Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun
Cape Cod Baseball League
The Cape Cod Baseball League is a collegiate summer baseball league located on Cape Cod in the U. S. state of Massachusetts. Many future Major League Baseball players have started there during their college years. During the 2014 MLB season, 265 CCBL alumni played in the majors; the Cape Cod League regular season runs through mid-August. The playoffs determine the East and West Division Champions, who compete for the League Championship. At one time, six of the teams in the Cape League shared their names with Major League Baseball teams. However, in late 2008 MLB announced that it would enforce its trademarks, required teams to either change their names or buy their uniforms and merchandise only through licensed vendors. MLB could not enforce the "Mariners" trademark against the Harwich Mariners because that team predated the 1977 American League expansion and the entry of the Seattle Mariners into MLB. Three other teams changed their names. First, in 2009, the Chatham Athletics became the "Anglers", the Orleans Cardinals became the "Firebirds".
In March 2010 the Hyannis Mets joined the Anglers and Firebirds, changing their team name to "Harbor Hawks". The Bourne Braves and Yarmouth–Dennis Red Sox chose to use MLB licensees for their merchandise. Orleans Pants Factory Sandwich Athletics Harwich team West Falmouth team Chatham team Cottage Club Mashpee team Orleans team Barnstable Townies Bourne Canalmen– Predecessors to the Bourne Braves Sagamore Clouters– Another Bourne team North Truro Blue Sox– A team made up of men from the North Truro Air Force Station Provincetown Longpointers The Cape Cod League was the setting for the 2001 Hollywood film Summer Catch, directed by Michael Tollin and starring Freddie Prinze Jr; the 2003 documentary film Touching the Game by Jim Carroll chronicled the 2003 CCBL season and explored the league's history. Baseball by the Beach by Christopher Price was published in 1998 and discusses the league and its history. In 2002, writer Jim Collins followed the Chatham Athletics for the season and wrote The Last Best League about the team and its players.
Baseball on Cape Cod by Dan Crowley has many photos of the modern Cape League eras. The 2004 novel Slider by Patrick Robinson takes place in a Maine summer league, but is based on the Cape League. In 2005, Beach Chairs and Baseball Bats by author Steve Weissman and Cape Crusaders by author Mike Thomas were published; the latter focuses on player interviews, while the former goes behind the scenes of a typical Cape League season. There are several active blogs that follow the Cape League, including Right Field Fog and CodBall. Cape Cod Baseball League Cape Cod Times Cape League home page Cape League Insider Blog CodBall: Unofficial Blog of the CCBL Right Field Fog The College Baseball Blog: Cape Cod League Coverage Touching the Game: The Story of the Cape Cod Baseball League DVD Collegiate Summer Baseball Register Bourne Braves Brewster Whitecaps Chatham Anglers Cotuit Kettleers Falmouth Commodores Harwich Mariners Hyannis Harborhawks Orleans Firebirds Wareham Gatemen Yarmouth-Dennis Red Sox
The Cotuit Kettleers are a collegiate summer baseball team based in the village of Cotuit, in the southwest corner of the town of Barnstable. The team plays in the league's Western Division. Cotuit plays its home games at Lowell Park; the team has been owned and operated by the non-profit Cotuit Athletic Association since 1947 and, like other Cape League teams, are funded through merchandise sales and other fundraising efforts at games such as fifty-fifty raffles. The Kettleers finished the 2008 regular season in first place in the Western Division with a total of 54 points; the team lost to the Harwich Mariners. In 2009 the Kettleers qualified for the playoffs, but were swept in the Championship Series by the Bourne Braves. In 2010, Cotuit won the Cape Cod Baseball League title against the Yarmouth-Dennis Red Sox, 2 games to 1. In 2013, Cotuit finished in third place in the Western Division with a record of 25-18-1 for a total of 52 points. However, they were just one point out of finishing in first place in one of the tightest division races ever.
The Kettleers went on to defeat the Orleans Firebirds 2 games to 0 en route to winning the 2013 Cape Cod Baseball League title. Cotuit has won more Cape League titles in the Modern Era than any other team in history with fourteen, they have sixteen titles overall. The "Kettleers" nickname is credited to Ed Semprini, former sports editor of the Cape Cod Standard-Times, based on a barter between early area settlers and Native Americans involving a brass kettle; the Cotuit Athletic Association began sponsoring the Cape League's Kettleers in 1947. Cotuit won the last two Cape League titles of the Pre-Modern Era in 1961 and 1962; the Kettleers won the first two Cape League championships of the Modern Era. After finishing the regular season with an astonishing 28-4 record in 1963, Cotuit defeated the Orleans Cardinals two games to none to win the title; the next season, the Kettleers finished the year with a 31-3 record and won the Cape League championship three games to one over the Chatham Athletics.
From 1969 through 1987, Cotuit was the most consistent team in the Cape League, making the playoffs in eighteen out of the nineteen seasons. The Kettleers would reach the championship series ten times during that span and win the title a total of eight times, including winning four consecutive championships between 1972 and 1975, it would take five years for Cotuit to return to the championship series after this astounding run. In 1992, the Kettleers won the Western Division Regular Season title and defeated the Wareham Gatemen to advance to the championship series. There, Cotuit was swept by Eastern Division champions Chatham two games to none. In 1995 ten years after their last title, Cotuit got revenge on Chatham, defeating the Athletics two games to one for the Cape League championship; the Kettleers would win the title again in 1999. Cotuit would return to form in the late-2000s and early-2010s, reaching the Cape League Championship Series four times in six seasons under Head Coach Mike Roberts.
In 2010, the Kettleers defeated the Yarmouth-Dennis Red Sox 2 games to 1 to win their first title since 1999. Just three seasons in 2013, the Kettleers again became Cape League Champions, defeating the Orleans Firebirds 2 games to 0. With all of their success from the late 1960s through the early 1980s, Cotuit is seen as the most prolific Cape League team of the Modern Era; the Kettleers hold the record for most league championships with fourteen in the modern era and sixteen overall. Cotuit Kettleers official site CCBL Home Page
Lowell Park (novel)
Lowell Park is a 1990-based historical novel, authored by Mike Chapman. The book will be made into a movie of the same name by Empire Film Group. Set in 1990, Jenny Brix lives in Iowa City, she is a history buff. She has a Ronald Reagan picture when he was in his 20s as a lifeguard! When she goes to a meeting, a old professor has a heart attack. Panicking, she uses CPR on him. After a few stops to the hospital, he asks her, she answers Ronald Reagan. So the professor tells her that she can go back in time and meet him, she is shocked. She believes him, sort of; the professor takes her to Dixon, Reagan's childhood home. There the professor tells her she has 80 hours to stay out of the timezone, or her body will be used to the other timezones and can't come back to present day; when she goes into the time machine, it is set on 1832, instead of 1932. She meets Abraham Lincoln, Chief Black Hawk during the Black Hawk War. After all of, straightened out, she goes to 1932 with less than half the time left she started with.
Once she gets there she sees a young, handsome Ronald Reagan going past her to save a person from drowning. She gets some friends and Betsy, they say there is a dance at old high school. There she dances with his brother. While dancing with Ronald, she falls down the steps with him, they get a crush on each other. After going on a few dates, she has to go to her original timezone, she and Ronald have a sad exchange. Jenny takes Scooter and Betsy to Lowell Park, where she shows them the time machine, she leaves, leaving the others dumbfounded. When she comes back, professor says he is Scooter, spent the rest of his life finding things about the time machine after she left until he made the time machine. In the epilogue, Reagan visits Dixon the final time, he goes back to Lowell Park. He sees a familiar face from the past near a tree, he goes back visiting. Jenny Brix - Main Character of the story. Goes back in past and meets Abraham Lincoln and Ronald Reagan; the Professor/"Scooter" Burns - A brilliant mind.
Makes time machine after Jenny visits 1932. Ronald Reagan - Dates Jenny and is a lifeguard Betsy - One of Jenny's friends in 1932 "Moon" Reagan - Ronald's brother During Ronald Reagan's final visit to his childhood home, he met the author of this book; that helped. That is. Lowell Park is being produced by Empire Film Group, it is to be directed by Charles Robert Carner
Cotuit is one of the villages of the Town of Barnstable on Cape Cod in Barnstable County, United States. Located on a peninsula on the south side of Barnstable about midway between Falmouth and Hyannis, Cotuit is bounded by the Santuit River to the west on the Mashpee town line, the villages of Marstons Mills to the north and Osterville to the east, Nantucket Sound to the south. Cotuit is residential with several small beaches including Ropes Beach, Riley's Beach, The Loop Beach and Oregon Beach. Cotuit was part of a major land purchase negotiated by Myles Standish of the Plymouth Colony with Paupmunnuck, Wampanoag headman of the Cotachessett village located on or near the island known today as Oyster Harbors, or Grand Island; that transaction, which occurred on May 17, 1648, was made by Paupmunnuck and his brother, "sold" about "twenty square miles of land in what is now the southwestern section of Barnstable."The purchase price was two kettles, a bushel of Indian corn, the agreement to fence off 30 acres of land comprising the Cotachessett village.
However this was renegotiated shortly after the conclusion of the Standish agreement to drop the fence and corn and settled instead on a price of "one great brass kettle seven spans in wideness round about, one broad hoe."Cattle and the harvesting of salt marsh hay was the primary economic activity in colonial Cotuit. The Little River section of the village was the site of some early shipyards; the name Cotuit is derived from the Wampanoag term: "place of the council". Cotuit was known as Cotuit Port until the postmaster, Charles C. Bearse, dropped the "port" in 1872. Built circa 1793, just off Main Street near the center of the village, is the Josiah Sampson House, the oldest standing home built in Cotuit; when this Federal-style New England house was built by English businessman Josiah Sampson, it was regarded as so extravagant for its day that it came to be known by the townspeople as "Sampson's Folly", faced with many windows and containing a ballroom for dancing on its second floor. Now listed as "Sampson's Folly" on the National Register of Historic Places, this home once operated as a bed and breakfast but is now a private residence.
The property contained a working farm and a mill on the Santuit River, lending its name to the road which ran nearby, Sampson's Mill Road. A list of Cotuit families with some genealogical information has been compiled by local historian James Gould. In the early 20th century, Cotuit saw more commercial activity, including hotels such as The Pines, one of Cape Cod's earliest summer resorts. During World War II, Cotuit was home to Camp Candoit. During the 1970s there was a large restaurant called The Harbor View, located at 968 Main Street, turned into a private residence; the Cotuit Inn was demolished in 1986, condominiums were built in its place. In 1987 the Cotuit Historic District was added to the National Register of Historic Places; the latitude of Cotuit is 41.61667. The longitude is -70.4375. According to the 1995 Town of Barnstable Comprehensive Plans, Cotuit is among the smallest of the town's seven villages, having a total area of 5 square miles; the major part of the village is bounded on three sides by water.
Although Cotuit has 12 miles of coastline, comparable in length to its 10 miles of scenic roadways, the 8 town-owned beaches and ways to the water in the village combine to occupy only 3.16 acres. The commercial zone is small, with only a few businesses located in the center of the village: a small restaurant and bar called The Kettle-Ho, a post office, a Federated church, a non-profit nursery school, several real estate offices, an insurance office, an architect's office and the Cotuit Public Library. To the north on Main Street is a small variety store and the Cotuit Grocery Co. or "Coop", which sells groceries and liquor and has a small deli counter/restaurant. Other Cotuit businesses are located along Route 28 in the Santuit-Newtown area of the town the location of the Cotuit Center for the Arts and the Cahoon Museum of American Art; the Cahoon Museum of American Art is located at the former home of Martha and Ralph Cahoon, who were prominent American painters. A few steps from the village green is the historic Freedom Hall used for various civic gatherings and elections, Mariners' Hall a Masonic Lodge.
A little further down Main Street is the Museum of the Historical Society of Cotuit and Santuit, which includes the Samuel B. Dottridge Homestead, a representation of coastal life in Cotuit in the first half of the 19th century; the northwestern corner of Cotuit is referred to as Santuit and represents a distinct sub-village within Cotuit, marking the intersection of Main Street, Route 28 and Route 130. It is the westernmost village in the town of Barnstable and is the location of several significant buildings, including the Crocker House, the Cahoon Museum of Art, other colonial-era houses; the former Santuit Post Office still stands on Main Street but is now part of a private residence, though it retains the post office boxes used by Santuit residents. The former home of the EPAC Grotto of Masons is now the site of St. Michael the Archangel Antiochian Orthodox church. Cotuit Bay, the main body of water in town, is bounded by Cotuit to the west
Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a player on the fielding team, called the pitcher, throws a ball which a player on the batting team tries to hit with a bat; the objectives of the offensive team are to hit the ball into the field of play, to run the bases—having its runners advance counter-clockwise around four bases to score what are called "runs". The objective of the defensive team is to prevent batters from becoming runners, to prevent runners' advance around the bases. A run is scored when a runner advances around the bases in order and touches home plate; the team that scores the most runs by the end of the game is the winner. The first objective of the batting team is to have a player reach first base safely. A player on the batting team who reaches first base without being called "out" can attempt to advance to subsequent bases as a runner, either or during teammates' turns batting; the fielding team tries to prevent runs by getting batters or runners "out", which forces them out of the field of play.
Both the pitcher and fielders have methods of getting the batting team's players out. The opposing teams switch forth between batting and fielding. One turn batting for each team constitutes an inning. A game is composed of nine innings, the team with the greater number of runs at the end of the game wins. If scores are tied at the end of nine innings, extra innings are played. Baseball has no game clock. Baseball evolved from older bat-and-ball games being played in England by the mid-18th century; this game was brought by immigrants to North America. By the late 19th century, baseball was recognized as the national sport of the United States. Baseball is popular in North America and parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, East Asia in Japan and South Korea. In the United States and Canada, professional Major League Baseball teams are divided into the National League and American League, each with three divisions: East and Central; the MLB champion is determined by playoffs. The top level of play is split in Japan between the Central and Pacific Leagues and in Cuba between the West League and East League.
The World Baseball Classic, organized by the World Baseball Softball Confederation, is the major international competition of the sport and attracts the top national teams from around the world. A baseball game is played between two teams, each composed of nine players, that take turns playing offense and defense. A pair of turns, one at bat and one in the field, by each team constitutes an inning. A game consists of nine innings. One team—customarily the visiting team—bats in the top, or first half, of every inning; the other team -- customarily the home team -- bats in second half, of every inning. The goal of the game is to score more points than the other team; the players on the team at bat attempt to score runs by circling or completing a tour of the four bases set at the corners of the square-shaped baseball diamond. A player bats at home plate and must proceed counterclockwise to first base, second base, third base, back home to score a run; the team in the field attempts to prevent runs from scoring and record outs, which remove opposing players from offensive action until their turn in their team's batting order comes up again.
When three outs are recorded, the teams switch roles for the next half-inning. If the score of the game is tied after nine innings, extra innings are played to resolve the contest. Many amateur games unorganized ones, involve different numbers of players and innings; the game is played on a field whose primary boundaries, the foul lines, extend forward from home plate at 45-degree angles. The 90-degree area within the foul lines is referred to as fair territory; the part of the field enclosed by the bases and several yards beyond them is the infield. In the middle of the infield is a raised pitcher's mound, with a rectangular rubber plate at its center; the outer boundary of the outfield is demarcated by a raised fence, which may be of any material and height. The fair territory between home plate and the outfield boundary is baseball's field of play, though significant events can take place in foul territory, as well. There are three basic tools of baseball: the ball, the bat, the glove or mitt: The baseball is about the size of an adult's fist, around 9 inches in circumference.
It wound in yarn and covered in white cowhide, with red stitching. The bat is a hitting tool, traditionally made of a solid piece of wood. Other materials are now used for nonprofessional games, it is a hard round stick, about 2.5 inches in diameter at the hitting end, tapering to a narrower handle and culminating in a knob. Bats used by adults are around 34 inches long, not longer than 42 inches; the glove or mitt is a fielding tool, made of padded leather with webbing between the fingers. As an aid in catching and holding onto the ball, it takes various shapes to meet the specific needs of differ