WGBH-TV, virtual channel 2, is a PBS member television station located in Boston, Massachusetts. The station is owned by, the flagship property of, the WGBH Educational Foundation, which owns fellow PBS stations WGBX-TV in Boston and WGBY-TV in Springfield and public radio stations WGBH and WCRB in the Boston area, WCAI in Cape Cod. WGBH is one of the two flagship stations of PBS, along with WNET in New York City. WGBH maintains studio facilities located at 1 Guest Street in the Brighton neighborhood of Boston, its transmitter is located at 350 Cedar Street in Needham, shared with WBZ-TV, WCVB-TV, WSBK-TV, sister station WGBX-TV. Under an agreement with Shaw Broadcast Services, WGBH operates a satellite uplink facility at the station's Needham transmitter site; the facility relays the signals of WGBH and four other Boston-area television stations, CBS owned-and-operated station WBZ-TV, ABC affiliate WCVB-TV, NBC owned-and-operated station WBTS-LD and Fox affiliate WFXT to cable and satellite television providers across Atlantic Canada, relays the signal of MyNetworkTV affiliate WSBK-TV to pay television providers throughout Canada.
As a Canadian company, Shaw is not entitled to operate an uplink facility in the United States. The WGBH Educational Foundation received its first broadcast license for radio in April 1951 under the auspices of the Lowell Institute Cooperative Broadcasting Council, a consortium of local universities and cultural institutions, whose collaboration stems from an 1836 bequest by textile manufacturer John Lowell, Jr. that called for free public lectures for the citizens of Boston. WGBH first signed on the air on October 6, 1951, with a live broadcast of a performance by the Boston Symphony Orchestra; the Federal Communications Commission awarded a construction permit to Waltham-based electronics company Raytheon to build a television station that would transmit on VHF channel 2 in Boston. Raytheon planned to launch a commercial television station using the call letters WRTB-TV. However, after some setbacks and the cancellation of the construction permit license, WRTB never made it on the air, paving the way for the FCC to allocate channel 2 for non-commercial educational use.
WGBH subsequently received a license to operate on that channel. The WGBH Educational Foundation obtained initial start-up funds for WGBH-TV from the Lincoln and Therese Filene Foundation, it is thought by legend that Raytheon pushed for the FCC to assign WGBH the channel 2 license after it was unable to utilize it. WGBH-TV first signed on the air at 5:20 p.m. on May 2, 1955, becoming the first public television station in Boston and the first non-commercial television station to sign on in New England. The first program to air on the station was Come and See, a children's program hosted by Tony Saletan and Mary Lou Adams, filmed at Tufts Nursery Training School. Channel 2 served as a member station of the National Educational Television and Radio Center, which evolved into National Educational Television in 1963, it was based out of studio facilities located at 84 Massachusetts Avenue in Cambridge, Massachusetts on the campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a roller skating rink.
The station's callsign refers to Great Blue Hill, a location in Milton that served as the original location of WGBH-TV's transmitter facility and where the transmitter for WGBH radio continues to operate to this day. In 1957, Hartford N. Gunn Jr. was appointed general manager of WGBH. Under Gunn, who resigned in February 1970 to become president of PBS, WGBH made significant investments in technology and programming to improve the station's profile and set out to make it a producer of public television programming; that February, WGBH expanded its programming to weekends for the first time, adding a four-hour schedule on Sunday afternoons from 2:30 to 6:30 p.m.. In March 1958, channel 2 began offering academic instructional television programs, with the debut of eight weekly science programs aimed at students in the sixth grade, which were televised “in some 48 separate school systems in and around the Boston area.” In November of that year, the station installed a new full-power transmitter donated by Westinghouse, which increased channel 2's transmitting power to 100,000 watts.
During the early morning hours of October 14, 1961, a large fire caused significant damage to the Cambridge studios of WGBH-TV and WGBH radio. Until the WGBH Educational Foundation was able to build a new studio complex to replace the destroyed former building, the two stations arranged to operate from temporary offices and had to produce their local pr
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles with an estimated population of 685,094 in 2017, making it the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999; the city is the economic and cultural anchor of a larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England, it was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Siege of Boston.
Upon gaining U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture. The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation, its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year. Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park, first public or state school and first subway system; the Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education, including law, medicine and business, the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2,000 startups. Boston's economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, government activities. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States; the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings.
Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630, was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water, their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC. In 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history. Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America. Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century.
Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, the city engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. Boston encountered financial difficulties as other cities in New England grew rapidly. Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution occurred near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city; when the British government passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, Thomas Hutchinson the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists; this did not sit well with the colonists. In 1770, during the Boston Massacre, the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston.
The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. In 1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts; the act prompted the Boston Tea Party, where a group of rebels threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts, demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels; this led to the American Revolutionary War. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Concord. Boston itself was besieged for a year during the Siege of Boston, which began on April 19, 1775; the New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege.
On June 17, the British captured the Charlestown peninsula in Boston, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Py
John Amory Lowell
Hon. John Amory Lowell was an American businessman and philanthropist from Boston, he became the sole trustee of the Lowell Institute when his first cousin, John Lowell, Jr. the Institute's endower, died. John Amory, the second child of John Lowell, Jr and Rebecca Amory, was among the first generation of Lowells to be born in Boston, the fifth generation to be born in America, his father maintained a well-established law firm in the city, three years after John Amory's birth, retired for reasons of his failing health. After retiring in 1801, the elder Lowell spent much of his time and wealth patronizing the burgeoning horticultural society in Boston, so much so that he became known to his friends and family as "The Norfolk Farmer." John Amory Lowell's paternal grandfather named John Lowell but referred to as "The Old Judge," was a Federal Judge appointed by President George Washington and is considered to be the founding father of the Boston Lowells. Like his father and grandfathers before him, Lowell would be the fourth member in his family line to graduate from Harvard College in 1815, at the age of 17.
After spending an extended time traveling through Europe and establishing himself as a successful merchant in Boston, Lowell married his first wife, Susan Cabot Lowell, a daughter of his uncle, Francis Cabot Lowell. Together, they would have Susan Cabot and John. Lowell's wife died during childbirth in 1827, their son, would be appointed to the U. S. District Court in 1865 by President Abraham Lincoln, in 1878, appointed to the U. S. Circuit Court by President Rutherford B. Hayes. John Amory's grandson, James Arnold Lowell, would go on to become a Federal Judge. Lowell's wife, Susan Cabot, a great-granddaughter of Edward and Dorthy Jackson, would connect their children and their descendants to those of the Holmeses of Boston, a family that includes poet Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. and U. S. Supreme Court justice and Civil War hero, Hon. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. With his second wife, Elizabeth Cabot Putnam, Amory fathered three daughters. Augustus, Elizabeth Rebecca, Ellen Bancroft, Sara Putnam.
Augustus Lowell would become a successful business man and succeed Lowell as the second trustee of the Lowell Institute. John Amory's grandchildren, through Elizabeth Cabot, included author and astronomer Percival Lowell, Harvard President Abbott Lawrence Lowell, poet Amy Lowell. In 1835 and 1838, John Amory became the first Treasurer for both Merrimack Manufacturing Company and Boott Cotton Mill, textile mills in Lowell, Massachusetts, and in 1857, he became Director of The Winnipiseogee Lake Woolen Manufacturing Company. All positions his son, would succeed to within the same companies. Lowell was a Fellow of Harvard College, a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a member of the Linnean Society of London. In 1851, Harvard would honor John Amory with an LLD; the trust—or Lowell Institute, as it came to be known—had an unusual mode of governance: a single trustee, empowered to appoint his successor and who was, in the language of John Lowell, Jr.'s will, to "always choose in preference to all others some male descendant of my grandfather, John Lowell, provided there be one, competent to hold the office of trustee, of the name of Lowell."
Despite this odd restriction, the Institute proved to be an extraordinarily innovative philanthropic force. Under John Amory, its first trustee, the Institute flourished. Lowell was both a man of high intellect; the list of Lowell Lecturers during his tenure was a veritable pantheon of the most internationally celebrated figures in science, politics, economics and theology, including Britain’s most celebrated geologist, Sir Charles Lyell, Swiss naturalist Louis Agassiz, novelists Charles Dickens and William Makepeace Thackeray. The lectures were so immensely popular that crowds crushed the windows of the Old Corner Bookstore where the tickets were distributed and certain series had to be repeated by popular demand. John Amory tirelessly led the Lowell Institute for more than 40 years before naming his son, Augustus, as his replacement. Lowell family First Families of Boston Lowell Institute Lowell, Massachusetts Kirk Boott
Edward Everett was an American politician, educator and orator from Massachusetts. Everett, a Whig, served as U. S. Representative, U. S. Senator, the 15th Governor of Massachusetts, Minister to Great Britain, United States Secretary of State, he taught at Harvard University and served as its president. Everett was one of the great American orators of the Civil War eras, he is remembered today as the featured orator at the dedication ceremony of the Gettysburg National Cemetery in 1863, where he spoke for over two hours—immediately before President Abraham Lincoln delivered his famous two-minute Gettysburg Address. The son of a pastor, Everett was educated at Harvard, ministered at Boston's Brattle Street Church before taking a teaching job at Harvard; the position included preparatory studies in Europe, so Everett spent two years in studies at the University of Göttingen, another two years traveling around Europe. At Harvard he taught ancient Greek literature for several years before becoming involved in politics, began an extensive and popular speaking career.
He served ten years in the United States Congress before winning election as Governor of Massachusetts in 1835. As governor he introduced the state Board of the first of its type in the nation. After being defeated in the 1839 election by one vote, Everett was appointed Minister to Great Britain, serving until 1845, he next became President of Harvard, a job he came to dislike. In 1849, he became an assistant to longtime friend and colleague Daniel Webster, appointed Secretary of State. Upon Webster's death Everett served as Secretary of State for a few months until he was sworn in as U. S. Senator from Massachusetts. In the years of his life, Everett traveled and gave speeches all over the country, he supported efforts to maintain the Union before the Civil War, running for Vice President on the Constitutional Union Party ticket in 1860. He was active in supporting the Union effort during the war and supported Lincoln in the 1864 election. Edward Everett was born on April 11, 1794 in Dorchester, the fourth of eight children, to the Rev. Oliver Everett and Lucy Hill Everett, the daughter of Alexander Sears Hill.
His father was a direct descendant of early colonist Richard Everett, his mother's family had deep colonial roots. His father had served as pastor of New South Church, retiring due to poor health two years before Everett was born, he died in 1802. He attended local schools, a private school of Ezekiel Webster. During this time Ezekiel's brother Daniel sometimes taught classes. Everett attended Boston Latin School in 1805, briefly Phillips Exeter Academy, where his older brother Alexander Hill Everett was teaching. At the age of 13, he was admitted to Harvard College. In 1811, at age 17, he graduated as the valedictorian of his class. Unlike some of the other students at the time, Everett was an earnest and diligent student who absorbed all of what was taught. While a student, he was a member of the Hasty Pudding Club. Uncertain what to do next, Everett was encouraged by his pastor, Joseph Stevens Buckminster of the Brattle Street Church, to study for the ministry; this Everett did under the tutelage of Harvard President John Thornton Kirkland, earning his MA in 1813.
During this time in particular he developed a facility for working with both the written and spoken word. The Reverend Buckminster died in 1812, Everett was offered the post at the Brattle Street Church on a probationary basis after his graduation, made permanent in November 1813. Everett dedicated himself to the work, became a popular Unitarian preacher. Listeners wrote of his "florid and affluent fancy", his "daring imagery", while one critic wrote what would become a common criticism of his speaking style: " spoke like some superior intelligence, discoursing to mortals of what they ought to feel and know, but as if himself were too far exalted to require such feelings, such knowledge himself." Everett, over the year he served in the pulpit, came to be disenchanted with the somewhat formulaic demands of the required oratory, with the sometimes parochial constraints the congregation placed on him. The workload took its toll on young Everett, who around this time acquired the nickname "Ever-at-it", which would be used throughout his life.
For a change of pace, Everett traveled to Washington, D. C. where he visited with other Federalist Party luminaries from Massachusetts. In late 1814 Everett was offered a newly endowed position as professor of Greek literature at Harvard; the position came with authorization to travel for two years in Europe, Everett accepted. He was formally invested as a professor in April 1815. Everett was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1815. Everett made his way across western Europe, visiting London and the major Dutch cities en route to the German city of Göttingen. There he entered the university, where he studied French and Italian, along with Roman law and Greek art, he was a disciplined student, but he and George Ticknor, with whom he had traveled, were quite sociable. Everett noted that they were viewed by many at the university as curiosities, were the focus of attention, he was granted a Ph. D in September 1817, which he believed to be the first such degree awarded to an American.
During his sojourn at Göttingen, Everett traveled to see other German cities, including Hanover, Weimar and Berlin
Benjamin Franklin Institute of Technology
The Benjamin Franklin Institute of Technology in Boston, Massachusetts, is a non-profit private college of engineering and industrial technologies established in 1908 with funds bequeathed in Benjamin Franklin's will. The Benjamin Franklin Institute of Technology owes its existence to the vision of Benjamin Franklin. In a codicil to his will, dated 1789, Franklin established a 200-year plan for a sum totaling £1,000 that he gave to the city of Boston, where he was born. For the first hundred years, the money was to serve as principal for loans to young workmen; when the hundred-year interval had passed, Boston decided to use the money to establish a technical school. Aided by an additional gift from industrialist Andrew Carnegie and land donated by the City, BFIT opened its doors in 1908. A series of murals on campus were painted by Charles Mills. In 2019, the Institute announced plans to sell its 3-building 1908 campus and look for a 30% larger facility. According to the Institute website, the school's mission statement is: Benjamin Franklin Institute of Technology offers education to students pursuing career-based paths.
The College strives to develop technical and professional skills as well as individual values that help to create a foundation for success, civic responsibility, life-long learning. The College adheres to the principles put forth by our benefactor Benjamin Franklin in his writings about education and citizenship; as of 2015, the school has 525 students, with a 13:1 student-to-faculty ratio, offers 14 programs of study awarding certificates, associate degrees, bachelor's degrees. Benjamin Franklin Institute of Technology is the only college in Massachusetts to offer Associate of Science degrees in Electrical Technology, Biomedical Engineering Technology, Bachelor of Science degrees in Automotive Management and Health Information Technology; the college's graduation rate is twice the national average. The college is accredited by the New England Association of Colleges. Benjamin Franklin Institute of Technology
Greater Boston is the metropolitan region of New England encompassing the municipality of Boston, the capital of the U. S. state of Massachusetts, the most populous city in New England, as well as its surrounding areas. The region forms the northern arc of the US northeast megalopolis and as such, Greater Boston can be described either as a metropolitan statistical area, or as a broader combined statistical area; the MSA consists of most of the eastern third of Massachusetts, excluding the South Coast region and Cape Cod. While the small footprint of the city of Boston itself only contains an estimated 685,094, the urbanization has extended well into surrounding areas; some of Greater Boston's most well-known contributions involve the region's higher education and medical institutions. Greater Boston has been influential upon American industry; the region and the state of Massachusetts are global leaders in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Over 80% of Massachusetts' population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan region.
Greater Boston is ranked tenth in population among US metropolitan statistical areas, home to 4,732,161 people as of the 2014 US Census estimate, sixth among combined statistical areas, with a population of 8,099,575. The area has hosted many people and sites significant to American culture and history American literature and the American Revolution. Plymouth was the site of the first colony in New England, founded in 1620 by the Pilgrims, passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the Greater Boston region has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, the region was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U.
S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court in Boston. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the Boston region, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, whose Law School has spawned a contemporaneous majority of United States Supreme Court Justices. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world; the most restrictive definition of the Greater Boston area is the region administered by the Metropolitan Area Planning Council.
The MAPC is a regional planning organization created by the Massachusetts legislature to oversee transportation infrastructure and economic development concerns in the Boston area. The MAPC includes 101 towns that are grouped into eight subregions; these include most of the area within the region's outer circumferential highway, I-495. In 2013, the population of the MAPC district was 3.2 million, 48% of the total population of Massachusetts, in an area of 1,422 square miles, of which 39% is forested and an additional 11% is water, wetland, or other open space. The eight subregions and their principal towns are: Inner Core, MetroWest, North Shore, North Suburban, South Shore, SouthWest, Three Rivers. Notably excluded from the MAPC and its partner planning body, the Boston Region Metropolitan Planning Organization, are the Merrimack Valley cities of Lowell and Haverhill, much of Plymouth County, all of Bristol County. Bristol County is part of the Greater Boston CSA, as part of the Providence MSA.
The urbanized area surrounding Boston serves as the core of a definition used by the US Census Bureau known as the New England city and town area. The set of towns containing the core urbanized area plus surrounding towns with strong social and economic ties to the core area is defined as the Boston–Cambridge–Nashua, MA–NH Metropolitan NECTA; the Boston NECTA is further subdivided into several NECTA divisions. The Boston and Peabody NECTA divisions together correspond to the MAPC area; the total population of the Boston NECTA was 4,540,941. Boston–Cambridge–Newton, MA NECTA Division Framingham, MA NECTA Division Peabody–Salem–Beverly, MA NECTA Division Brockton–Bridgewater–Easton, MA NECTA Division Haverhill–Newburyport–Amesbury, MA–NH NECTA Division Lawrence–Methuen–Salem, MA–NH NECTA Division (part of Merrimack V