United States congressional delegations from Georgia
These are tables of congressional delegations from Georgia to the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate. List of members of the Georgian United States House delegation, their terms in office, district boundaries, the district political ratings according to the CPVI; the delegation has a total of 14 seats, with 5 Democrats. Tables showing membership in the Georgia federal House delegation throughout history of statehood in the United States. Tables showing membership in the Georgia federal Senate delegation throughout history of statehood in the United States; as of July 2018, there are six former U. S. Senators from the U. S. State of Georgia who are living at this time, four from Class 2 and two from Class 3. List of United States congressional districts
The Suwannee River is a major river that runs through South Georgia southward into Florida in the southern United States. It is a wild blackwater river, about 246 miles long; the Suwannee River is the site of the prehistoric Suwanee Straits which separated peninsular Florida from the panhandle. The headwaters of the Suwanee River are in the Okefenokee Swamp in the town of Georgia; the river runs southwestward into the Florida Panhandle drops in elevation through limestone layers into a rare Florida whitewater rapid. Past the rapid, the Suwanee turns west near the town of White Springs, Florida connects to the confluences of the Alapaha River and Withlacoochee River. Starting at the confluences of those three rivers, that confluence forms the southern borderline of Hamilton County, Florida; the Suwanee bends southward near the town of Ellaville, followed by Luraville, Florida joins together with the Santa Fe River from the east, south of the town of Branford, Florida. The river drains into the Gulf of Mexico on the outskirts of Suwannee, Florida.
The Spanish recorded the native Timucua name of Guacara for the river that would become known as the Suwannee. Different etymologies have been suggested for the modern name. San Juan: D. G. Brinton first suggested in his 1889 Notes on the Floridian Peninsula that Suwannee was a corruption of the Spanish San Juan; this theory is supported by Jerald Milanich, who states that "Suwannee" developed through "San Juan-ee" from the 17th-century Spanish mission of San Juan de Guacara, located on the Suwannee River. Shawnee: The migrations of the Shawnee throughout the South have been connected to the name Suwannee; as early as 1820, the Indian agent John Johnson said "the'Suwaney' river was doubtless named after the Shawanoese, Suwaney being a corruption of Shawanoese." However, the primary southern Shawnee settlements were along the Savannah River, with only the village of Ephippeck on the Apalachicola River being securely identified in Florida, casting doubt on this etymology. "Echo": In 1884, Albert S. Gatschet claimed that Suwannee derives from the Creek word sawani, meaning "echo", rejecting the earlier Shawnee theory.
Stephen Boyd's 1885 Indian Local Names with Their Interpretation and Henry Gannett's 1905 work The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States repeat this interpretation, calling sawani an "Indian word" for "echo river". Gatschet's etymology survives in more recent publications mistaking the language of translation. For example, a University of South Florida website states that the "Timucuan Indian word Suwani means Echo River... River of Reeds, Deep Water, or Crooked Black Water". In 2004, William Bright repeats it again, now attributing the name "Suwanee" to a Cherokee village of Sawani, unlikely as the Cherokee never lived in Florida or South Georgia; this etymology is now considered doubtful: 2004's A Dictionary of Creek Muscogee does not include the river as a place-name derived from Muscogee, lacks entries for "echo" and for words such as svwane, sawane, or svwvne, which would correspond to the anglicization "Suwannee". The Suwannee River area has been inhabited by humans for thousands of years.
During the first millennium CE, it was inhabited by the people of the Weedon Island archaeological culture, around 900 CE, a derivative local culture, known as the Suwanee River Valley culture, developed. By the 16th century, the river was inhabited by two related Timucua language-speaking peoples: the Yustaga, who lived on the west side of the river. By 1633, the Spanish had established the missions of San Juan de Guacara, San Francisco de Chuaquin, San Augustin de Urihica along the Suwannee to convert these western Timucua peoples. In the 18th century, Seminoles lived by the river; the steamboat Madison operated on the river before the Civil War, the sulphur springs at White Springs became popular as a health resort, with 14 hotels in operation in the late 19th century. This river is the subject of the Stephen Foster song "Old Folks at Home", in which he calls it the Swanee Ribber. Foster had named the Pedee River of South Carolina in his first lyrics, it has been called Swanee River because Foster had used an alternative contemporary spelling of the name.
Foster never saw the river he made world-famous. George Gershwin's song, with lyrics by Irving Caesar, made popular by Al Jolson, is spelled "Swanee" and boasts that "the folks up North will see me no more when I get to that Swanee shore". Both of these songs feature banjo-strumming and reminiscences of a plantation life more typical of 19th-century South Carolina than of among the swamps and small farms in the coastal plain of south Georgia and north Florida. Don Ameche starred as Foster in the fictional biographical film Swanee River; when approaching the Suwannee River via several major highways, motorists are greeted with a sign which announces they are crossing the Historic Suwannee River, complete with the first line of sheet music from "Old Folks at Home". This is Florida's state song, designated as such in 1935. In 2008, its original lyrics were replaced with a politically correct version. There is a Foster museum and carillon tower at Stephen Foster Folk Culture Center State Park in White Springs.
The spring itself is called White Sulphur Springs because of its high sulphur content. Since there was a belief in the healing qualities of its waters, the Springs were long popular as a health resort; the idiom "up the Swannee" or "down the swanny" means something is going badly wrong, analogous to "up the creek without a paddle". A unique aspect of the Suwannee River is the Suwannee River Wilder
Jesup is a city in Wayne County, United States. The population was 10,214 at the 2010 census; the city is the county seat of Wayne County. By February 1869, Willis Clary had begun building a two-story hotel near the junction of Macon and Brunswick Railroad and the Atlantic and Gulf Railroad and four stores had sprung up in the area. Clary became a driving force for the establishment of what would become Jesup and was its first mayor. By September 1869, the town included five stores, a sawmill, a railroad eating house in addition to Clary's hotel. By December 1869 the community had become known as Jesup. Jesup was named for a general during the Second Seminole War; the area was part of Appling County, Georgia. On August 27, 1872, eastern sections of Appling land districts 3 and 4 were added to Wayne County. In 1873, the seat of Wayne County was transferred to Jesup from Waynesville. Jesup is located at 31°36′7″N 81°53′6″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 16.6 square miles, of which, 16.5 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water.
It is 35 miles west of Hinesville and 12 Miles Southwest of Ludowici, GA As of the census of 2010, there were 10,214 people, 2,921 households, 2,015 families residing in the city. The population density was 561.2 people per square mile. There were 3,469 housing units at an average density of 209.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 49.1% White, 39.6% Black, 0.3% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.9% Pacific Islander, 0.0% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.2% of the population. There were 2,921 households out of which 33.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.6% were married couples living together, 21.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.0% were non-families. 27.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.09. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.2% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 33.1% from 25 to 44, 22.3% from 45 to 64, 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 135.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,833, the median income for a family was $35,955. Males had a median income of $35,191 versus $20,571 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,144. About 19.4% of families and 21.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.1% of those under age 18 and 19.3% of those age 65 or over. The Federal Bureau of Prisons operates the Federal Correctional Institution in Jesup; the United States Postal Service operates the Jesup Post Office. The Wayne County School District holds pre-school to grade twelve, consists of a pre-K center, five elementary schools, two middle schools, a high school, an academy school; the district has 320 full-time teachers and over 5,256 students. Jesup is home to Coastal Pines Technical College as well as one high school, Wayne County High School, located within the city limits; this complex replaced the original Wayne County High School on Orange Street, was completed in 2002.
In 2014, the county school system took bids for asbestos removal and the demolition of buildings belonging to the old high school. Until its demolition, the original facility was still providing usefulness, housing the Jesup Police, the Boys and Girls Club of Wayne County, the Three Rivers Regional Library System's Regional Office; the Jesup Police Department is now located in the facilities housing Jesup Elementary, at 642 E. Plum Street. All sporting events except basketball and tennis including football, baseball and softball, are held at the original Wayne County High School complex; the Wayne County Public Library borders the sports complex. Amtrak's Silver Meteor passenger train stops at the Jesup Amtrak Station. United States highways that pass through Jesup are U. S. Highway 25, U. S. Highway 84, U. S. Highway 301, U. S. Highway 341. Jesup-Wayne County Airport known as William A. Zorn Airport, is located south of town. Ed Bacon - progressive Episcopal priest and author of 8 Habits of Love: Open Your Heart, Open Your Mind Randall Bramblett - musician Tasha Cobbs - grammy winning gospel singer Len Hauss - former NFL football player Tre' Jackson - current NFL football player Greyson Lambert- former University of Georgia quarterback David Larson- Olympic Gold meadlist in the 1984 Summer Olympics T. Y.
McGill - current NFL football player Lindsay Scott - former NFL football player Erwin C. Surrency - legal historian, professor John Warren - former NFL player Drew Worsham - musician City of Jesup
Long County, Georgia
Long County is a county located in the U. S. state of Georgia. The county seat is Ludowici. Long County is part of the Hinesvile-Fort Stewart Metropolitan Statistical Area; the constitutional amendment to create the county was proposed August 14, 1920, ratified November 2, 1920. The county is named after Crawford Long, American surgeon and pharmacist, first to use ether as an anaesthetic; as of the 2010 census, the population was 14,464. With a per-capita income of $22,599, Long County is #10 on the list of lowest-income counties in the United States. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 404 square miles, of which 400 square miles is land and 3.5 square miles is water. The majority of Long County centered on Ludowici, is located in the Altamaha River sub-basin of the basin by the same name; the county's northeastern portion, east of Glennville and northwest of Walthourville, is located in the Canoochee River sub-basin of the Ogeechee River basin. Long County's southeastern portion is located in the Ogeechee Coastal sub-basin of the larger Ogeechee basin.
Liberty County McIntosh County Wayne County Tattnall County As of the census of 2000, there were 10,304 people, 3,574 households, 2,676 families residing in the county. The population density was 26 people per square mile. There were 4,232 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 68.41% White, 24.25% Black or African American, 0.73% Native American, 0.57% Asian, 0.25% Pacific Islander, 3.91% from other races, 1.87% from two or more races. 8.44% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,574 households out of which 45.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.00% were married couples living together, 14.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.10% were non-families. 19.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.88 and the average family size was 3.28. In the county, the population was spread out with 33.10% under the age of 18, 14.20% from 18 to 24, 31.00% from 25 to 44, 15.90% from 45 to 64, 5.80% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 26 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,640, the median income for a family was $32,473. Males had a median income of $26,416 versus $18,732 for females; the per capita income for the county was $12,586. About 17.60% of families and 19.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.00% of those under age 18 and 19.80% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 14,464 people, 5,023 households, 3,654 families residing in the county; the population density was 36.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 6,039 housing units at an average density of 15.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 62.4% white, 25.2% black or African American, 0.8% Asian, 0.6% American Indian, 0.4% Pacific islander, 7.2% from other races, 3.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 12.3% of the population.
In terms of ancestry, 12.1% were German, 10.6% were Irish, 8.3% were American, 7.1% were English. Of the 5,023 households, 44.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.8% were married couples living together, 18.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.3% were non-families, 22.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.81 and the average family size was 3.28. The median age was 30.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $41,186 and the median income for a family was $46,654. Males had a median income of $30,921 versus $25,675 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,068. About 11.6% of families and 15.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.6% of those under age 18 and 20.0% of those age 65 or over. Beards Creek Donald Ludowici Long County School System operates public schools. National Register of Historic Places listings in Long County, Georgia
Tybee Island, Georgia
Tybee Island is a city and a barrier island located in Chatham County, Georgia, 18 miles east of Savannah, United States. Though the name "Tybee Island" is used for both the island and the city, geographically they are not identical: only part of the island's territory lies within the city; the island is the easternmost point in Georgia. The famous phrase "From Rabun Gap to Tybee Light," intended to illustrate the geographic diversity of Georgia, contrasts a mountain pass near the state's northernmost point with the coastal island's famous lighthouse; as of the 2010 census, the city's population was 2,990. The entire island is a part of the Savannah Metropolitan Statistical Area. Renamed "Savannah Beach" in a publicity move at the end of the 1950s, the city of Tybee Island has since reverted to its original name; the small island, which has long been a quiet getaway for the residents of Savannah, has become a popular vacation spot with tourists from outside the Savannah metropolitan area. Tybee Island is home to the first of what would become the Days Inn chain of hotels, the oft-photographed Tybee Island Light Station, the Fort Screven Historic District.
It is one of the few locations where the U. S. Air Force dropped an atomic bomb—by accident. Though the "Tybee Bomb" did not detonate, there has been ongoing concern, since the Mark 15 nuclear bomb lost during the mishap was never found. Native Americans, using dugout canoes to navigate the waterways and camped in Georgia's coastal islands for thousands of years; the Euchee tribe inhabited the island in the years preceding the arrival of the first Spanish explorers in the area in the 16th century. Tybee is the Euchee word for "salt". In 1520, the Spanish named it Los Bajos, it was at the northern end of the Guale missionary province of Spanish Florida. During that time the island was frequented by pirates who used the island to hide from those who pursued them. Pirates used the island's inland waterways for a fresh water source. After the founding of South Carolina in 1670, warfare increased between the English and their pirate allies and the Spanish and their Native American allies. In 1702, James Moore of South Carolina led an invasion of Spanish Florida with an Indian army and a fleet of militia-manned ships.
The invasion failed to take the capital of Florida, St. Augustine, but did destroy the Guale and Mocama missionary provinces. After another invasion of Spanish Florida by South Carolina in 1704, the Spanish retreated to St. Augustine and Pensacola. Tybee Island's strategic position near the mouth of the Savannah River has made the island's northern tip the ideal location for a lighthouse since Georgia's early settlement period. First built in 1736, the lighthouse was made of brick and wood, stood 90 feet tall, making it the highest structure in America at that time; the original lighthouse has been replaced several times. The second lighthouse was built in 1742. Part of the third lighthouse at the site, built in 1773, still stands as the bottom 60 feet of the present lighthouse; the top 94 feet of the current lighthouse were added in 1867. Today, the Tybee Lighthouse is a popular tourist destination, having all of its support buildings on the 5-acre site preserved; the current black-and-white tower markings are a reversion to its fourth day mark, first used in 1916.
The Tybee Island Light Station is one of just a handful of 18th-century lighthouses still in operation in North America. During the Civil War, the Union Army placed siege batteries along the north coast of Tybee Island that aided in their successful bombardment and capture of Fort Pulaski on April 10–11, 1862; this was the first significant use of rifled cannons against masonry fortifications and demonstrated that masonry fortifications were obsolete. The City of Tybee Island has taken action to commemorate Tybee's historic significance in the Civil War. In 2005, the city obtained a federal grant to acquire two tracts of land where Union soldiers launched their attack against Fort Pulaski. Fort Screven was first commissioned in 1899 and was named for Brigadier General James Screven, a Revolutionary War hero, killed in action near Midway, Georgia, in 1778; the fort served as a valuable part of coastal defense until it was decommissioned in 1947. Fort Screven is most notable for one of its former commanding officers, General of the Army George C.
Marshall the architect of the Marshall Plan that helped rebuild Western Europe after World War II. Little remains of the original fort due to redevelopment of the area for housing. One of the most important remaining structures is the Tybee Post Theater, constructed in 1930, it was one of the first theaters in Georgia to have sound features and was the highlight of recreational activities for the fort. Other remaining buildings include the restored guard house, the bakery, barracks; the ruins of the beach fortifications are extant, of the six original batteries, Battery Garland is accessible to the public. Battery Garland houses the Tybee Museum, several cannon and other military hardware are on display. Another remaining area is Officer's Row, an impressive group of original homes that have a sweeping ocean view. One of these homes is now a breakfast. During the late 19
St. Marys River (Florida–Georgia)
The St. Marys River is a 126-mile-long river in the southeastern United States. From near its source in the Okefenokee Swamp, to its mouth at the Atlantic Ocean, it forms a portion of the border between the U. S. states of Florida. The river serves as the southernmost point in the state of Georgia; the St. Marys River rises as a tiny stream, River Styx, flowing from the western edge of Trail Ridge, the geological relic of a barrier island/dune system, into the southeastern Okefenokee Swamp. Arching to the northwest, it loses its channel within the swamp turns back to the southwest and reforms a stream, at which point it becomes the St. Marys River. Joined by another stream, Moccasin Creek, the river emerges from Okefenokee Swamp at Baxter, Florida/Moniac, Georgia, it flows south east north east-southeast emptying its waters into the Atlantic, near St. Marys and Fernandina Beach, Florida. On 6 July 1805 Lieutenant Robert Pigot of HMS Cambrian arrived off the harbour in the French privateer schooner Matilda, which the British had captured three days earlier.
On 7 July Pigot took Matilda twelve miles up the St Marys River to attack three vessels reported to be there. Along the way militia and riflemen fired on Matilda; the British reached the three vessels, which were lashed in a line cross the river. They consisted of a Spanish privateer schooner and her two British prizes, the ship Golden Grove and the brig Ceres, which the Spanish privateer had captured some two months earlier; the Spaniards had armed Golden Grove with eight 6-pounder guns and six swivels, given her a crew of 50 men. The brig too was armed with small arms; the Spanish schooner carried a crew of 70 men. Pigot engaged the vessels for an hour, after Matilda had grounded, took his crew in her boats and captured Golden Grove; the British captured the other two vessels. Lastly, Pigot fired with a field gun, dispersing them; the British had two men killed, 14 wounded, including Pigot, who had received two bullet wounds to head and one to a leg. A crowd of Americans on the Georgia side of the river watched the entire battle.
See Battle of Fort Peter Martin, Charles. Where the River Ends. New York, Broadway Books, 2008. ISBN 9780767926980. An artist and his dying wife fulfill her wish of one last canoe ride from the headwaters of the St. Marys to the sea. List of rivers of Florida List of rivers of Georgia South Atlantic-Gulf Water Resource Region State of Florida: Guide to the St. Marys River St. Marys River Watershed - Florida DEP
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of