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Lower Lorraine

The Duchy of Lower Lorraine, or Lower Lotharingia, was a stem duchy established in 959, of the medieval Kingdom of Germany, which encompassed all of the modern Netherlands and eastern Belgium, the northern part of the German Rhineland province and the eastern parts of France's Nord-Pas de Calais region. It was created out of the former Middle Frankish realm of Lotharingia under King Lothair II, established in 855. Lotharingia was divided for much of the ninth century, reunited under Louis the Younger by the 880 Treaty of Ribemont and upon the death of East Frankish king Louis the Child in 911 it joined West Francia under King Charles the Simple, it formed a duchy in its own right, about 925 Duke Gilbert declared homage to the German king Henry the Fowler, an act which King Rudolph of France was helpless to revert. From that time on Lotharingia remained a German stem duchy, the border with France did not change throughout the Middle Ages. In 959 King Henry's son Duke Bruno the Great divided Lotharingia into two duchies: Lower and Upper Lorraine and granted Count Godfrey I of Mons the title of a Duke of Lower Lorraine.

Godfrey's lands were to the north. Both duchies formed the western part of the Holy Roman Empire established by Bruno's elder brother Emperor Otto I in 962. Both Lotharingian duchies took separate paths thereafter: Upon the death of Godfrey's son Duke Richar, Lower Lorraine was directly ruled by the Emperor, until in 977 Otto II enfeoffed Charles, the exiled younger brother of King Lothair of France. Lower and Upper Lorraine were once again reunited under Gothelo I from 1033 to 1044. After that, the Lower duchy was marginalised, while Upper Lorraine came to be known as the Duchy of Lorraine. Over the next decades the significance of the Duchy of Lower Lorraine diminished and furthermore was affected by the conflict between Emperor Henry IV and his son Henry V: In 1100 Henry IV had enfeoffed Count Henry of Limburg, who Henry V, having enforced the abdication of his father deposed and replaced by Count Godfrey of Louvain. Upon the death of Duke Godfrey III in 1190, his son Duke Henry I of Brabant inherited the ducal title by order of Emperor Henry VI at the Diet of Schwäbisch Hall.

Thereby the Duchy of Lower Lorraine lost its territorial authority, while the remnant Imperial fief held by the Dukes of Brabant was called the Duchy of Lothier. After the territorial power of the duchy was shattered, many fiefdoms came to independence in its area; the most important ones of these were: Archbishopric of Cologne Prince-Bishopric of Liège Bishopric of Utrecht Bishopric of Cambrai Duchy of Limburg County of Guelders Margravate of Ename called Imperial Flanders or the County of Aalst County of Jülich County of Namur County of Cleves County of Hainault, including the Margravate of Valenciennes and the County of Bergen County of Holland County of Berg County of Loon County of HorneThe following successor states remained under the authority of the titular dukes of Lower Lorraine: Margraviate of Antwerp County of Leuven and Brussels Duchy of Brabant List of rulers of Lorraine

Southborough, Kent

Southborough is a town and civil parish in the borough of Tunbridge Wells in Kent, England. It lies to the north of the town of Tunbridge Wells and includes the district of High Brooms, with the A26 road passing through it. According to the 2001 census it had a population of 11,124; the town is within the High Weald Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. After the Norman Conquest, the area came within the domain of Tonbridge Castle, one of 4 boroughs to do so; this was the South Borough. Southborough separated from Tonbridge in 1871. In 1894, it was recreated to become an urban district, with its own elected council to manage its affairs, it retained that title until 1974, when under local government reorganisation it became a civil parish. By historical accident, Southborough had a Town Council, which it has retained. Southborough Town Council consists from the three town wards: North; the posts of mayor and deputy mayor are elected annually. As with many other Parish Councils, its responsibilities are less than those of the local Borough Council.

At the same time, Southborough is part of Tunbridge Wells borough: the two wards of that borough are Southborough and High Brooms and Southborough North. The town has its own grant of heraldry: this includes reference to the cricket ball industry and contains two sprigs of broom, alluding to High Brooms; the Southborough Society’’ is the main source for many of the facts in this part of the article The remains of an Iguanodon was discovered in High Brooms. Before the first millennium AD the land here was forested. Arrowheads and stone axe heads provide evidence of ‘’’prehistoric’’’ habitation of Southborough while burial sites from both the Bronze and Iron Ages have been unearthed; the site of the Castle Hill Iron Age Fort, dating back to 315 BC, lies in the Eastern valley. Routes linking other forts are still part of the town’s road network. Little is known about the district until the Norman Conquest as it was the most sparsely populated part of the Weald due to the impenetrable forest. Richard Fitz Gilbert was rewarded for his part in the conquest with land.

He was granted the right to build a castle at Tonbridge. The Manor of Southborough was one part of the Lowey. Over the following seven hundred years it had a chequered history. After Richard de Clare, it was held by the Audley and Stafford families until 1521, when Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham, was beheaded on Tower Hill and the estates reverted to the Crown. Henry VIII gave the estate to George Boleyn, brother of Anne Boleyn, whose fate he suffered, it was passed to John Dudley, Earl of Warwick, who exchanged it for other estates. Under Elizabeth I it had again reverted to the Crown: she bestowed it on Sir Richard Sackville who sold it to Thomas Smythe of Westernhanger, he was known as Customer Smythe, a “farmer” of the collection of customs and excise dues. In 1790 when Lady Smythe died the Manor was sold; the whole area was part of the Royal forest of Southfrith until about the middle of the 16th century, reserved by royalty for hunting. The settlement consisted of a number of isolated hamlets including Nonsuch Green, Holden Corner, Modest Corner and a few houses near the Common.

High Brooms was a desolate tract inhabited by Romany Gypsies many of Kent's population today will have Gypsy heritage - whether they choose to admit this is another matter. From 1639, lodging houses appeared in Southborough to accommodate visitors to the newly discovered chalybeate spring at The Pantiles, Tunbridge Wells. During the reign of King Charles I, the Cavalier faction tended to stay at Southborough, whilst nearby Rusthall tended to attract visitors from the Roundhead faction. Iron was worked in the area since prehistoric times, since the underlying rock provided the raw material. From the mid-16th century onwards there were a number of water-powered furnaces on the two streams running through the town: one at Modest Corner; the latter included the Vauxhall Furnace, operating from at least 1552, near Mote Farm in what is now Vauxhall Lane: and the Brook Mill opened in 1553. The rock was dug from “bell pits”, iron smelted here was worked at a forge nearby; the forges continued working until the 18th century when the making of iron became uneconomical and in 1771 the sites were taken over for gunpowder manufacturing hence the name Powder Mill Lane.

The mill was replaced and continued manufacturing gunpowder. By 1845 a cornmill had been erected on the site, which continued in operation until 1942 when it was demolished. There are now no traces of any industrial workings on the site. Apart from that heavy industrial employment, people in Southborough were occupied in Agriculture and Transport: trades such as Blacksmiths and Harness makers. With cricket being played on the common, it is logical that the town became renowned for the manufacture of cricket balls; the first recorded makers were Philip Wickh

Suniti Ashok Deshpande

Suniti Ashok Deshpande, was an Indian educator, writer and interpreter, best known for her work on spreading the Russian language and culture in India. Deshpande was the first teacher of the Russian language at Russian Cultural and Science Center in Mumbai and the first Indian to obtain a doctorate in Russian from the Pushkin Institute in Moscow, she wrote the first Russian textbook in India. In July 2007, she was awarded the Medal of Pushkin by President Vladimir V. Putin on behalf of the Russian Federation for Lifetime Contribution to Russian Literature. Deshpande was the middle of three children of Kusum Narsinha Kulkarni, her father Ashok was a law graduate who worked as a labor relations and welfare officer with the Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation. Her mother Kusum graduated as an English major from Fergusson College in Pune and worked as a teacher at Vidyapeeth and M. L. G Girls High Schools in Kolhapur, she was the eldest daughter and the second child of the lawyer Narsinha Vinayak Kulkarni and his wife Laxmi and the only among eight children to pursue college education and obtain a degree in British India.

Growing up in Kolhapur in Maharashtra, Deshpande was influenced by her mother, who encouraged her children to not follow outdated social customs and achieve their potential by exploring opportunities beyond the local and national borders. Deshpande saw higher education as a way to break out of oppressive customs and the subservient role of women in society, she remained single. Deshpande enjoyed studying languages and her aptitude at it yielded great results early on, she read and spoke Marathi, Sanskrit and Russian fluently. She performed well in Hindi and Sanskrit at the final statewide high school graduation examination. Deshpande would write in Marathi and Russian extensively in the years ahead. While in college, she won the University Grants Commission scholarship to pursue doctoral studies at the Pushkin Institute of Russian Language in Moscow in 1982, she was the first Indian to obtain Ph. D. in Teaching Russian as a Foreign Language from the Institute. She returned to India in 1985 after completing her studies in Moscow ahead of time.

Winner of merit awards for exemplary grades in General Science and Sanskrit at statewide high school graduation examination, 1971 Winner of Open Merit Scholarship awarded by the Government of Maharashtra for undergraduate college study, 1971–75 Valedictorian in undergraduate degree program of M. A. at Shivaji University, 1977 Winner of National Dakshina fellowship awarded by the President of India for graduate study, 1975–77 Valedictorian in graduate degree program of M. A. at Shivaji University, 1979 Winner of University Grants Commission fellowship for doctoral study in Moscow, 1982–85 First doctoral study in former U. S. S. R. by an Indian student in'Teaching Russian as Foreign Language', 1982–85 Deshpande began working at the Russian Cultural and Science Centre in Mumbai in 1988. She became the Head of the Russian Language Institute at the Centre. Over the course of nearly three decades, she taught Russian to students at the center, staff of India's defense and diplomatic communities, traveled to speak about her work.

In 1995, she wrote "Russian Made Easier", the first Russian textbook in India, approved and prescribed by many colleges and universities across India. She was the first teacher of the Russian language in Mumbai. From 1990 to 2015, Deshpande published more than four hundred Marathi and English translations of Russian classics such as Pushkin, Tolstoy, Yesenin, Tsvetaeva, Pasternak and Mayakovsky. Deshpande wrote 8 books and over 400 short stories and articles, she wrote for popular Marathi publications such as Saamana, Maharashtra Times, Dharma Yug and many others, including their special Diwali festival editions, developing a loyal readership with her rich and entertaining writing style. She delivered lectures and gave voice-over to documentaries and commercials. Honorary Expert in Russian Language, Special Recognition for South Asia, presented by UNESCO, Paris, in 1986. Winner of Moscow-850 International Award: In 1997, she was the only person from India and Asia to win this award. Winner of the Pushkin Medal for Lifetime Contribution.

Awarded by President Vladimir Putin, Russian Federation, 2007 Winner of International MAPRYAL Award, 2011. Best Russian Teacher in the World, an Exclusive Honor by the Russian Federation, 2013. Translator of nearly 300 Russian stories from Russian to Marathi and nearly 100 essays and articles in leading and popular Marathi publications including Saamana, Maharashtra Times, Dharma Yug and Sakal. Russian Made Easier, 1996, First Text Book on Russian Language in India, 171 pages, in English, Published by Russian Cultural and Science Center, Mumbai Phulanche Bol, A Journey To Remember, 316 pages, Short Stories, in Marathi, 2001, Published by Majestic Publications, Mumbai My Book of Indian Festivals, Translation from English to Russian, 200 pages, in Russian, 2002, Published by Tatainfomedia Ltd. Mumbai Kathantar, Translated Stories, in Marathi, 2003, 139 pages, Published by Majestic Publications, Mumbai Antar Parva, Closeness of Distances, in Marathi, 2004, 130 pages, Short Stories, Published by Mehta Publishing House, Mumbai Anand Bhet, A Delightful Meeting, in Marathi, 2005, 117 pages, Short Stories, Published by Mehta Publishing House, Mumbai He Bandh Purane, (हे बं

2017 Torneo Descentralizado

The 2017 Torneo Descentralizado de Fútbol Profesional was the 101st season of the highest division of Peruvian football. A total of 16 teams competed in the season. Alianza Lima were the champions; the season was divided into four phases, Torneo de Verano, Torneo Apertura, Torneo Clausura, the Play-offs final. The first phase was the Torneo de Verano where all the teams were divided into two groups and played each team in their group twice at home and away; the winner of each group qualified to a home-and-away final. The group winner with the most points in the aggregate table chose which leg they played as the home team; the winner of this tournament earned access to the second round of the 2018 Copa Libertadores as long as it was not relegated at the end of the season. If the Torneo de Verano champion was to win either the Apertura or Clausura tournaments the runner-up would take their Copa Libertadores berth; the second and third stages were two smaller Clausura tournaments of 15 games each.

Each team played all other teams once during the Apertura tournament and once during the Clausura tournament in reversed order for a total of 30 matches. Points earned during the Apertura did not carry over during the Clausura; the winners of the Apertura and Clausura stages were to qualify to the Playoff final and to the 2018 Copa Libertadores group stage as long as they were not relegated at the end of the season. The playoffs were to be contested by the Clausura champions; the team with the most points on the aggregate table would choose which leg they would play as the home team. If teams were tied in points, a third match on neutral ground would be played to decide the national champion. If a team won both the Apertura and Clausura tournaments it would be automatically declared the tournament champion and the runners-up from the Apertura and Clausura tournaments would play two play-off matches to decide which team would enter the 2018 Copa Libertadores group stage; the two teams with the fewest points at the end of the third stage were relegated.

The berth to the Copa Libertadores first stage and the four 2018 Copa Sudamericana berths were awarded to the teams with the best record in the aggregate table that had not qualified for the Copa Libertadores. A total of 16 teams played in the 2017 Torneo Descentralizado. Fourteen teams from the previous season, plus the 2016 Segunda División champion and the 2016 Copa Perú champion; the champion will be the one with the most points. In case they are tie on points, the team with the best goal different over the two legs will be declared the champion; the away goal rule will not apply. In case both teams score the same number of goals, there will be 30 minutes of extra time and penalties. Melgar defeated UTC 4–3 on penalties after being tied on aggregate and secured a spot in the 2018 Copa Libertadores second stage; as Alianza Lima and Real Garcilaso finished both as champions and runners-up of the Apertura and Clausura tournaments, no playoff games were played. Alianza Lima were the overall champions and Real Garcilaso were the overall runners-up, both teams qualified for the 2018 Copa Libertadores group stage.

All stages of the 2017 season were aggregated into a single league table throughout the season to determine the teams that would qualify for the Copa Libertadores and Copa Sudamericana, as well as those to be relegated at the end of the season. 2017 Torneo de Promoción y Reserva 2017 Peruvian Segunda División 2017 Copa Perú Official website Tournament regulations Torneo Descentralizado news at Torneo Descentralizado statistics and news at

Maples Cottage

Maples Cottage is a historic cottage at 155 Oak Street in Westborough, Massachusetts, USA. Located on the former grounds of the Lyman School for Boys, this Greek Revival cottage was built in 1832 by Rev. William White on the site of a 1725 parsonage; the property was acquired by the state in 1884, used as part of the reform school, now closed. The building has lost most of its exterior Greek Revival styling; the cottage was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980, included in the historic district encompassing the Lyman School in 1994. National Register of Historic Places listings in Worcester County, Massachusetts

Juan Carlos GarcĂ­a (actor)

Juan Carlos García Pajero is a Venezuelan actor and model known for starring in various protagonist roles in telenovelas for RCTV and Venevisión. García completed his primary education at San Ignacio Secondary school and in the Villanueva School where he obtained his bachelor's degree. Soon, he began studying Mechanical Engineering at Universidad Metropolitana, but two years he decided to switch to Civil Engineering at the Universidad Santa María. His career began after he was spotted when he accompanied his girlfriend for a TV commercial casting. After trying out modelling, he landed his first commercial and became an instant success in Venezuela, he modeled for prominent fashion brands such as Tommy Hilfiger, Christian Dior, Giovanni Scutaro, among others. After a successful modelling career, García decided to venture into acting, obtaining his first acting role in the telenovela Jugando a ganar. In December 2011, García married fellow actress Yuvanna Montalvo in an intimate ceremony at Isla Margarita.

Juan Carlos García on IMDb JUAN CARLOS GARCÍA at