Neuss is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located on the west bank of the Rhine opposing Düsseldorf. Neuss is the largest city within the Rhein-Kreis Neuss district, it is known for its historic Roman sites, as well as the annual Neusser Bürger-Schützenfest. Neuss and Trier share the title of "Germany's oldest city". Neuss was founded by the Romans in 16 BC as a military fortification with the current city to the north of the castrum, at the confluence of the rivers Rhine and Erft, with the name of Novaesium. Legio XVI Gallica of the Roman army was stationed here in 43-70 AD, it was disbanded after surrendering during the Batavian rebellion. A civil settlement was founded in the area of today's centre of the town during the 1st century AD. Novaesium, together with Trier, is one of the three oldest Roman settlements in Germany. Neuss grew during the Middle Ages because of its prime location on several routes, by the crossing of the great Rhine valley, with its harbour and ferry. During the 10th century, the remains of the martyr and tribune Saint Quirinus, not to be confused with the Roman god Quirinus, had been relocated to Neuss.
This resulted in pilgrimage to the shrine of St. Quirinus from countries beyond the borders of the Holy Roman Empire. Neuss was first documented as a town in 1138. One of the main events in the town's history is the siege of the town in 1474–75 by Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, that lasted for nearly a year; the citizens of Neuss withstood the siege and were therefore rewarded by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III. The town was granted the right to mint its own coins and to carry the imperial coat of arms, the imperial eagle and the crown, in the town's own coat of arms. Neuss became a member of the Hanseatic League, although it was never accepted by the other members of the League. In 1586, more than two-thirds of the city was destroyed by fire, several wars during the reign of King Louis XIV of France resulted in worsening finances for Neuss, its importance as a place for trading declined and from the mid-17th century onwards, Neuss became a place only important for its agriculture. Until the late 18th century, Neuss belonged to the Electorate of Cologne.
From 1794 to 1814, Neuss was part of France during the reign of Napoleon. In 1815 after the Napoleonic Wars, Neuss became part of the Kingdom of Prussia, was reorganized as a district with the municipalities of Neuss, Nettesheim, Nievenheim and Zons; the town had a population of 6,333 at that time. It was part of its successor, the Rhine Province. Neuss regained its economic power in the 19th century, with expansion of the harbour in 1835, increasing industrial activity; the city's boundaries were expanded in 1881. Neuss became part of the new state of North Rhine-Westphalia in 1946. In 1968 the spelling of the name was changed from Neuß to Neuss. In 1975 the town of Neuss and the district of Grevenbroich were joined to form the district of Rhein-Kreis Neuss with a population of 440,000 and its seat of government in Neuss. Neuss is home to Toshiba's European headquarters. 1849–1851: Heinrich Thywissen, Mayor 1851–1858: Michael Frings, Mayor 1858–1882: Johann Joseph Ridder, Mayor 1882–1889: Carl Wenders, Mayor 1890–1902: Engelbert Tilmann, Mayor 1902–1921: Franz Gielen, Lord Mayor 1921–1930: Heinrich Hüpper, Lord Mayor 1930–1934: Wilhelm Henrichs, Centre Party, Lord Mayor 1934–1938: Wilhelm Eberhard Gelberg, NSDAP, Lord Mayor 1938–1945: Wilhelm Tödtmann, NSDAP, Lord Mayor 1945–1946: Josef Nagel, Lord Mayor 1946: Josef Schmitz, Lord Mayor 1946–1961: Alfons Frings, CDU, Lord Mayor 1961–1967: Peter Wilhelm Kallen, Lord Mayor 1967–1982: Herbert Karrenberg, CDU, Lord Mayor 1982–1987: Hermann Wilhelm Thywissen, CDU, Lord Mayor 1987–1998: Bertold Mathias Reinartz, CDU, Mayor 1998–2015: Herbert Napp, CDU, Mayor 2015–present: Reiner Breuer, SPD, Mayor 1798: 4,423 1831: 7,888 1861: 10,300 1885: 20,074 1900: 28,472 1925: 44,958 1945: 51,624 1965: 111,104 1987: 142,178 2015: 159,672 One sports club is Neusser Schlittschuh-Klub.
Their sections are ice stock sport and, as the only club in Germany, bandy. With the lack of a large ice surface, the variety rink bandy is practiced, and there is a football club in the city of Neuss, the VfR Neuss Football Club. There is a fieldhockey club, HTC Schwarz-Weiss Neuss, TC Blau-Weiss Neuss, a famous tennis club where Nadal began his career, and an American Football Club, the Neuss Frogs. Besides Neuss owns an all-weather racecourse called "Galopprennbahn Neuss". Botanischer Garten der Stadt Neuss, the city's botanical garden Basilica of St. Quirinus: a 13th-century late romanesque church, dedicated to the city's patron saint and housing a shrine with his relics, its dome-shaped eastern tower is one of the city's landmarks. In 2009 it was granted the title of minor basilica. Obertor: southern city gate, built circa 1200, it is the only remaining of six gates that were part of the medieval town fortification. Blutturm: built in the 13th century, the only remaining round tower of the historic town fortification.
Zum "Schwatte Päd": the oldest public house in the Lower Rhine region, established 1604 Saint Sebastianus Church Saint Maria Church: Christuskirche: historicistic church, the city's oldest Protestant church Globe Theater, a replica of the London Globe Theatre, with an annual Shakes
Augustus was a Roman statesman and military leader, the first emperor of the Roman Empire, reigning from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. His status as the founder of the Roman Principate has consolidated an enduring legacy as one of the most effective and controversial leaders in human history; the reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana. The Roman world was free from large-scale conflict for more than two centuries, despite continuous wars of imperial expansion on the Empire's frontiers and the year-long civil war known as the "Year of the Four Emperors" over the imperial succession. Augustus was born Gaius Octavius Thurinus into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia, his maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, Octavius was named in Caesar's will as his adopted son and heir. Along with Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus, he formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar. Following their victory at the Battle of Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators.
The Triumvirate was torn apart by the competing ambitions of its members. Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, Antony committed suicide following his defeat at the Battle of Actium by Octavian in 31 BC. After the demise of the Second Triumvirate, Augustus restored the outward façade of the free Republic, with governmental power vested in the Roman Senate, the executive magistrates, the legislative assemblies. In reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, those of tribune and censor, it took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule. He rejected monarchical titles, instead called himself Princeps Civitatis; the resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire. Augustus enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Pannonia and Raetia, expanding possessions in Africa, completing the conquest of Hispania, but suffered a major setback in Germania.
Beyond the frontiers, he secured the Empire with a buffer region of client states and made peace with the Parthian Empire through diplomacy. He reformed the Roman system of taxation, developed networks of roads with an official courier system, established a standing army, established the Praetorian Guard, created official police and fire-fighting services for Rome, rebuilt much of the city during his reign. Augustus died in AD 14 at the age of 75 from natural causes. However, there were unconfirmed rumors, he was succeeded as emperor by his adopted son Tiberius. As a consequence of Roman customs and personal preference, Augustus was known by many names throughout his life: Gaius Octavius Thurinus: He received his birth name, after his biological father, in 63 BC. "Gaius" was his praenomen, "Octavius" was his nomen, "Thurinus" was his cognomen. His rival Mark Antony used the name "Thurinus" as an insult, to which Augustus replied, surprised that "using his old name was thought to be an insult".
Gaius Julius Caesar: After he was adopted by Julius Caesar, he adopted Caesar's name in accordance with Roman naming conventions. While he dropped all references to the gens Octavia, people colloquially added the epithet Octavianus to his legal name, either to differentiate him from his adoptive father or to highlight his more modest origins. Modern historians refer to him using the anglicized form "Octavian" between 44 BC and 27 BC. Gaius Julius Caesar Divi Filius: Two years after his adoption, he founded the Temple of Caesar additionally adding the title Divi Filius to his name in attempt to strengthen his political ties to Caesar's former soldiers, following the deification of Caesar. Imperator Caesar Divi Filius: From 38 BC, Octavian opted to use Imperator, the title by which troops hailed their leader after military success, his name is translated as "Commander Caesar, Son of the Divine". Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus: Following his 31 BC defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra on his own insistence, the Roman Senate granted him the additional name, "Augustus", which he added to his previous names thereafter.
Historians use this name to refer to him from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. While his paternal family was from the town of Velletri 40 kilometres from Rome, Augustus was born in the city of Rome on 23 September 63 BC, he was born at Ox Head, a small property on the Palatine Hill close to the Roman Forum. He was given the name Gaius Octavius Thurinus, his cognomen commemorating his father's victory at Thurii over a rebellious band of slaves. Suetonius wrote: "There are many indications that the Octavian family was in days of old a distinguished one at Velitrae; this man was leader in a war with a neighbouring town..." Due to the crowded nature of Rome at the time, Octavius was taken to his father's home village at Velletri to be raised. Octavius mentions his father's equestrian family only in his memoirs, his paternal great-grandfather Gaius Octavius was a military tribune in Sicily during the Second Punic War. His grandfather had served in several lo
A wall is a structure that defines an area, carries a load, or provides shelter or security. There are many kinds of walls, including: Defensive walls in fortifications Walls in buildings that form a fundamental part of the superstructure or separate interior rooms, sometimes for fire safety Retaining walls, which hold back dirt, water, or noise sound Walls that protect from oceans or rivers Permanent, solid fences Border barriers between countries Brick wall Precast wall Stone wall Glass wall Doors are mobile walls on hinges which open to form a gateway Wall comes from Latin vallum meaning "...an earthen wall or rampart set with palisades, a row or line of stakes, a wall, a rampart, fortification..." while the Latin word murus means a defensive stone wall. English uses the same word to mean an external wall and the internal sides of a room, but this is not universal. Many languages distinguish between the two. In German, some of this distinction can be seen between Wand and Mauer, in Spanish between pared and muro.
The word wall referred to defensive walls and ramparts. The purposes of the walls in buildings are to support roofs and ceilings. In addition, the wall may house various types of utilities such as electrical plumbing. Wall construction falls into two basic categories: framed mass-walls. In framed walls the load is transferred to the foundation through columns or studs. Framed walls most have three or more separate components: the structural elements and finish elements or surfaces. Mass-walls are of a solid material including masonry, concrete including slipform stonemasonry, log building, cordwood construction, rammed earth, earthbag construction, tin cans, straw-bale construction, ice. There are three basic methods walls control water intrusion: moisture storage, drained cladding, or face-sealed cladding. Moisture storage is typical of stone and brick mass-wall buildings where moisture is absorbed and released by the walls of the structure itself. Drained cladding known as screened walls acknowledges moisture will penetrate the cladding so a moisture barrier such as housewrap or felt paper inside the cladding provides a second line of defense and sometimes a drainage plane or air gap allows a path for the moisture to drain down through and exit the wall.
Sometimes ventilation is provided in addition to the drainage plane such as in rainscreen construction. Face-sealed called barrier wall or perfect barrier cladding relies on maintaining a leak-free surface of the cladding. Examples of face sealed cladding are the early exterior insulation finishing systems, structural glazing, metal clad panels, corrugated metal. Building walls become works of art and internally, such as when featuring mosaic work or when murals are painted on them. In architecture and civil engineering, curtain wall refers to a building facade, not load-bearing but provides decoration, front, face, or historical preservation. Precast walls are walls which have been preassembled in a factory, shipped to where it is needed, ready to install, it is faster to install compared to brick and other walls, may have a lower cost compared to other types of wall. Mullion walls are a structural system that carries the load of the floor slab on prefabricated panels around the perimeter. A partition wall is a thin wall, used to separate or divide a room a pre-existing one.
Partition walls are not load-bearing, can be constructed out of many materials, including steel panels, cloth, plasterboard, blocks of clay, terra-cotta and glass. Some partition walls are made of sheet glass. Glass partition walls are a series of individual toughened glass panels mounted in wood or metal framing, they may slide along a robust aluminium ceiling track. The system does not require the use of a floor guide, which allows easy operation and an uninterrupted threshold. A timber partition consists of a wooden framework, supported on the floor or by side walls. Metal lath and plaster, properly laid, forms a reinforced partition wall. Partition walls constructed from fibre cement backer board are popular as bases for tiling in kitchens or in wet areas like bathrooms. Galvanized sheet fixed to wooden or steel members are adopted in works of temporary character. Plain or reinforced partition walls may be constructed from concrete, including pre-cast concrete blocks. Metal framed partitioning is available.
This partition consists of track and studs. Internal wall partitions known as office partitioning, are made of plasterboard or varieties of glass. Toughened glass is a common option, as low-iron glass increases solar heat transmission. Wall partitions are constructed using beads and tracking, either hung from the ceiling or fixed into the ground; the panels are fixed. Some wall partition variations specify their fire resistance and acoustic performance rating. Movable partitions are walls; these include: Sliding—a series of panels that slide in tracks fixed to the floor and ceiling, similar sliding doors Sliding and
The Euphrates is the longest and one of the most important rivers of Western Asia. Together with the Tigris, it is one of the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia. Originating in eastern Turkey, the Euphrates flows through Syria and Iraq to join the Tigris in the Shatt al-Arab, which empties into the Persian Gulf; the Ancient Greek form Euphrátēs was adapted from Old Persian Ufrātu, itself from Elamite ú-ip-ra-tu-iš. The Elamite name is derived from a name spelt in cuneiform as, which read as Sumerian language is "Buranuna" and read as Akkadian language is "Purattu". In Akkadian the river was called Purattu, perpetuated in Semitic languages and in other nearby languages of the time; the Elamite and Sumerian forms are suggested to be from an unrecorded substrate language. Tamaz V. Gamkrelidze and Vyacheslav Ivanov suggest the Proto-Sumerian *burudu "copper" as an origin, with an explanation that Euphrates was the river by which the copper ore was transported in rafts, since Mesopotamia was the center of copper metallurgy during the period.
The earliest references to the Euphrates come from cuneiform texts found in Shuruppak and pre-Sargonic Nippur in southern Iraq and date to the mid-3rd millennium BCE. In these texts, written in Sumerian, the Euphrates is called Buranuna; the name could be written KIB. NUN. or dKIB. NUN, with the prefix "d" indicating that the river was a divinity. In Sumerian, the name of the city of Sippar in modern-day Iraq was written UD. KIB. NUN, indicating a strong relationship between the city and the river; the Euphrates is the longest river of Western Asia. It emerges from the confluence of the Kara Su or Western Euphrates and the Murat Su or Eastern Euphrates 10 kilometres upstream from the town of Keban in southeastern Turkey. Daoudy and Frenken put the length of the Euphrates from the source of the Murat River to the confluence with the Tigris at 3,000 kilometres, of which 1,230 kilometres is in Turkey, 710 kilometres in Syria and 1,060 kilometres in Iraq; the same figures are given by Mikhailova. The length of the Shatt al-Arab, which connects the Euphrates and the Tigris with the Persian Gulf, is given by various sources as 145–195 kilometres.
Both the Kara Su and the Murat Su rise northwest from Lake Van at elevations of 3,290 metres and 3,520 metres amsl, respectively. At the location of the Keban Dam, the two rivers, now combined into the Euphrates, have dropped to an elevation of 693 metres amsl. From Keban to the Syrian–Turkish border, the river drops another 368 metres over a distance of less than 600 kilometres. Once the Euphrates enters the Upper Mesopotamian plains, its grade drops significantly; the Euphrates receives most of its water in the form of rainfall and melting snow, resulting in peak volumes during the months April through May. Discharge in these two months accounts for 36 percent of the total annual discharge of the Euphrates, or 60–70 percent according to one source, while low runoff occurs in summer and autumn; the average natural annual flow of the Euphrates has been determined from early- and mid-twentieth century records as 20.9 cubic kilometres at Keban, 36.6 cubic kilometres at Hīt and 21.5 cubic kilometres at Hindiya.
However, these averages mask the high inter-annual variability in discharge. The discharge regime of the Euphrates has changed since the construction of the first dams in the 1970s. Data on Euphrates discharge collected after 1990 show the impact of the construction of the numerous dams in the Euphrates and of the increased withdrawal of water for irrigation. Average discharge at Hīt after 1990 has dropped to 356 cubic metres per second; the seasonal variability has changed. The pre-1990 peak volume recorded at Hīt was 7,510 cubic metres per second, while after 1990 it is only 2,514 cubic metres per second; the minimum volume at Hīt remained unchanged, rising from 55 cubic metres per second before 1990 to 58 cubic metres per second afterward. In Syria, three rivers add their water to the Euphrates; these rivers rise in the foothills of the Taurus Mountains along the Syro–Turkish border and add comparatively little water to the Euphrates. The Sajur is the smallest of these tributaries; the Balikh receives most of its water from a karstic spring near'Ayn al-'Arus and flows due south until it reaches the Euphrates at the city of Raqqa.
In terms of length
The Auxilia constituted the standing non-citizen corps of the Imperial Roman army during the Principate era, alongside the citizen legions. By the 2nd century, the Auxilia contained the same number of infantry as the legions and, in addition, provided all of the Roman army's cavalry and more specialised troops; the auxilia thus represented three-fifths of Rome's regular land forces at that time. Like their legionary counterparts, auxiliary recruits were volunteers, not conscripts; the Auxilia were recruited from the peregrini, free provincial subjects who did not hold Roman citizenship and constituted the vast majority of the population in the 1st and 2nd centuries. In contrast to the legions, which only admitted Roman citizens, members of the Auxilia could be recruited from territories outside of Roman control. Reliance on the various contingents of non-Italic troops cavalry, increased when the Roman Republic employed them in increasing numbers to support its legions after 200 BC; the Julio-Claudian period saw the transformation of the Auxilia from motley levies to a standing corps with standardised structure and conditions of service.
By the end of the period, there were no significant differences between legionaries and auxiliaries in terms of training, thus, combat capability. Auxiliary regiments were stationed in provinces other than that in which they were raised, for reasons of security and to foster the process of Romanisation in the provinces; the regimental names of many auxiliary units persisted into the 4th century, but by the units in question were different in size and quality from their predecessors. The mainstay of the Roman republic's war machine was the manipular legion, a heavy infantry unit suitable for close-quarter engagements on more or less any terrain, adopted sometime during the Samnite Wars. Despite its formidable strength, the legion had a number of deficiencies a lack of cavalry. Around 200 BC, a legion of 4,200 infantry had a cavalry arm of only 300 horse; this was because the class of citizens who could afford to pay for their own horse and equipment – the equestrian order, the second rank in Roman society, after the senatorial order – was small.
In addition, the legion lacked missile forces such as archers. Until 200 BC, the bulk of a Roman army's cavalry was provided by Rome's regular Italian allies known as the "Latin" allies, which made up the Roman military confederation; this was Rome's defence system until the Social War of 91–88 BC. The Italian forces were organised into alae. An allied ala, commanded by 3 Roman praefecti sociorum, was similar or larger in infantry size to a legion, but contained a more substantial cavalry contingent: 900 horse, three times the legionary contingent. Since a pre-Social War consular army always contained an equal number of legions and alae, 75% of its cavalry was provided by the Latin allies; the overall cavalry element, c. 12% of the total force, was greater than in most peninsular Italian forces, but well below the overall 21% cavalry component, typical of the Principate army. The Roman/Latin cavalry was sufficient while Rome was in conflict with other states in the mountainous Italian peninsula, which disposed of limited cavalry resources.
But, as Rome was confronted by external enemies that deployed far more powerful cavalry elements, such as the Gauls and the Carthaginians, the Roman deficiency in cavalry numbers could be a serious liability, which in the Second Punic War resulted in crushing defeats. Hannibal's major victories at the Trebia and at Cannae, were owed to his Spanish and Gallic heavy cavalry, which far outnumbered the Roman and Latin levies, to his Numidians, fast cavalry which the Romans wholly lacked; the decisive Roman victory at Zama in 202 BC, which ended the war, owed much to the Numidian cavalry provided by king Massinissa, which outnumbered the Roman/Latin cavalry fielded by 2 to 1. From Roman armies were always accompanied by large numbers of non-Italian cavalry: Numidian light cavalry and Gallic heavy cavalry. For example, Caesar relied on Gallic and German cavalry for his Conquest of Gaul; as the role of native cavalry grew, that of Roman/Latin cavalry diminished. In the early 1st century BC, Roman cavalry was phased out altogether.
After the Social War, the socii were all granted Roman citizenship, the Latin alae abolished, the socii recruited into the legions. Furthermore, Roman equestrians were no longer required to perform cavalry service after this time; the late Republican legion was thus bereft of cavalry. By the outbreak of the Second Punic War, the Romans were remedying the legions' other deficiencies by using non-Italian specialised troops. Livy reports Hiero of Syracuse offering to supply Rome with archers and slingers in 217 BC. From 200 BC onwards, specialist troops were hired as mercenaries on a regular basis: sagittarii from Crete, funditores from the Balearic Isles always accompanied Roman legions in campaigns all over the Mediterranean; the other main sources of non-Italian troops in the late Republic were subject provincials, allied cities and Rome's amici. During the
A palisade—sometimes called a stakewall or a paling—is a fence or wall made from iron or wooden stakes, or tree trunks and used as a defensive structure or enclosure. Palisade derives from pale, from the Latin word pālus, meaning stake a stake used to support a fence. A palisade gangs these side by side to create a fence made of pales. Typical construction consisted of small or mid-sized tree trunks aligned vertically, with no free space in between; the trunks were sharpened or pointed at the top, were driven into the ground and sometimes reinforced with additional construction. The height of a palisade ranged from around a metre to as high as 3-4 m; as a defensive structure, palisades were used in conjunction with earthworks. Palisades were an excellent option for small forts or other hastily constructed fortifications. Since they were made of wood, they could be and built from available materials, they proved to be effective protection for short-term conflicts and were an effective deterrent against small forces.
However, because they were wooden constructions they were vulnerable to fire and siege weapons. A palisade would be constructed around a castle as a temporary wall until a permanent stone wall could be erected. Both the Greeks and Romans created palisades to protect their military camps; the Roman historian Livy describes the Greek method as being inferior to that of the Romans during the Second Macedonian War. The Greek stakes were too large to be carried and were spaced too far apart; this made it easy for enemies to create a large enough gap in which to enter. In contrast, the Romans used smaller and easier to carry stakes which were placed closer together, making them more difficult to uproot. Many settlements of the native Mississippian culture of the Midwestern United States made use of palisades. A prominent example is the Cahokia Mounds site in Illinois. A wooden stockade with a series of watchtowers or bastions at regular intervals formed a 2-mile-long enclosure around Monk's Mound and the Grand Plaza.
Archaeologists found evidence of the stockade during excavation of the area and indications that it was rebuilt several times, in different locations. The stockade seems to have separated Cahokia's main ceremonial precinct from other parts of the city, as well as being a defensive structure. Other examples include the Angel Mounds Site in southern Indiana, Aztalan State Park in Wisconsin, the Kincaid Site in Illinois, the Parkin Site and the Nodena Sites in southeastern Arkansas and the Etowah Site in Georgia. Palisaded settlements were common in Colonial America, for protection against indigenous peoples and wild animals; the English settlements in Jamestown and Plymouth, were fortified towns surrounded by palisades. They were frequently used in New France. In the late nineteenth century, when milled lumber was not available or practical, many Adirondack buildings were built using a palisade architecture; the walls were made of vertical half timbers. The cracks between the vertical logs were filled with moss and sometimes covered with small sticks.
Inside, the cracks were covered with narrow wooden battens. This palisade style was much more efficient to build than the traditional horizontal log cabin since two half logs provided more surface area than one whole log and the vertical alignment meant a stronger structure for supporting loads like upper stories and roofs, it presented a more finished look inside. Examples of this architectural style can still be found in the Adirondacks, such as around Big Moose Lake. In South Africa as well as other countries, a common means to prevent crime is for residential houses to have perimeter defences such as brick walls, steel palisade fences, wooden palisade fences and electrified palisade fences; the City of Johannesburg promotes the use of palisade fencing over opaque brick, walls as criminals cannot hide as behind the fence. In its manual on safety includes guidance such as not growing vegetation alongside as this allows criminals to make an unseen breach. Palisado crown Media related to Palisade at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of palisade at Wiktionary
Villa rustica was the term used by the ancient Romans to denote a villa set in the open countryside as the hub of a large agricultural estate. The adjective rusticum was used to distinguish it from an urban or resort villa; the villa rustica would thus serve both as a residence of the landowner and his family and as a farm management centre. It would comprise separate buildings to accommodate farm labourers and sheds and barns for animals and crops. In modern British archaeology, a villa rustica is referred to as a "Roman villa"; the villa rustica's design differed depending on the architect, but it consisted of three parts. Mogorjelo Villa Armira in Ivaylovgrad Villa Boscoreale Boca do Rio Castelo da Lousa Villa of Fonte do Milho Roman Villa of Rabaçal Roman ruins of Quinta da Abicada Centum Cellas Villa of Torre de Palma Villa of Cerro da Vila Roman ruins of Pisões Roman ruins of São Cucufate Roman Ruins of Milreu Roman Villa of Sendim Gökkale Üçayaklı ruins Bignor Roman Villa Borough Hill Roman villa Brading Roman Villa Chedworth Roman Villa Crofton Roman Villa Fishbourne Roman Palace Gadebridge Park Roman Villa Littlecote Roman Villa Llantwit Major Roman Villa Low Ham Roman Villa Lullingstone Roman Villa Newport Roman Villa Piddington Roman Villa Woodchester Roman Villa Villa Rustica, Coustaty Villa Rustica, Lussas-et-Nontronneau Villa Rustica, Montcaret Villa Rustica, Montmaurin Villa Rustica, Petit-Bersac Villa Rustica, Pièce de Rance Baden-Württemberg Villa Rustica, Baden-Baden-Haueneberstein, Roman settlement at Wohlfahrtsberg Villa Rustica at Bondorf, Böblingen Villa rustica at Büßlingen, Konstanz Villa Rustica, Lörrach Villa Rustica at Eigeltingen Villa Rustica at Gaggenau-Bad Rotenfels / Oberweier Villa urbana at Grenzach-Wyhlen Villa rustica at Hechingen-Stein, Zollernalbkreis Villa urbana at Heitersheim Villa Rustica, Sigmaringen Villa Rustica at Hirschberg Villa Rustica, Sigmaringen Villa Rustica at Karlsruhe-Durlach Villa Rustica at Langenau Villa Rustica, Sigmaringen Villa Rustica, Heilbronn Villa Rustica at Mühlacker Villa Rustica at Nagold Villa Rustica Villa Rustica at Oberndorf-Bochingen Villa Rustica, Rems-Murr-Kreis Römerbad, Heilbronn Villa Rustica, Rhein-Neckar-Kreis Römisches Bad, Tuttlingen Villa Rustica, Heilbronn Villa Rustica Bietigheim-Weilerlen at Bietigheim-Bissingen, LudwigsburgBavaria Villa Rustica Villa rustica, Stadt München Villa Rustica Villa Rustica at Großberghofen, Dachau Villa Rustica, Donau-Ries Villa Rustica at Hüssingen Villa Rustica Kohlhunden, Ostallgäu Villa Rustica, Stadt Starnberg Villa Rustica Villa Rustica, Eichstätt Villa Rustica, Freising Villa Rustica Villa Rustica, Ingolstadt Villa Rustica, Weilheim-Schongau Villa Rustica Villa Rustica, OberallgäuHesse Groß-Umstadt-Heubach, Wamboltsches Schlösschen Haselburg Roman villa, Odenwald Rodau, Zwingenberg, "Kleine Weide"Northrhine-Westphalia Villa rustica Villae Rusticae at Eschweiler, Aachen Propsteier Villa, Aachen Villae Rusticae near Hambach surface mine, Düren Villa rustica at Sollig, Nettersheim-Roderath, EuskirchenRheinland-Palatine Villa rustica Weilberg, Bad Dürkheim-Ungstein]] Römerhalle, Bad Kreuznach Roman Villa of Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler Villa rustica, Eifelkreis Bitburg-Prüm Villa Otrang, Fließem, Eifelkreis Bitburg-Prüm Villa Rustica at Sarresdorf Villa Rustica, Mainz-Bingen Villa Rustica at Herschweiler-Pettersheim, Kusel Roman estate at Lösnich Villa Urbana in Longuich Villa Rustica, Trier-Saarburg Villa rustica Villa Rustica, Mainz-Bingen Villa rustica, Trier-SaarburgSaarland Roman Villa Borg Reinheim Roman villa at Nennig Village Gornja Bukovica.
Valjevo,villa rustica IV century A. D. Aargau Villa Rustica Villa Rustica Villa Rustica Villa rustica Basel-Landschaft Villa Rustica Villa Rustica Genf Villa Rustica Jura Villa Rustica Solothurn Villa rustica Villa rustica Waadt Villa romaine du PrieuréZürich Irgenhausen Castrum Villa in Wetzikon - Kempten Villa Rustica Villa Rustica Villa Rustica Villa Rustica Villa Rustica - open-air museum at Hechingen