Duboce Triangle, San Francisco
The Duboce Triangle neighborhood is located near the center of San Francisco, California just below the hilly slopes of Buena Vista Park between the neighborhoods of the Castro/Eureka Valley, the Mission District, the Lower Haight. The area is sometimes known as Mint Hill, after the United States Mint, nearby on a steep rocky cliff overlooking the intersection of Market and Duboce streets; the neighborhood is bounded bordered by Market St. Castro Duboce Avenue; the Duboce Triangle is well served by Muni Metro, historic streetcars, buses. Because of its location east of Buena Vista Heights and Twin Peaks, the area sees less fog than many places in San Francisco. Duboce Park and several smaller "pocket" parks provide public green spaces, as well as lushly landscaped sidewalks and well-maintained Victorian flats and apartment buildings; these are the direct result of San Francisco's rejection of the large-scale demolition of Victorians and their replacement with slab-like public housing that marred the Western Addition in the 1960s.
The city used the federal government's slum clearance dollars to renovate the mostly-19th century housing stock instead, to plant street trees, bury utility wires underground, to widen sidewalks and narrow streets. Duboce Triangle Neighborhood Association
San Francisco the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, the fourth-most populous in California, with 884,363 residents as of 2017, it covers an area of about 46.89 square miles at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, the fifth-most densely populated U. S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; as of 2017, it was the seventh-highest income county in the United States, with a per capita personal income of $119,868. As of 2015, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $154.2 billion, a GDP per capita of $177,968. The San Francisco CSA was the country's third-largest urban economy as of 2017, with a GDP of $907 billion.
Of the 500+ primary statistical areas in the US, the San Francisco CSA had among the highest GDP per capita in 2017, at $93,938. San Francisco was ranked 14th in the world and third in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of September 2018. San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, all named for St. Francis of Assisi; the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater.
It became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945. After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "hippie" counterculture, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. Politically, the city votes along liberal Democratic Party lines. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, its Chinatown district. San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Gap Inc. Fitbit, Salesforce.com, Reddit, Inc. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation and Weather Underground.
It is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco State University, the De Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the California Academy of Sciences. As of 2019, San Francisco is the highest rated American city on world liveability rankings; the earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. Seven years on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís, established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system ended, its lands became privatized.
In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, Mexico ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography; the California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849; the promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.
Some of these 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels.
Nancy Patricia Pelosi is an American politician serving as speaker of the United States House of Representatives since January 2019. First elected to Congress in 1987, she is the only woman to have served as speaker, is the highest-ranking elected woman in United States history. Pelosi is second in the presidential line of succession after the vice president. A member of the Democratic Party, Pelosi is in her 17th term as a congresswoman, representing California's 12th congressional district, which consists of four-fifths of the city and county of San Francisco, she represented the 5th district, when district boundaries were redrawn after the 1990 Census, the 8th district. She has led House Democrats since 2003, serving twice each as Speaker and as House Minority Leader depending upon whether Democrats or Republicans held the majority. Pelosi was a major opponent of the Iraq War as well as the Bush Administration's 2005 attempt to privatize Social Security. During her first speakership, she was instrumental in the passage of many landmark bills, including the Affordable Care Act, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act, along with the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act and 2010 Tax Relief Act, which served as economic stimulus amidst the Great Recession.
In the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats won control of the House. Afterward, when the 116th Congress convened on January 3, 2019, Pelosi was elected Speaker for the second time, becoming the first former speaker to return to the post since Sam Rayburn in 1955. Pelosi was born in Baltimore to an Italian-American family, the youngest, only girl, of seven children of Annunciata M. "Nancy" D'Alesandro, Thomas D'Alesandro Jr. Both of Pelosi's parents had Italian roots, her mother was born in Campobasso, in South Italy, her father could trace his Italian ancestry to Genoa and Abruzzo. When Nancy was born, her father was a Democratic Congressman from Maryland and he became Mayor of Baltimore seven years later. Pelosi's mother was active in politics, organizing Democratic women and teaching her daughter the value of social networking. Pelosi's brother, Thomas D'Alesandro III a Democrat, was Mayor of Baltimore from 1967 to 1971. Pelosi was involved with politics from an early age, she helped her father at his campaign events.
She attended John F. Kennedy's inaugural address when he became U. S. President in January 1961, she graduated from the Institute of a Catholic all-girls high school in Baltimore. In 1962, she graduated from Trinity College in Washington, D. C. with a Bachelor of Arts in political science. Pelosi interned for Senator Daniel Brewster in the 1960s alongside future House Majority Leader Steny Hoyer. After moving to San Francisco, Pelosi worked her way up in Democratic politics, she became a friend of one of the leaders of the California Democratic Party, 5th District Congressman Phillip Burton. In 1976, Pelosi was elected as a Democratic National Committee member from California, a position she would hold until 1996, she was elected as party chair for Northern California on January 30, 1977, for the California Democratic Party, which she held from 1981 until 1983. That same year, she ran to succeed Chuck Manatt as chair of the Democratic National Committee, but lost to then-DNC Treasurer Paul G. Kirk.
Pelosi left her post as DSCC finance chair in 1986. Phillip Burton was succeeded by his wife, Sala. In late 1986, Sala became ill with cancer and decided not to run for reelection in 1988, she picked Pelosi as her designated successor, guaranteeing her the support of the Burtons' contacts. Sala died on February 1987, just a month after being sworn in for a second full term. Pelosi won the special election to succeed her, narrowly defeating San Francisco Supervisor Harry Britt on April 7, 1987 easily defeating Republican candidate Harriet Ross on June 2, 1987. Pelosi represents one of the safest Democratic districts in the country. Democrats have held the seat since 1949 and Republicans, who make up only 13 percent of registered voters in the district, have not made a serious bid for the seat since the early 1960s, she won reelection in the regular election in 1988 and has been reelected another 16 times with no substantive opposition, winning with an average of 80 percent of the vote. She has not participated in candidates' debates since her 1987 race against Harriet Ross.
The strongest challenge Pelosi has faced was in 2016 when Preston Picus polled 19.1% and Pelosi won with 80.9%. For the 2000 and 2002 election cycles, she held the distinction of contributing the most among members of Congress to other congressional campaigns, in part because she is in a safe district and does not need the campaign funds. In the House, she served on the Appropriations and Intelligence Committees, was the ranking Democrat on the Intelligence Committee until her election as Minority Leader. Pelosi is a member of the House Baltic Caucus. In 2001, Pelosi was elected the House Minority Whip, second-in-command to Minority Leader Dick Gephardt of Missouri, she was the first woman in U. S. history to hold that post. In 2002, after Gephardt resigned as minority leader to seek the Democratic nomination in the 2004 presidential election, Pelosi was elected to replace him, becoming the first woman to lead a major party in the House. In the 2006 midterm elections, the Democrats took control of the House.
The change in control meant as House Minority Leader, Pelosi w
California's 12th congressional district
California's 12th congressional district is a congressional district in California. Speaker of the United States House of Representatives Nancy Pelosi, a Democrat, has represented the district since January 2013; the 12th district is within the city of San Francisco. Prior to redistricting by the California Citizens Redistricting Commission of 2011, the 12th district consisted of portions of both San Mateo County and San Francisco, it is the smallest district by area outside of New York City. When the 12th Congressional District was created after the 1930 Census, it was located in Los Angeles County; as California's population grew, the district was moved northward to the San Francisco peninsula.) Richard Nixon, who would subsequently serve as the 37th President of the United States, represented this district from 1947-1951. Nancy Pelosi, the former 52nd Speaker of the House and current Speaker of the House, is the current representative of this district, after serving California's 8th Congressional district from 1993-2013.
As of April 2015, there were five living former members of the House of Representatives from this district. The most recent death was that of Tom Lantos, who died in office on February 11, 2008. List of United States congressional districts GovTrack.us: California's 12th congressional district RAND California Election Returns: District Definitions California Voter Foundation map - CD12
San Francisco Municipal Railway
The San Francisco Municipal Railway is the public transit system for the city and county of San Francisco, California. In 2006, Muni served 46.7 square miles with an operating budget of about $700 million. In ridership terms, Muni is the seventh largest transit system in the United States, with 210,848,310 rides in 2006 and the second largest in California behind Metro in Los Angeles. With a fleet average speed of 8.1 mph, it is the slowest major urban transit system in America and one of the most expensive to operate, costing $19.21 per mile per bus and $24.37 per mile per train. However, it has more boardings per mile and more vehicles in operation than similar transit agencies. Muni is an integral part of public transit in the city of San Francisco, operating 365 days a year and connecting with regional transportation services, such as Bay Area Rapid Transit, SamTrans, Golden Gate Transit, AC Transit, its network consists of 54 bus lines, 17 trolley bus lines, 7 light rail lines that operate above ground and in the city's lone subway tube, 3 cable car lines, 2 heritage streetcar lines, the E Embarcadero and F Market.
Many weekday riders are commuters, as the daytime weekday population in San Francisco exceeds its normal residential population. Muni shares four metro stations with BART. Most bus lines are scheduled to operate every five to fifteen minutes during peak hours, every five to twenty minutes middays, about every ten to twenty minutes from 9 pm to midnight, every half-hour for the late night "owl" routes. On weekends, most Muni bus lines are scheduled to run every ten to twenty minutes. However, complaints of unreliability on less-often-served lines and older trolleybus lines, are a system-wide problem. Muni has had some difficulty meeting a stated goal of 85% voter-demanded on-time service. All Muni lines run inside San Francisco city limits, with the exception of several lines serving locations in the northern part of neighboring Daly City, the 76X Marin Headlands Express line to the Marin Headlands area on weekends and major holidays. Most intercity connections are provided by BART and Caltrain heavy rail, AC Transit buses at the Transbay Terminal, Golden Gate Transit and SamTrans downtown.
Bus and car stops throughout the city vary from Metro stations with raised platforms in the subway and at the more used surface stops, to small shelters to signposts to a yellow stripe on a utility pole or on the road surface. 70% of stops are spaced closer than recommended range of 800–1,000 feet apart. Muni is not an acronym; the Muni metro is called "the train" or "the streetcar." Most San Francisco natives use'Muni'. The E Embarcadero and F Market & Wharves lines are referred to by Muni as a "historic streetcar line" rather than as a "heritage railway."Muni's logo is a stylized, trademarked "worm" version of the word muni. This logo was designed by San Francisco-based graphic designer Walter Landor in the mid-1970s. Bus and trolleybus lines have number designations, rail lines have letters and the three cable car lines are referred to by name only. Except for cable cars, cash fares are $2.75 for adults. Clipper card and MuniMobile fares are $2.50 for adults and $1.25 for seniors and people with disabilities.
Proof-of-payment, which fare inspectors may demand at any time, is either a Clipper card, Muni Passport, or paper transfer. One fare entitles a rider to unlimited vehicle transfers for the next 120 minutes. Cable cars are $7 one way, with no transfers unless the rider has Fast Pass; as of July 2017 monthly passes cost $75 for adults, $38 for low-income residents, or $38 for youth and the disabled. Passes are valid on all Muni lines—including cable cars—and the $94 adult Fast Pass allows BART transit within San Francisco. Other passes and stickers are valid on all Muni lines, including cable cars, but not on BART. Cable car fare is $7 per trip, with no transfers accepted. "Passports" are folding scratch-off passes that can be purchased by mail, or at various places throughout the city. Muni has implemented a dual-mode smart card payment system known as Clipper; the transponders have been in use since at least 2004, replaced most paper monthly passes in 2010. BART, Golden Gate Transit, VTA, AC Transit, SamTrans, SMART and San Francisco Bay Ferry utilize the Clipper system.
Muni operates 14 express lines, 5 Rapid lines, 12 Owl lines, which run between 1 am and 5 am. For San Francisco Giants games, additional "baseball shuttles" supplement N Judah and T Third service to AT&T Park. Express lines only run during peak hours. All express lines "BX" following the line's number; some lines are divided into B Expresses. The B Express line is shorter and has sto
London Nicole Breed is an American politician from California, the 45th mayor of the City and County of San Francisco. She served as supervisor for District 5, was president of the Board of Supervisors from 2015 to 2018. Raised in poverty in the Western Addition neighborhood of San Francisco, Breed worked in government after college, she was elected to the Board of Supervisors in 2012, elected its president in 2015. As president of the Board, according to the city charter, became the acting mayor of San Francisco following the death of Mayor Ed Lee, she served in this role from December 12, 2017 to January 23, 2018. Breed was the winning candidate in the San Francisco mayoral special election held on June 5, 2018. Breed is the first black woman and second woman overall to be elected mayor of San Francisco, she was sworn in as mayor on July 11, 2018. Born in San Francisco, Breed was raised by her grandmother in Plaza East public housing in the Western Addition neighborhood of the city. Breed wrote of her childhood in San Francisco: "ive of us liv on $900 per month.'Recycling' meant drinking out of old mayonnaise jars.
Violence was never far away. And once a week, we took Grandma's pushcart to the community room to collect government-issued groceries." Her younger sister died of a drug overdose and her brother is in prison serving a 44-year sentence for which Breed has asked for clemency from the governor's office. Breed graduated with honors from Galileo High School, she earned a bachelor's degree from the University of California, Davis in 1997 and a master's degree in public administration from the University of San Francisco in 2012. Breed worked as an intern in the Office of Neighborhood Services for Mayor Willie Brown. In 2002, she became the executive director of the African American Art & Culture Complex, where she raised over $2.5 million to renovate the complex's 34,000 square foot space, including an art gallery, theater space, a recording studio. Breed was named to the San Francisco Redevelopment Agency Commission in 2004. In 2010, Mayor Gavin Newsom appointed her to the San Francisco Fire Commission.
In November 2012, Breed was elected to the District 5 supervisor seat, defeating incumbent Christina Olague, appointed to the seat that year by Mayor Ed Lee after Supervisor Ross Mirkarimi was elected sheriff. Following five rounds of ranked-choice voting allocations, Breed won by over 12 points, marking the first time in San Francisco history that a challenger unseated a district supervisor. Breed was inaugurated as District 5 supervisor on January 8, 2013, with then-California Attorney General Kamala Harris administering the oath of office. On January 8, 2015, Breed was elected President of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors first by a vote of 8 to 3 and unanimously, she defeated supervisor David Campos, nominated for the position. Breed succeeded District Four Supervisor Katy Tang, who assumed the presidency temporarily after then-Board President David Chiu resigned to begin serving in the California Assembly; as part of an FBI investigation into public corruption and bid-fixing involving then-State Senator Leland Yee, businessman Derf Butler was recorded talking about paying for access to Breed.
According to court documents released in 2015, Butler told an FBI source that he "pays Supervisor Breed with untraceable debit cards for clothing and trips in exchange for advantages on contracts in San Francisco." The allegation was denied by Breed, who as a member of the Board of Supervisors had no role in contract selections, no evidence has been presented to substantiate it. In February 2016, Breed announced her reelection bid to represent District 5; the top issues she identified in her announcement were building and protecting affordable housing, increasing public safety, improving environmental health, modernizing public transportation. Dean Preston, an attorney, ran against her. Breed won reelection 52% to 48% on November 8, 2016, beating Preston in 46 of the district's 68 precincts. Breed was unanimously reelected to another two-year term as Board President on January 9, 2017. No other supervisors were nominated for the position. Following the death of Mayor Ed Lee on December 12, 2017, Breed became the city's Acting Mayor by virtue of her position as President of the Board of Supervisors.
She served in this position until January 23, 2018, when the Board of Supervisors selected Mark Farrell to serve as interim mayor until a special election on June 5. Supervisors Aaron Peskin, Jane Kim, others considered the progressive members of the board, sought to deny Breed the benefits of incumbency going into the election. Progressive Supervisor Hillary Ronen, former Chief of Staff to Breed's erstwhile opponent for the Board of Supervisors presidency David Campos, delivered a tearful speech accusing Breed of being supported by "white, rich men" and "billionaires" such as Ron Conway; the Supervisors' choice, Mark Farrell, was a white male venture capitalist whose firm Conway had invested in. Breed ran in the mayoral special election held on June 5, she led in the initial count's first-place votes with 35.6 percent, with Mark Leno in second with 25.9 percent, Kim with 22.8 percent. Leno took the lead early the next day after the initial tabulation of ranked-choice ballots, but Breed retook the lead on June 9.
On June 13, with only 8,000 ballots left to count, Leno conceded defeat and congratulated Breed on her victory. Breed resigned as
Victorian architecture is a series of architectural revival styles in the mid-to-late 19th century. Victorian refers to the reign of Queen Victoria, called the Victorian era, during which period the styles known as Victorian were used in construction. However, many elements of what is termed "Victorian" architecture did not become popular until in Victoria's reign; the styles included interpretations and eclectic revivals of historic styles. The name represents the British and French custom of naming architectural styles for a reigning monarch. Within this naming and classification scheme, it followed Georgian architecture and Regency architecture, was succeeded by Edwardian architecture. During the early 19th century, the romantic medieval Gothic revival style was developed as a reaction to the symmetry of Palladianism, such buildings as Fonthill Abbey were built. By the middle of the 19th century, as a result of new technology, construction was able to incorporate steel as a building component.
Paxton continued to build such houses as Mentmore Towers, in the still popular English Renaissance styles. New methods of construction were developed in this era of prosperity, but the architectural styles, as developed by such architects as Augustus Pugin, were retrospective. In Scotland, the architect Alexander Thomson who practiced in Glasgow was a pioneer of the use of cast iron and steel for commercial buildings, blending neo-classical conventionality with Egyptian and oriental themes to produce many original structures. Other notable Scottish architects of this period are Archibald Simpson and Alexander Marshall Mackenzie whose stylistically varied work can be seen in the architecture of Aberdeen. While Scottish architects pioneered this style it soon spread right across the United Kingdom and remained popular for another 40 years, its architectural value in preserving and reinventing the past is significant. Its influences were diverse but the Scottish architects who practiced it were inspired by unique ways to blend architecture and everyday life in a meaningful way.
Jacobethan Renaissance Revival Neo-Grec Romanesque Revival Second Empire Queen Anne Revival Scots Baronial British Arts and Crafts movement While not uniquely Victorian, part of revivals that began before the era, these styles are associated with the 19th century owing to the large number of examples that were erected during that period. Victorian architecture has many intricate window frames inspired by the famous architect Elliot Rae. Gothic Revival Italianate Neoclassicism During the 18th century, a few English architects emigrated to the colonies, but as the British Empire became established during the 19th century, many architects emigrated at the start of their careers; some chose the United States, others went to Canada and New Zealand. They applied architectural styles that were fashionable when they left England. By the latter half of the century, improving transport and communications meant that remote parts of the Empire had access to publications such as the magazine The Builder, which helped colonial architects keep informed about current fashion.
Thus, the influence of English architecture spread across the world. Several prominent architects produced English-derived designs around the world, including William Butterfield and Jacob Wrey Mould; the Victorian period flourished in Australia and is recognised as being from 1840 to 1890, which saw a gold rush and population boom during the 1880s in the state of Victoria. There were fifteen styles that predominated: The Arts and Crafts style and Queen Anne style are considered to be part of the Federation Period, from 1890 to 1915. During the British colonial period of British Ceylon: Sri Lanka Law College, Sri Lanka College of Technology and the Galle Face Hotel. In the United States,'Victorian' architecture describes styles that were most popular between 1860 and 1900. A list of these styles most includes Second Empire, Stick-Eastlake, Folk Victorian, Queen Anne, Richardsonian Romanesque, Shingle; as in the United Kingdom, examples of Gothic Revival and Italianate continued to be constructed during this period, are therefore sometimes called Victorian.
Some historians classify the years of Gothic Revival as a distinctive Victorian style named High Victorian Gothic. Stick-Eastlake, a manner of geometric, machine-cut decorating derived from Stick and Queen Anne, is sometimes considered a distinct style. On the other hand, terms such as "Painted Ladies" or "gingerbread" may be used to describe certain Victorian buildings, but do not constitute a specific style; the names of architectural styles varied between countries. Many homes combined the elements of several different styles and are not distinguishable as one particular style or another. In the United States of America, notable cities which developed or were rebuilt during this era include Alameda, Albany, Troy, Boston, the Brooklyn Heights and Victorian Flatbush sections of New York City, Rochester, Columbus, Eureka, Galveston, Grand Rapids, Jersey City/Hoboken, Cape May, Cincinnati, Milwaukee, New Orleans, Richmond, Saint Paul, Midtown in Sacramento, Angelino Heigh