipated pop art. By contrast, the origins of pop art in post-War Britain, while employing irony and parody, were more academic. Britain focused on the dynamic and paradoxical imagery of American pop culture as powerful, manipulative symbolic devices that were affecting whole patterns of life, while improving the prosperity of a society.
Early pop art in Britain was a matter of ideas fueled by American popular culture when viewed from afar. Pop art was both an extension and a repudiation of Dadaism. While pop art and Dadaism explored some of the same subjects, pop art replaced the destructive and anarchic impulses of the Dada movement with a detached affirmation of the artifacts of mass culture. Among those artists in Europe seen as producing work leading up to pop art are: Pablo Picasso, Marcel Duchamp, Kurt Schwitters. Although both British and American pop art began during the 1950s, Marcel Duchamp and others in Europe like Francis Picabia and Man Ray predate the movement. During the 1920s, American artists Patrick Henry Bruce, Gerald Murphy, Charles Demuth and Stuart Davis created paintings that contained pop culture imagery "prefiguring" the pop art movement; the Independent Group, founded in London in 1952, is regarded as the precursor to the pop art movement. They were a gathering of young painters, architects and critics who were challenging prevailing modernist approaches to culture as well as traditional views of fine art.
Their group discussions centered on pop culture implications from elements such as mass advertising, product design, comic strips, science fiction and technology. At the first Independent Group meeting in 1952, co-founding member and sculptor Eduardo Paolozzi presented a lecture using a series of collages titled Bunk! that he had assembled during his time in Paris between 1947 and 1949. This material of "found objects" such as advertising, comic book characters, magazine covers and various mass-produced graphics represented American popular culture. One of the collages in that presentation was Paolozzi's I was a Rich Man's Plaything, which includes the first use of the word "pop", appearing in a cloud of smoke emerging from a revolver. Following Paolozzi's seminal presentation in 1952, the IG focused on the imagery of American popular culture mass advertising. According to the son of John McHale, the term "pop art" was first coined by his father in 1954 in conversation with Frank Cordell, although other sources credit its origin to British critic Lawrence Alloway.
"Pop art" as a moniker was used in discussions by IG members in the Second Session of the IG in 1955, the specific term "pop art" first appeared in published print in the article "But Today We Collect Ads" by IG members Alison and Peter Smithson in Ark magazine in 1956. However, the term is credited to British art critic/curator Lawrence Alloway for his 1958 essay titled The Arts and the Mass Media though the precise language he uses is "popular mass culture". "Furthermore, what I meant by it is not what it means now. I used the term, also'Pop Culture' to refer to the products of the mass media, not to works of art that draw upon popular culture. In any case, sometime between the winter of 1954-55 and 1957 the phrase acquired currency in conversation..." Alloway was one of the leading critics to defend the inclusion of the imagery of mass culture in the fine arts. Alloway clarified these terms
Outsider art is art by self-taught or naïve art makers. Those labeled as outsider artists have little or no contact with the mainstream art world or art institutions. In many cases, their work is discovered only after their deaths. Outsider art illustrates extreme mental states, unconventional ideas, or elaborate fantasy worlds; the term outsider art was coined by art critic Roger Cardinal in 1972 as an English synonym for art brut, a label created by French artist Jean Dubuffet to describe art created outside the boundaries of official culture. Outsider art has emerged as a successful art marketing category; the term is sometimes misapplied as a catch-all marketing label for art created by people who are outside the mainstream "art world" or "art gallery system", regardless of their circumstances or the content of their work. A more specific term, "outsider music", was adapted for musicians. Interest in the art of the mentally ill, along with that of children and the makers of "peasant art", was first demonstrated by "Der Blaue Reiter" group: Wassily Kandinsky, Auguste Macke, Franz Marc, Alexej Jawlensky, others.
What the artists perceived in the work of these groups was an expressive power born of their perceived lack of sophistication. Examples of this were reproduced in 1912 in the first and only issue of their publication, Der Blaue Reiter Almanac. During World War I, Macke was killed at Champagne in 1914 and Marc was killed at Verdun in 1916. Interest in the art of insane asylum inmates continued to grow in the 1920s. In 1921, Dr. Walter Morgenthaler published his book Ein Geisteskranker als Künstler about Adolf Wölfli, a psychotic mental patient in his care. Wölfli had spontaneously taken up drawing, this activity seemed to calm him, his most outstanding work was an illustrated epic of 45 volumes in which he narrated his own imaginary life story. With 25,000 pages, 1,600 illustrations, 1,500 collages, it is a monumental work. Wölfli produced a large number of smaller works, some of which were sold or given as gifts, his work is on display at the Adolf Wölfli Foundation in the Museum of Bern. A defining moment was the publication of Bildnerei der Geisteskranken in 1922, by Dr. Hans Prinzhorn.
This was the first formal study of psychiatric works, based upon a compilation of thousands of examples from European institutions. The book and the art collection gained much attention from avant-garde artists of the time, including Paul Klee, Max Ernst, Jean Dubuffet. People with some formal artistic training as well as well-established artists are not immune from mental illness, may be institutionalized. For example, William Kurelek awarded the Order of Canada for his artistic life work, as a young man was admitted to the Maudsley Psychiatric Hospital where he was treated for schizophrenia. In hospital he painted, producing a dark depiction of his tortured youth, he was transferred from the Maudsley to Netherne Hospital from November 1953 to January 1955, to work with Edward Adamson, a pioneer of art therapy, creator of the Adamson Collection. French artist Jean Dubuffet was struck by Bildnerei der Geisteskranken and began his own collection of such art, which he called art brut or raw art.
In 1948 he formed the Compagnie de l'Art Brut along including André Breton. The collection he established became known as the Collection de l'art brut, it is now permanently housed in Lausanne, Switzerland. Dubuffet characterized art brut as: "Those works created from solitude and from pure and authentic creative impulses – where the worries of competition and social promotion do not interfere – are, because of these facts, more precious than the productions of professionals. After a certain familiarity with these flourishings of an exalted feverishness, lived so and so intensely by their authors, we cannot avoid the feeling that in relation to these works, cultural art in its entirety appears to be the game of a futile society, a fallacious parade." — Jean Dubuffet. Place à l'incivisme. Art and Text no.27. P.36 Dubuffet's writing on art brut was the subject of a noted program at the Art Club of Chicago in the early 1950s. Dubuffet argued that'culture', mainstream culture, managed to assimilate every new development in art, by doing so took away whatever power it might have had.
The result was to asphyxiate genuine expression. Art brut was his solution to this problem – only art brut was immune to the influences of culture, immune to being absorbed and assimilated, because the artists themselves were not willing or able to be assimilated; the interest in "outsider" practices among twentieth-century artists and critics can be seen as part of a larger emphasis on the rejection of established values within the modernist art milieu. The early part of the 20th century gave rise to Cubism and the Dada and Futurist movements in art, all of which involved a dramatic movement away from cultural forms of the past. Dadaist Marcel Duchamp, for example, abandoned "painterly" technique to allow chance operations a role in determining the form of his works, or to re-contextualize existing "readymade" objects as art. Mid