The Klamath people are a Native American tribe of the Plateau culture area in Southern Oregon and Northern California. Today Klamath people are enrolled in the federally recognized tribes: Klamath Tribes, Oregon Quartz Valley Indian Community, California; the Klamath people lived in the area around the Upper Klamath Lake and the Klamath and Sprague rivers. They subsisted on fish and gathered roots and seeds. While there was knowledge of their immediate neighbors the Klamath were unaware of the existence of the Pacific Ocean. Gatschet has described this position as leaving the Klamath living in a "protracted isolation" from outside cultures; the Klamath were known to raid neighboring tribes, such as the Achomawi on the Pit River, to take prisoners as slaves. They traded with the Wasco-Wishram at The Dalles. However, scholars such as Alfred L. Kroeber and Leslie Spier consider these slaving raids by the Klamath to begin only with the acquisition of the horse; these natives made southern Oregon their home for long enough to witness the eruption of Mount Mazama.
It was a legendary volcanic mountain, the creator of Crater Lake, now considered to be a beautiful natural formation. In 1826, Peter Skene Ogden, an explorer for the Hudson's Bay Company, first encountered the Klamath people, he was trading with them by 1829; the United States frontiersman Kit Carson admired their arrows, which were reported to be able to shoot through a house. The Klamaths and the Yahooskin Band of Northern Paiute, erroneously called Upper Sprague River Snakes believed to be a Band of Snake Indians, the collective name given to the Northern Paiute and Shoshone Native American tribes, signed a treaty with the United States in 1864, establishing the Klamath Reservation to the northeast of Upper Klamath Lake; this area was part of the traditional territory controlled by the ă′ukuckni Klamath band. The treaty required the tribes to cede the land in the Klamath Basin, bounded on the north by the 44th parallel, to the United States. In return, the United States was to make a lump sum payment of $35,000, annual payments totalling $80,000 over 15 years, as well as providing infrastructure and staff for the reservation.
The treaty provided that, if the Indians drank or stored intoxicating liquor on the reservation, the payments could be withheld. The tribes requested Lindsay Applegate as the agent to represent the United States to them; the Indian agent estimated the total population of the three tribes at about 2,000 when the treaty was signed. Since termination of recognition of their tribal sovereignty in 1954, the Klamath and neighboring tribes have reorganized their government and revived tribal identity; the Klamath, along with the Modoc and Yahooskin, have formed the federally recognized Klamath Tribes confederation. Their tribal government is based in Oregon; some Klamath live on the Quartz Valley Indian Community in California. Traditionally there were several cultural subdivisions among the Klamath, based on the location of their residency within the Klamath Basin. Despite this, the five recognized "tribelets" mutually considered each other the same ethnic group, about 1,200 people in total. Like many Indigenous cultures of the Pacific Northwest, the Klamath lived a semi-sedentary life.
Winter settlements were in permanent locations. Construction of the earth-lodges would begin in Autumn, with materials salvaged from abandoned, dilapidated buildings made in previous years. Leslie Spier has detailed some of the winter settlement patterns for Klamath as follows: The towns are not isolated, compact groups of houses, but stretch along the banks for half a mile or more. In fact, the settlements on Williamson river below the Sprague river junction form a continuous string of houses for five or six miles, the house pits being, in many spots, crowded close together. Informants insisted; when we consider that these earth-lodges may have housed several families, there is strong suggestion of a considerable population. Marriage was a unique practice for the Klamath, compared to neighboring cultures found in the borderlands of modern Oregon, California and Idaho. For example, unlike the Hupa and Yurok, the Klamath didn't hold formal talks between families for a bride price. Notable was the cultural norm that allowed wives to leave husbands, as they were "in no sense chattel... and cannot be disposed of as a possession."
The Klamath use Apocynum eat the roots of Lomatium canbyi. They use the rootstocks of Sagittaria cuneata as food. Dentalium shells were common among the Klamath prior to colonization. Compared to other native cultures dentalium didn't hold as much financial use among the Klamath. However, longer shells were held to be more valuable. Nonetheless these shells were esteemed for as jewelry and personal adornment. Septum piercings were given to younger members of Klamath families to allow inserting dentalium; some individuals wouldn't however use any shells in their septum. Spier gives the following account for their usage: The septum of the nose is pierced and the ear lobes, the latter twice or more frequently. Both sexes insert dentalium shells horizontally through the septum... Ear pendants are a group of four dentalia hung in a bunch by their tips; the use of dentalium i
Trinity County, California
Trinity County is a county in the northwestern part of the state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 13,786, making it the fourth least-populous county in California; the county seat and largest community is Weaverville. Weaverville has the distinction of housing some of California's oldest buildings; the courthouse, built in 1856, is the second oldest in the state, the Weaverville Drug Store has been filling prescriptions since 1852. The Joss House is a historic Taoist temple built in 1873. Trinity County is rugged, mountainous forested, lies along the Trinity River within the Salmon and Klamath Mountains, it is one of three counties in California with no incorporated cities. The county takes its name from the Trinity River, named in 1845 by Major Pierson B. Reading, under the mistaken impression that the river emptied into Trinidad Bay. Trinity is the English translation of Trinidad. Trinity County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood.
Parts of the county were given to Klamath County in 1852 and to Humboldt County in 1853. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,208 square miles, of which 3,179 square miles is land and 28 square miles is water; the county contains a significant portion of Shasta-Trinity National Forest, home to the Trinity Alps. The county hosts many visitors during summer months, for camping, boating on the lakes, rafting/kayaking on the rivers and fishing; the summers tend to be clear, sunny and dry, with little rain from June to September except for some mountain thunderstorms in the highest elevations. The winters tend to have copious precipitation, falling as rain under 1000m/3300 ft in the valley bottoms, as snow over 1000m/3300 ft on the mountainsides. December and February are the wettest. There is an extensive wild river and stream system, the terrain is quite rugged and forested, with the highest point at Mount Eddy, over 9,000 ft; the Klamath Mountains occupy the vast portion of the county.
Siskiyou County - north Shasta County - east Tehama County - southeast Mendocino County - south Humboldt County - west Shasta-Trinity National Forest Six Rivers National Forest Mendocino National Forest Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area Trinity Alps Wilderness Yolla Bolly-Middle Eel Wilderness Trinity was a Republican-leaning county in Presidential and congressional elections until recently. No Democrat had won the county since Jimmy Carter in 1976 until Barack Obama defeated John McCain by a 4% margin in 2008. In 2012, the county narrowly. Voter registration reflects this trend, with Democratic and Republican registration in a near dead heat. Third-party candidates tend to do rather well in Trinity County: George Wallace got over 13% of the county's vote in 1968, it was the only California county carried by Ross Perot in 1992, it was Perot's best performance in the state in 1996, although he didn't carry it again. John Anderson did well in 1980, as did third-party candidates in 2016. Trinity County is in California's 2nd congressional district, represented by Democrat Jared Huffman.
In the state legislature Trinity is in the 2nd Senate District, represented by Democrat Mike McGuire, the 2nd Assembly District, represented by Democrat Jim Wood. In 2010, Trinity County voted against Proposition 19, which would have taxed and regulated marijuana. In 2016 Trinity County residents were asked again to vote on legalization of state-level recreational marijuana, facilitated by the Adult Use of Marijuana Act known as California Proposition 64; the measure passed with 50.1% in favor of legalization. Statewide, the measure passed with 57.1% of the vote. State Route 299 State Route 3 State Route 36 Trinity Transit provides weekday intercity bus service on State Routes 3 and 299, with connecting service in Willow Creek and Redding. Service is provided from Weaverville to Lewiston and Hayfork; the county owns five general aviation airports: Trinity Center Airport, Weaverville Airport, Hayfork Airport, Hyampom Airport and Ruth Airport. The following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Trinity County had a population of 13,786. The racial makeup of Trinity County was 12,033 White, 59 African American, 655 Native American, 94 Asian, 16 Pacific Islander, 217 from other races, 712 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 959 persons; as of the census of 2000, there were 13,022 people, 5,587 households, 3,625 families residing in the county. The population density was 4 people per square mile. There were 7,980 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 88.9% White, 0.5% Black or African American, 4.9% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.9% from other races, 4.4% from two or more races. 4.0% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 16.1% were of German, 13.4% English, 12.1% Irish and 9.5% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 97.3% spoke English and 1.8% Spanish as their first language. There were 5,587 households out of which 25.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.5% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.1% were non-families.
29.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average hou
Hupa are a Native American people of the Athabaskan-speaking ethnolinguistic group in northwestern California. Their endonym is Natinixwe spelled Natinook-wa, meaning "People of the Place Where the Trails Return"; the majority of the tribe is enrolled in the Federally recognized Hoopa Valley Tribe. The Hupa people migrated from the north into northern California around 1000 CE and settled in Hoopa Valley, California, their heritage language is Hupa, a member of the Athabaskan language family. Their land stretched from the South Fork of the Trinity River to Hoopa Valley, to the Klamath River in California, their red cedar-planked houses, dugout canoes, basket hats, many elements of their oral literature identify them with their northern origin. Hupa people had limited contact with non-native peoples until the 1849 Gold Rush brought an influx of miners onto their lands. In 1864, the United States government signed a treaty that recognized the Hupa tribe's sovereignty to their land; the United States called the reservation the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation, where the Hupa now reside, one of few California tribes not forced from their homeland.
The reservation is next to the territory of the Yurok at the connection of the Klamath and Trinity Rivers in northeastern Humboldt County. The reservation has a land area of 141.087 square miles. Hupa people have traditionally excelled at basketry, elk horn carving, since the 17th century, petroglyphs; the Hupa use the acorns of Notholithocarpus densiflorus to make meal, from which they would make mush, biscuits and cakes. They roast the acorns and eat them, they use the dyed fronds of Woodwardia radicans for basketry. They use Xerophyllum tenax to create a border pattern in baskets; the Hupa, like many tribes in the area, fish for salmon in the Trinity rivers. One of the methods they once used to capture fish was the fish weir, which tribal members would maintain; the Hupa share many of their fishing practices with the neighboring Yurok Tribe. Hupa tribal fishers and their families rely on the Fall Chinook Salmon runs. Acorns, once abundant, were a main staple; because the Hupa were not located as close to the sea as their neighboring Yurok Tribe, they traded supplies with them, such as salt in exchange for baskets, or acorns for canoes.
The Hupa are involved in the talks to remove hydroelectric dams along the Klamath and Trinity rivers, were a party to a lawsuit against the Bureau of Reclamation and the National Marine Fisheries Service. On February 8, 2017 the federal district court judge ruled in favor of the Hoopa Valley Tribe, the three other Klamath River fishing tribes, other stakeholders; the judge agreed to plans designed by the Tribes' scientists to reduce outbreaks of a deadly fish disease that had infected 90% of juvenile salmon in 2014 and 2015. Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. Alfred L. Kroeber thought that the 1770 population of the Hupa was 1,000 and that the Chilula and Whilkut accounted for another 1,000. Kroeber estimated the population of the Hupa in 1910 as 500. In 1943, Sherburne F. Cook proposed an aboriginal population of 1,000 for the Hupa and 600 for the Chilula, he subsequently suggested a population for the Hupa alone of 2,900.
William J. Wallace felt that the latter estimate was "much too high", allowed 1,000 for the Hupa, 500–600 for the Chilula, 500 for the Whilkut; the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has a resident population of 2,633 persons according to the 2000 census. Hoopa, California—the name for the town in the Hupa Valley; the name was changed at various times related to the post office. Cook, Sherburne F.. The Aboriginal Population of the North Coast of California. Anthropological Records. 16. Berkeley, California: University of California, Berkeley. Pp. 81–130. Cook, Sherburne F.. The Conflict between the California Indian and White Civilization. Berkeley: University of California Press. Goddard, Pliny Earle. Life and Culture of the Hupa. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology. 1. The University Press. Pp. 1–88. Retrieved 24 August 2012. Kroeber, A. L.. Handbook of the Indians of California. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin. Washington, D. C. Merriam, C. Hart. Ethnographic Notes on California Indian Tribes.
Berkeley, California: University of California Archaeological Research Facility. P. 200. Murphey, Edith Van Allen. Indian Uses of Native Plants. Glenwood, Illinois: Meyerbooks. Pritzker, Barry M.. A Native American Encyclopedia: History and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1. Wallace, William J.. Heizer, Robert F.. Hupa and Whilkut. In California. Handbook of North American Indians. 8. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution. Pp. 91–98. Hupa Bibliography, from California Indian Library Collections Project Hoopa Valley Tribe, official website San Francisco State University - Hupa
The Klamath Tribes the Klamath Indian Tribe of Oregon, are a federally recognized Native American Nation consisting of three Native American tribes who traditionally inhabited Southern Oregon and Northern California in the United States: the Klamath and Yahooskin. The tribal government is based in Oregon. Klamaths traditionally believe everything anyone needed to live was provided by the Creator in their rich land east of the Cascades, they saw success as a reward for virtuous striving and as an assignment of spiritual favor. For thousands of years, the Klamath people survived by their industriousness; when the months of long winter nights were upon them, they survived on prudent reserves from the abundant seasons. Toward the end of March, when supplies dwindled, large fish surged up the Williamson and Lost River. On the Sprague River, where Gmok'am'c first began the tradition, the Klamath's still celebrate the Return of C'waam Ceremony; the Klamath bands were bound together by ties of family.
They lived along the Klamath Marsh, on the banks of Agency Lake, near the mouth of the Lower Williamson River, on Pelican Bay, beside the Link River, in the uplands of the Sprague River Valley. The most distinctive feature of pre-contact Klamath culture, compared with other Native American societies, was their individualistic rather than purely communal concept of wealth. Anthropologist Robert Spencer in "The Native Americans" asserts that among the Klamaths, "A basic goal was wealth and the prestige derived from it... The wealth quest was individual. Persons of'good' reputation worked to produce and to enhance their social status." Historian Floy Pepper asserts that this set up Klamaths to do well upon contact with white settlers, because "The Klamaths accepted certain aspects of the new culture. To work hard, to gain material possessions, to be practical were virtues of both worlds." In 1826 Peter Skene Ogden, a fur trapper from the Hudson's Bay Company, was the first white man to leave footprints on Klamath lands.
In 1832, the Hudson Bay trappers under John Work were in the Goose Lake Valley and their journals mentioned Hunter's Hot Springs. Work's expedition visited Warner Lakes and Lake Abert and camped at Crooked Creek in the Chandler Park area, they reported being attacked by Indians. In 1838, Colonel J. J. Abert, a U. S. engineer, prepared a map that includes Warner Lakes and other natural features using information from the Hudson Bay trappers. In 1843, John C. Fremont led a party; the Klamath Tribes ended hostilities with the invader and ceded more than 6 million acres of land in 1864. They did, retain rights to hunt and gather in safety on the lands reserved for the people "in perpetuity" forever, which gave rise to modern litigation discussed below. After signing the 1864 treaty, members were forcibly placed upon the Klamath Indian Reservation. At the time there was tension between the Modoc. A band of Modoc left the reservation to return to Northern California; the U. S. Army defeated them in the Modoc War, forcibly returned them to Oregon.
The Klamath Indian agency included three tribes: the Klamath and the Yahooskin Band of Northern Paiute Indians. In 1874, Oregon's legislature created Lake County, which included the reservation lands. Missionaries and ranchers followed, as the Klamath assimilated. One of the early Indian agents was Rev. Linus M. Nickerson, a former U. S. Army Chaplain in the American Civil War who had worked for the Freedmen's Bureau in Fairfax, Virginia. In addition to conducting worship services, establishing a Sunday School and educating members of all three tribes, Nickerson helped plan for improvements. A Klamath Tribal Agency-sponsored sawmill was completed in 1870 and construction of Agency buildings began. By 1873, Tribal members were selling lumber to many private parties. By 1881 tribal members had built a boarding school, an office building, many residences and agricultural outbuildings, miles of fencing and were working on a new police headquarters. By 1896 timber sales outside the reservation were estimated at a quarter of a million board feet.
When a railroad was built in 1911, reservation timber became valuable. The economy of Klamath County was sustained by it for decades. Early in the reservation period, Klamath Tribal members demonstrated an eagerness to turn new economic opportunities to their advantage. Both men and women took advantage of the vocational training offered, soon held a wide variety of skilled jobs within the reservation, as well as, the Fort Klamath military post, in Linkville. By 1881, Indian Agent Nickerson in his third annual report to his supervisors in Washington stated that a 50-pupil boarding school had been established, apprentices served at the sawmill, carpenter's shop and blacksmith shop, a 10-member native police force led by the Klamath tribal chief and sub-chief kept order. However, he worried about superstitious practices, requested funds to set up a hospital because native doctors were losing control, threatened to poison people, he noted that tribal members were excellent workers and sought-after for work outside the reservation, that a syphilis problem since contact with whites three decades earlier was being controlled.
Nickerson requested 300 yearling cattle and 20 breeder stallions to augment the ranching operations, as well as steel plows, but recognized that climate issues in the high desert would limit European type agriculture (t
Northern California is the northern portion of the U. S. state of California. Spanning the state's northernmost 48 counties its main population centers include the San Francisco Bay Area, the Greater Sacramento area, the Metropolitan Fresno area. Northern California contains redwood forests, along with the Sierra Nevada, including Yosemite Valley and part of Lake Tahoe, Mount Shasta, most of the Central Valley, one of the world's most productive agricultural regions; the 48-county definition is not used for the Northern California Megaregion, one of the 11 megaregions of the United States. The megaregion's area is instead defined from Metropolitan Fresno north to Greater Sacramento, from the Bay Area east across Nevada state line to encompass the entire Lake Tahoe-Reno area. Native Americans arrived in northern California at least as early as 8,000 to 5,000 BC and even much earlier, successive waves of arrivals led to one of the most densely populated areas of pre-Columbian North America; the arrival of European explorers from the early 16th to the mid-18th centuries did not establish European settlements in northern California.
In 1770, the Spanish mission at Monterey was the first European settlement in the area, followed by other missions along the coast—eventually extending as far north as Sonoma County. Northern California is not a formal geographic designation. California's north-south midway division is around 37° latitude, near the level of San Francisco. Popularly, though, "Northern California" refers to the state's northernmost 48 counties; because of California's large size and diverse geography, the state can be subdivided in other ways as well. For example, the Central Valley is a region, distinct both culturally and topographically from coastal California, though in northern versus southern California divisions, the Sacramento Valley and most of the San Joaquin Valley are placed in northern California; the state is considered as having an additional division north of the urban areas of the San Francisco Bay Area and Sacramento metropolitan areas. Extreme northern residents have felt under-represented in state government and in 1941 attempted to form a new state with southwestern Oregon to be called Jefferson, or more to introduce legislation to split California into two or three states.
The coastal area north of the Bay Area is referred to as the North Coast, while the interior region north of Sacramento is referred by locals as the Northstate. Northern California is the name of a proposed new state on the 2018 California ballot created by splitting the existing state into three parts. Since the events of the California Gold Rush, Northern California has been a leader on the world's economic and cultural stages. From the development of gold mining techniques and logging practices in the 19th century that were adopted around the world, to the development of world-famous and online business models, northern California has been at the forefront of new ways of doing business. In science, advances range from being the first to isolate and name fourteen transuranic chemical elements, to breakthroughs in microchip technology. Cultural contributions include the works of Ansel Adams, George Lucas, Clint Eastwood, as well as beatniks, the Summer of Love, the cradle of the international environmental movement, the open, casual workplace first popularized in the Silicon Valley dot-com boom and now in use around the world.
Other examples of innovation across diverse fields range from Genentech to CrossFit as a pioneer in extreme human fitness and training. It is home to one of the largest Air Force Bases on the West Coast, the largest of California, Travis Air Force Base. Northern California's largest metropolitan area is the San Francisco Bay Area which includes the cities of San Francisco, San Jose and their many suburbs. In recent years the Bay Area has drawn more commuters from as far as Central Valley cities such as Sacramento, Fresno and Modesto. With expanding development in all these areas, the San Francisco Bay Area, Monterey Bay Area, central part of the Central Valley and Sierra Nevada foothills may now be viewed as part of a single megalopolis; the 2010 U. S. Census showed that the Bay Area grew at a faster rate than the Greater Los Angeles Area while Greater Sacramento had the largest growth rate of any metropolitan area in California; the state's larger inland cities are considered part of Northern California in cases when the state is divided into two parts.
Important cities in the region not in major metropolitan areas include Eureka on the far North Coast, Redding, at the northern end of the Central Valley and Yuba City in the mid-north of the Valley, as well as Fresno and Visalia on the southern end. Though smaller in every case except for Fresno than the larger cities of the vast region, these smaller regional centers are of historical, inflated economic importance for their respective size, due to their locations, which are rural or otherwise isolated. Inhabited for millennia by Native Americans, from the Shasta tribe in the north, to the Miwoks in the central coast and Sierra Nevada, to the Yokuts of the southern Central Valley, northern California was among the most densely populated areas of pre-Columbian North America; the first European to explore the coast was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing for the Spanish
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun